Lebanon�s Cedar Revolution by d1uSz9lb

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									Lebanon’s Struggle for Peace
and Independence
Outline
   About Lebanon
   History of Lebanon
   Lebanese Civil War
   Political Structure
   The Cedar Revolution
About Lebanon
About Lebanon            ‫الجمهورية اللبنانية‬
                          ّ         ّ


 Official Language –
  Arabic
 Spoken Languages –
  Arabic, French,
  English, Armenian
 Capital – Beirut
 Population – 3.8
  Million
 Area – 4,036 sq. mi.
 National Emblem –
  Lebanon Cedar
 National Anthem
History of Lebanon
  History of Lebanon
 Lebanon is one of the fifteen present-day countries that
  comprise what is considered to be the Cradle of Humanity. It
  is the historic home of the Phoenicians, Semitic traders whose
  maritime culture flourished there for more than 2,000 years.
  The region was a territory of the Roman Empire and during
  the Middle Ages was involved in the Crusades. It was then
  taken by the Ottoman Empire.
 Following the collapse of the Ottoman Empire after World War
  I, the League of Nations mandated the five provinces that
  make up present-day Lebanon to France.
 Modern Lebanon's constitution, drawn up in 1926, specified a
  balance of political power among the major religious groups.
 The country gained independence in 1943, and French troops
  withdrew in 1946. Lebanon's history has been marked by
  alternating periods of political stability and turmoil
  interspersed with prosperity built on Beirut's position as a
  regional center for finance and trade.
Lebanese Civil War
Lebanese Civil War
 Beirut, the capital of Lebanon, was called the
  Paris of the Middle East before the outbreak of
  the Lebanese Civil War.
  Lebanese Civil War
 After the 1948 Arab-Israeli conflict, Lebanon became home to
  more than 110,000 Palestinian refugees who had fled from
  Israel. By 1975, they numbered more than 300,000, led by
  Yassir Arafat's Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO). In the
  early 1970s, difficulties arose over the presence of Palestinian
  refugees, and full-scale civil war broke out in April 1975,
  leaving the nation with no effective central government.




                Jerusalem
Lebanese Civil War
 On one side were a number of mostly Maronite
  militias. The other side comprised a coalition of
  Palestinians, Sunni, and Druze forces. By early
  1976, the war was going poorly for the
  Maronites, and Syria sent 40,000 troops into
  the country to prevent them from being
  overrun. By 1978, many of the Maronites had
  become convinced that the Syrians were really
  occupying Lebanon for reasons of their own,
  and by September of that year, they were
  openly feuding. The Syrian forces remained in
  Lebanon, effectively dominating its
  government, into the first years of the twenty-
  first century.
Lebanese Civil War
             A multinational force landed in
              Beirut on August 20, 1982 to
              oversee the PLO withdrawal from
              Lebanon and U.S. mediation
              resulted in the evacuation of
              Syrian troops and PLO fighters
              from Beirut.
             This period saw the rise of
              radicalism among the country's
              different factions, and a number
              of landmark terrorist attacks
              against American forces, including
              the destruction of the United
              States Embassy by a truck bomb
              and an even deadlier attack on
              the U.S. Marines barracks.
              Concurrently, in 1982 Hezbollah
              was created.
Lebanese Civil War
 1988 and 1989 were years of
  unprecedented chaos. As a
  result, Lebanon was left with
  no President, and two rival
  governments that feuded for
  power, along with more than
  forty private militias.
 The Arab League-sponsored
  Taif Agreement of 1989
  marked the beginning of the
  end of the war. In all, it is
  estimated that more than
  100,000 were killed, and
  another 100,000 handicapped
  by injuries, during Lebanon's
  15 year war.
Political Structure
Political Structure
 Lebanon is a republic in which the three highest offices
  are reserved for members of specific religious groups:
   the President must be a Maronite Christian,
   the Prime Minister must be a Sunni Muslim, and
   the Speaker of the National Assembly must be a Shi'a
      Muslim.
 This arrangement is part of the "National Pact", an
  unwritten agreement which was established in 1943
  during meetings between Lebanon's first president (a
  Maronite) and its first prime minister (a Sunni), although
  it was not formalized in the Constitution until 1990,
  following the Taif Agreement.
Political Structure
 The parliament                 Groups        # of Seats

  composition is         Maronite Christians      34
                         Sunni Muslims            27
  based on more
                         Shia’a Muslims           27
  ethnic and religious
                         Greek Orthodox           14
  identities rather      Greek Catholics           8
  than ideological       Druze                     8
  features. The          Armenian Orthodox         5
  distribution of        Alawites                  2
  parliament seats       Armenian Catholics        1
  has been modified      Protestants               1
  recently.              Other Christian          1
                         Groups                  each
Political Structure
 Lebanon's judicial system is based on the
  Napoleonic Code.
 Juries are not used in trials.
 The Lebanese court system has three levels
  - courts of first instance, courts of appeal,
  and the court of cassation.
 There also is a system of religious courts
  having jurisdiction over personal status
  matters within their own communities, with
  rules on matters such as marriage, divorce,
  and inheritance.
The Cedar Revolution, or
Intifada of Independence
The Cedar Revolution, or
Intifada of Independence
 On February 14, 2005, after 10 years of
  relative political stability, Lebanon was
  shaken by the assassination of former
  Prime Minister Rafik Hariri in a car-bomb
  explosion.
 The Cedar Revolution, or
 Intifada of Independence
 Accusations of responsibility were
  directed at Syria, Israel, and local
  gangsters. Both Syria and Israel
  denied any involvement.
 Anger at Syria was particularly
  widespread, because of its
  extensive military and intelligence
  presence in Lebanon, as well as
  the public rift between Hariri and
  Syria over the extension of
  President Lahoud's term.
 Up to this point, no person or
  party has been directly accused of
  the murder.
The Cedar Revolution, or
Intifada of Independence
 The assassination resulted in huge anti-Syrian
  protests by Lebanese citizens in Beirut demanding
  the resignation of the pro-Syrian government.
 On February 28, 2005, as over 70,000 people
  demonstrated in Martyrs' Square, Prime Minister
  Omar Karami and his Cabinet resigned.
The Cedar Revolution, or
Intifada of Independence
 In response, Hezbollah, deemed a terrorist group
  by the U.S., organized a large counter
  demonstration, staged on March 8 in Beirut,
  supporting Syria and accusing Israel and the
  United States of meddling in internal Lebanese
  affairs.
 News agencies estimated the crowd to be
  anywhere from 200,000 to 500,000.
 The Cedar Revolution, or
 Intifada of Independence
 On March 14,
  approximately one
  million protestors
  rallied in Martyrs'
  Square, in the largest
  gathering to date.
 Protestors of all sects
  (even including a
  number of Shiites)
  marched for the truth
  of Hariri's murder
  and for what they call
  independence from
  Syrian occupation.
The Cedar Revolution, or
Intifada of Independence
 On April 26, 2005 international news
  agencies and the UN reported the last
  Syrian troops and intelligence agents had
  crossed the border in withdrawal from
  Lebanon.
 On April 27, 2005, the Washington Post
  reported that “Syria has not withdrawn a
  significant part of its intelligence presence
  in Lebanon, undermining its claim
  yesterday to have ended its 29-year
  intervention in its western neighbor, U.S.,
  European and U.N. officials said.”
Sources
 Google Images
   http://www.google.com/imghp?hl=en&ta
    b=wi&q
 MSN Encarta
   http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_7
    61564963/Lebanon_(country).html
 Patterns of Interaction, Textbook
 Wikipedia.org
   http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lebanon

								
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