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					                          REVIEW SHEET#1


1. Culture – a way of life of a group of people who share similar beliefs and customs

2. Archaeology – the study of ancient peoples

3. Artifact – an item left behind by early people that represents their culture

4. Primary Source – information such as a diary that was recorded during occurrences of an event

5. Mercantilism – the theory that a state’s or nation’s power depended on its wealth

6. Colony – a group of people who settle in a distant land, but live under the rules of their native land

7. Boycott – to refuse to buy items from a particular country; to refuse to use in order to show
   disapproval or force acceptance of one’s terms

8. Ratification (ratify) – to give official approval to

9. Patriot – American colonists who were determined to fight the British until American
   independence was won

10. Loyalist – American colonists who remained loyal to Britain or opposed the war for

11. Confederacy – people of nations united for some common purpose

12. Representation – an account of facts intended to influence one’s mind (like the flag of the


   1. What was the Iroquois Confederacy? The most powerful group of Native Americans in the
      East. It included the Mohawk, Seneca, Cayuga, Onondaga, and Oneida (all lived in New
      York state).

   2. Why did different Native American groups develop different cultures? Different cultures
      were developed because Native American groups settled in different places with different
      resources. They met their basic needs of food, clothing, and shelter in accordance with what
      was available to them.

   3. Why did the early colonists settle near rivers? Rivers provided water for cooking,
      drinking, transportation, and irrigation for growing crops.
  4. Name three countries that helped colonize North America. Britain, Spain, France

  5. What war drove the French out of North America? The French and Indian War drove the
     French out of North America.

  6. What was meant by “Taxation without Representation?” Colonists should not be taxed
     by Parliament because they could not vote for members of Parliament.

  7. What role did the Continental Congress serve during the American Revolution? The
     Continental Congress made the decision to form militias (groups of citizen soldiers) that
     would fight against Britain.

  8. What were the Articles of Confederation? The Articles of Confederation was America’s
     first constitution; it provided a new central government which the States gave little of their
     power; national government consisting of Confederation Congress had authority to conduct
     foreign affairs, maintain armed forces, borrow money, issue currency

HISTORY. (Be specific)

  1. Thomas Jefferson – (3rd President: 1801 – 1809) Father of the Declaration of Independence;
     by age 32 he was already associated with the movement for independence

  2. James Otis – argued “no taxation without representation”

  3. Benjamin Franklin – influential member of Pennsylvania; designed the Albany Plan of
     Union in 1754; legislator during Stamp Act; acted as a Colonial spokesman in London; was
     on Declaration of Independence Committee

  4. George Washington – Commander of Continental forces during the American Revolution
     1776-1783; Presiding officer at the Constitutional convention of 1787; (1st President: 1789 –

  5. Sam Adams – helped start Committee Sons of Liberty – members took to streets to protest
     Stamp Act; part of Continental Congress

  6. Paul Revere – known for his midnight ride in alerting Massachusetts Minutemen of
     approaching British Redcoats before the Battle of Lexington and Concord

  7. Patrick Henry – persuaded House of Burgesses to take action against Stamp Act; opposed
     Constitution; involved with Continental Congress

  8. Thomas Paine – published pamphlet entitled “Common Sense”; called for complete
     independence from Britain; opposed Constitution
                      REVIEW SHEET#2



  1. Federal System (federalism) - the sharing of powers between Federal and State governments

  2. Amendment – an addition to a formal document such as the Constitution

  3. Constitution – plan of government (formal)

  4. Judicial Review – the right of the Supreme Court to determine if a law violates the

  5. Republic – a government in which citizens rule through elected representatives

  6. Democracy – a government by the people for the people

  7. Political Party – a group of people who have the same ideas of how a government should be

  8. Checks and Balances – the system in which each branch of government has a check on the 2
     other branches so that no branch becomes too powerful

  9. Electoral College – a special group of voters selected by their state legislatures to vote for
     the President and Vice President

  10. The Great Compromise – The idea of the two-house legislature to resolve the issues over
      state’s population. Roger Sherman of Connecticut suggested the Great Compromise; during
      constitutional convention things weren’t running smoothly.

