Settlers and Trappers Were Attracted to Oregon by RW4DRZ

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									    Settlers and Trappers Were
        Attracted to Oregon
Oregon Country—a huge region west of the Rocky
Mountains that included present-day Oregon,
Washington, Idaho, and parts of Wyoming, Montana,
and western Canada.
– Good farmland along the Pacific coast attracted farmers.
– Fertile soil
– Mild temperatures year round
– Plentiful rainfall
– Forests further inland and in the Rocky Mountains attracted fur
  trappers.
– Beavers and other fur-bearing animals
At first, four countries claimed Oregon—United States,
Great Britain, Spain, and Russia. Later, Spain and
Russia dropped their claims.
     Life On the Oregon Trail
Beginning in 1843, wagon trains left an area near Independence,
Missouri, every spring and followed trails 2,000 miles west to
Oregon. The route became known as the Oregon Trail.
– People met there and formed themselves into wagon trains.
– Each group elected leaders.
– On the trail, people awoke at dawn. Everyone had a job to do.
– Often people discarded belongings along the way to lighten their
  wagons.
– Wagon trains faced many dangers—rain-swollen rivers in the spring,
  blistering heat in the summer, early snows in the fall. The biggest threat
  was sickness.
– Pioneers often traded with Native Americans for food.
       Americans in Texas Come Into
           Conflict With Mexico

1821   • Spain granted an American, Moses Austin, the right to set up a
         colony in Texas.
       • Mexico gained independence from Spain.
       • Moses Austin’s son Stephen obtained Mexico’s permission to carry
         out his father’s grant.
       • Austin gathered about 300 families, who began settling in Texas.
         These settlers agreed to become Mexican citizens and worship in
         the Roman Catholic Church.

1830   • About 20,000 Americans were living in Texas. By this time, few kept
         the agreement with Mexico. Most felt little loyalty to Mexico. Most
         were Protestant. They also had 2000 slaves which was against
         Mexican law.
       • Mexico barred any more American settlers. It was feared that
         Americans would try to make Texas a part of the United States. The
         Mexican government began to enforce the old law that required
         Texans to worship in the Catholic Church as well as laws banning
         slavery.
       Americans in Texas Come Into
           Conflict With Mexico
1833   General Antonio López de Santa Anna came to power in Mexico. Two
       years later he became dictator, a ruler with absolute power and
       authority. Americans in Texas felt that Santa Anna would drive them
       from Mexico and that they must do something.
1835   Americans in Mexico had the support of many Tejanos, Mexicans who
       lived in Texas. The Tejanos wanted Santa Anna out of power. Texans in
       the town of Gonzales clashed with Mexican troops, forcing the
       Mexicans to withdraw. Two months later, Texans occupied San
       Antonio. Santa Anna marched north with a large army.
1836   A group of Texans declared independence for the Republic of Texas
       and made Sam Houston commander of the army.
           The Siege of the Alamo
• By the time Santa Anna reached San Antonio with 6,000 troops,
  about 150 Texans had taken up positions in an old Spanish
  mission called the Alamo. The Texans had little ammunition, food,
  water, or medicine.
• On February 23, 1836, Mexican troops began a siege—enemy
  forces try to capture a position by surrounding and bombarding it.
• The American commander, William Travis, sent a message asking
  for aid. He sent scouts to find volunteers and food. About 40 men
  joined the fighters in the Alamo.
• The siege continued for 12 days. Finally, on March 6, a Mexican
  cannon shattered the mission walls. Thousands of Mexican
  soldiers poured over the walls, shouting “Viva Santa Anna!” About
  180 Texans and almost 1,500 Mexicans lay dead.
• The fall of the Alamo ignited cries for revenge. “Remember the
  Alamo!” became a rallying cry as Texans fought for independence
• The 5 survivors were tracked down and executed and all
  American bodies were soaked in oil and burned.
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    http://www.americanwest.com/pages/alam
    o.htm
          Texan Independence
• A few weeks after the Alamo, Mexican troops killed
  several hundred Texas soldiers after they had
  surrendered at Goliad. This action made Texans
  furious.
• Sam Houston worked to turn the volunteers into an
  effective army.
• On April 21, 1836, Texans surprised Santa Anna and
  his army near the San Jacinto River. In the Battle of
  San Jacinto, the outnumbered Texans defeated the
  Mexicans. The next day, the Texans captured Santa
  Anna and forced him to sign a treaty granting Texas
  independence.
• Texans nicknamed their new nation the Lone Star
  Republic. They wrote a constitution modeled after the
  United States Constitution. Sam Houston was elected
  president of the Republic of Texas.
       American Support for Westward Expansion

