Wind Energy by 772qom

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									1. How does a wind turbine produce electricity?


2. How would you compare the production of
   wind power in the U.S. to other countries of the
   world?

3. What are the environmental impacts of wind
   power?

4. How does the carbon footprint of wind energy
   compare to your form of power?
By Heather Gorman, Joan Lowry, and Erica Simons
    The History of Wind Power
 Power Sailing Ships
           Windmills
                 Wind Turbines




    Wind power is the conversion of wind
    energy into a useful form, such as electricity, using
    wind turbines (Wikipedia)
          What Causes Wind?
 Uneven heating of the earth’s surface
 Wind blows because the sun shines
Why Wind Power?
 Clean Energy- a great alternative to fossil fuels


 Non-Polluting Energy- does not produce any
  greenhouse effect gases

 Renewable Resource
  How does a wind turbine create
  electricity?
 Blades collect the wind’s
  kinetic energy
 Blades turn the drive
  shaft
 The drive shaft turns the
  magnet in the generator
 The magnet turning
  inside the coil of copper
  wires creates a magnetic
  field and electricity is
  generated.
•Altitude
Factors that Affect Wind Power
  Open areas with no windbreaks
Factors that Affect Wind Power
          Season
The Physics of Wind Power
 Energy utilized is the kinetic energy of the wind
 Hydroelectric potential energy = mgh
 Potential kinetic energy of the wind = ½ m V(sq)
 C= ½ x d x pi

 Energy = C x Lb² x V³
 Energy is dependent on the velocity to the power of 3
  (V x V x V).
 If the wind speed doubles, the power increases by a factor
  of eight.
 If you increase the length of the blades ( Lb ) by two, the
  power increases by 4.
         Which Countries Use Wind
                 Power?
    April 2009 total installed wind
     capacity:
    1.   United States
    2.   Germany
    3.   Spain
    4.   China
    5.   India
    Lagging behind other countries in
     wind as a percentage of electricity
     consumption
    1.  Denmark (20%)
    2.  Spain (13%)
    3.  Portugal (11%)
    12. United States (< 2%)
Wind Power in the U.S. is on
        the Rise
            2007 – Use increased 45%


            2008 – 1% of energy
            consumption

            2009 - <2% of energy
            consumption

            2030 – Goal is 20% of electric
            demand
Where is Wind Power in the
          U.S.?
 Texas


 California


 Minnesota


 Iowa


 Washington
1999 – 2009 Wind Power
  Capacity in the U.S.
   Wind Power in Massachusetts
 Best Locations
    Northern part of Cape Cod
    Martha’s Vineyard and
     Nantucket
    Sections of the Berkshires


 Wind Energy
  Predevelopment Support
  Program
Why Wind Power is on the Rise
 Declining production costs
 Uncertainty with fuel prices
 Energy security
 Supportive federal and state
  policies
 Environmentally friendly
 Public support
 Green power
 Carbon footprint
Issues for Wind Power
            Political uncertainty


            Changing rules and
            regulations

            Operational impacts


            Accounting for non-
            monetary value
    What are the Environmental
     Impacts of Wind Power?
 Noise


 Visual Impact


 Bird and Other Wildlife Mortality


 Electromagnetic Interference
                Noise Impact
Concerns:                   Solutions:
• Mechanical Noise:         • Reduce rotation speed of
  produced by the gearbox     turbines in lower winds
  and generator
                            • Proper siting
• Aerodynamic Noise:
 produced by wind turbine   • Insulating materials
 blades
Visual Impact
       Concerns:
       • Highly visible


       • Destroying landscapes

       Solutions:
       • Proper siting


       • Multiple locations
Bird and Other Wildlife Impact
Concerns:
• Bird and bat fatalities due
  collision or electrocution

• Fragmenting their habitats


Solutions:
• Monitoring efforts


• Carefully selecting sites
        Electromagnetic Impact
Concerns:                     Solutions:
• Interfere with radar and    • Proper siting
  telecommunication
  facilities                  • Monitoring effects

• Like all electrical
  generating systems,
  turbines produce electric
  and magnetic fields
Carbon Footprint of Wind Power
 A carbon footprint is "the total    Use of wind turbines is the most
set of GHG (greenhouse gas)           effective way to cut a
emissions caused directly and         household’s carbon footprint in
indirectly by an individual,          half
organization, event or product"
(UK Carbon Trust 2008).
                                     Emits no carbon during
                                      operation, but do leave a minor
                                      footprint during construction
                                      phase

                                     Wind Power is one of the
                                      cleanest forms of renewable
                                      energy

								
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