  11. The Bill or Rights – The first ten amendments to the Constitution (freedom of speech,
      freedom of press, freedom of assembly, freedom of religion, etc.) drafted by Thomas
      Jefferson after the Constitution was written to give the people more individual rights

      1. What are the three branches of government called? The three branches of government are
         the Legislative, Judicial and Executive.

      2. What are the three powers belonging to the President of the United States? Carrying out
         the nations laws; proposing laws to Congress; directing foreign policy
         Who is he? George W. Bush

      3. Congress has two parts; what are they called? The Senate and the House of

      4. Give one example to prove that you know how checks and balances work. The president
         can appoint Supreme Court Justices. The Senate must approve the appointments.

      5. The Chief Executive of New York State is called the governor.
         What is his name? George Pataki

      6. The New York State Legislature has two parts; what are they called? The State Senate
         and the State Assembly

      7. What are three ways our federal constitution has been able to grow to meet the needs of
         changing times? The ways the people interpret it, amendments, (amendment examples: the
         right to vote for women, direct election of senators, income taxes,

      8. What are the names of the two political parties? Republican and Democrat

      9. Were political parties mentioned in the original constitution? No, no political parties
         were mentioned originally

      10. What are third parties? Any other party besides the Republican and Democrat party
          Name one that we studied. Liberal / Bullmoose Party

      11. What are two powers belonging only to the states? (reserved powers)
            1) establish schools,
            2) pass marriage and divorce laws

12.      What are two powers belonging only to the federal government? (enumerated powers)
           1) create federal courts
           2) coin money
           3) form treaties

13.      What were the Federalist Papers? James Madison, Alexander Hamilton, and John Jay
         teamed up to write a series of essays explaining and defending the Constitution. These essays
         appeared in newspapers around the country and were widely read by the colonists. They
         were later published as a book called The Federalist.
                      REVIEW SHEET#3
                                     THE EARLY YEARS

DIRECTIONS: Use your text or memory to find the significance of each of the following in our
            early history.

   1. War of 1812 – War against Britain; Britain was taking advantage of it’s colonies with search
      and seize; native Americans fought on side of British; Treaty of Ghent didn’t change existing
      borders, news of the peace treaty didn’t travel fast enough; Battle of New Orleans was an
      obvious British defeat; Andrew Jackson became a war hero (1812 – 1815)

   2. Embargo Act of 1807 – December 1807 Republican Congress passed Embargo Act.
      Jefferson and Madison hoped to hurt Britain while avoiding war; it didn’t work. Britain
      traded with South America. America protested and it divided the American people.

   3. The Louisiana Purchase – French needed money to help sponsor Napoleon’s war plans. By
      selling the Louisiana Territory to the U.S., the size of the U.S. more than doubled. (1803)

   4. Manifest Destiny – 1940’s New York newspaper John O’Sullivan put out the idea that it was
      America’s “manifest destiny to overspread and to possess the whole of the continent which
      Providence has given us.”

   5. The Erie Canal – (Buffalo, New York) mainly Irish laborers worked on construction of the 3
      mile canal; along the canal there were many locks; “Clinton’s Ditch”; 1825 Clinton boarded a
      barge and poured water from Lake Erie into the Atlantic Ocean

   6. The Seneca Falls Convention – (July 1848) Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Lucretia Mott and
      others organized 1st woman’s rights convention in Seneca Falls, New York; 200 women and
      40 men attended; convention issued Declaration of Sentiments, modeled after the Declaration
      of Independence; listed women’s grievances against men

   7. The Northwest Ordinances (1785 – 1787) – passed in 1787; created single NW territory out
      of lands north of the Ohio River. They were to be divided into 3 to 5 smaller territories.
      When the population reached 60,000, they could join the original 13 states in the Union. In
      1785 Congress passed an ordinance where territories were divided into townships 6 miles
      long by 6 miles wide. These townships would further be divided into 36 sections of 640 acres
      to be sold at auction for at least a dollar an acre.