• Every year, more Americans moved west. The United States
  government offered to buy California from Mexico.
• Some Americans wanted control of the ports at San Francisco and
  San Diego.
• Many people believed that Americans had a right and duty to
  spread their culture and its democratic government all the way to
  the Pacific Ocean. This belief was called Manifest Destiny.
  Manifest means clear or obvious. Destiny means something that is
  sure to happen.
• Many Americans believed that expansion would open new
  opportunities for the United States economy.
• Some people believed that white Americans were superior to
  Native Americans and Mexicans and deserved to take the land
  from those people.
  The United States Gains Oregon and Texas
Oregon
• The United States and Britain agreed to a compromise.
  The two countries divided Oregon at latitude 49°N
  latitude.
• Later, the Oregon Territory became the states of
  Oregon, Washington, and Idaho.

Texas
• In 1844, Texan president Sam Houston signed a treaty
  of annexation with the United States.
• Fearing war with Mexico, the United States Senate
  refused to ratify the treaty.
• Houston pretended that Texas might ally itself with
  Britain. This move prompted Congress to pass a joint
  resolution admitting Texas to the Union.
    Causes and Results of the
         Mexican War
Causes    Mexico did not accept Texan independence and was outraged by the
          United States annexation of Texas.
          Americans resented Mexico’s rejection of President Polk’s offer to buy
          California and New Mexico.
          A border dispute sparked war. Both nations claimed land between the Rio
          Grande and the Nueces River and sent troops into the area. President Polk
          claimed Mexico had invaded American soil and asked Congress to declare
          war
Results   During the war, Americans in northern California revolted against Mexican
          rule and declared California an independent republic, the Bear Flag
          Republic.
          In the fighting, the United States won control of all of New Mexico and
          California. Despite the heroic stand of young Mexican soldiers in a battle at
          Chapultepec near Mexico City, American forces took over the Mexican
          capital.
          The Mexican government moved to make peace. In 1848, it signed the
          Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo, ending the war.
  The United States Acquires
         New Lands
In the Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo, Mexico had to cede, or give
up, some of its lands.
– Mexico ceded all of California and New Mexico to the United States.
  These lands were called the Mexican Cession.
– In return, the United States paid Mexico $15 million.
– The United States agreed to respect the rights of Spanish-speaking
  people in the Mexican Cession.
In 1853, the United States bought the Gadsden Purchase.
– The United States wanted to build a railroad across an area that is
  now the southern part of Arizona and New Mexico.
– The United States paid Mexico $10 million for the strip of land,
  known as the Gadsden Purchase.
        The California Gold Rush
• In 1848, James Marshall was supervising the building of a
  sawmill for John Sutter, when he discovered a lump of gold.
• Sutter tried to keep the news a secret, but within days people
  from San Francisco and other California towns were rushing
  to Sutter’s Mill to look for gold.
• Soon, thousands of Americans, as well as people from around
  the world, were rushing to California to search for gold. They
  became known as forty-niners.
• Early miners found gold easily. Some miners found a way to
  get the gold out of riverbeds. Yet, very few miners struck it
  rich. Many went broke trying to find gold. Still, although many
  miners left the gold fields, they stayed in California to farm or
  work at other jobs.
      The California Gold Rush
• San Francisco grew from a sleepy town to a bustling city.
• When crime grew in the mining camps, miners and city-
  dwellers formed vigilance committees. Vigilantes, or self-
  appointed law enforcers, dealt out punishments.
  Sometimes, a person accused of a crime was lynched—
  hanged without a trial.
• Californians realized they needed a strong government.
  In 1849, they wrote a state constitution and asked to be
  admitted to the Union.

								
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