   9. Battle of New Orleans – Before word of the Treaty of Ghent had reached the U.S., Andrew
      Jackson’s army defeated approaching British; 700 British soldiers were killed. Andrew
      Jackson became a war hero, and his fame helped him win the presidency in 1828.
   10. Elections of 1824 and 1828 – 1824: Henry Clay met with John Quincy Adams. Clay agreed
       to use his influence as Speaker of the House to defeat Jackson. (Jackson lost / Adams won).
       1828: Andrew Jackson ran against John Quincy Adams again in a bitter campaign. Both
       parties used mudslinging. Jackson won election in a landslide (an overwhelming victory).

   11. The Alamo – A small mission near San Antonio, Texas where about 150 Texan soldiers,
       determined to hold their position, faced a Mexican army of several thousand (1836). Four
       days before the fall of the Alamo, American settlers and Tejanos declared the independence
       of the Republic of Texas.

   12. Oregon Trail – The first large-scale migration took place in 1843, when 120 wagons
       carrying more than 1,000 pioneers/emigrants left Independence, Missouri for Oregon (a
       difficult 2,000 mile journey).

   13. The Monroe Doctrine – (issued December 12, 1823) U.S. wouldn’t interfere with any
       existing European colonies in the Americas and would oppose any new ones. North and
       South America “are henceforth not to be considered as subjects for future colonization by any
       European powers.”

DIRECTIONS: Identify or define each of the following.

   1. James Madison – (4th President: 1809 – 1817) Democrat: opposed idea of national bank;
      Madison’s ideas of government were adopted in the Virginia Plan (two-house legislature,
      chief executive chosen by legislature, court system)

   2. John C. Calhoun – planter from South Carolina; leading War Hawk; supported the War of
      1812; remained nationalist after the war; supported internal improvement; supported national
      bank; later he strongly supported states rights (states have many rights and powers
      independent from federal government).

   3. James Monroe – (5th President: 1817 – 1825) Republican: represented a united America,
      free of political strife; toured nation early in his presidency; wrote the Monroe Doctrine

   4. Brigham Young – In 1844 a mob in Illinois killed Mormon leader, Joseph Smith. Young
      took over and decided to move Mormon community to Salt Lake City (still a part of Mexico
      but unsettled because of its harsh terrain).

   5. John Quincy Adams – (6th President: 1825 – 1829) Many Americans wanted control of
      Oregon country; he played a key role in promoting this goal; worked out an agreement with
      Britain for joint occupation (1818); on Declaration of Independence Committee; Federal
      Government should help nation shift economy based on farming manufacturing (son of 2nd
      President, John Adams)

   6. Thomas Jefferson – (3rd President: 1801 – 1809) Democrat; Father of the Declaration of
      Independence; member of Virginia House of Congress; supported movement for
      independence; part of 2nd Continental Congress
7. Andrew Jackson – (7th President: 1829 – 1837) Democrat; hero of War of 1812; in March
   1814 he defeated the Creek Nation in the Battle of Horseshoe Bend; born in Tennessee to
   poor farmer parents, he claimed to speak for “the Americans who had been left out of
   politics”; beat John Quincy Adams in a bitter election campaign in 1828

8. Elizabeth Cady Stanton – Female abolitionist; helped organize 1st Women’s Rights
   Convention in Seneca Falls, New York; insisted that the declaration include a demand for
   woman suffrage (women’s right to vote)

9. Sam Houston – Commander in Chief of Texas forces; fought Creek people with Andrew
   Jackson in 1814; served in Congress and as governor of Tennessee; in April of 1836 his army
   of 800 captured Santa Anna and the Mexican army in a surprise attack (“Remember the
   Alamo!”); Texans elected Houston as their president in Sept. 1836

10. Henry Clay – A leading War Hawk from Kentucky; elected Speaker of the House of
    Representatives in 1811; worked on a program called The American System which included a
    protective tariff to stimulate the growth of the nation’s industries, a program of internal
    improvements (roads, canals, etc.) to simulate trade, and a national bank program (not well
    received); he used his power as Speaker of the House to help Adams get elected in 1824;
    Adams appointed him Secretary of State (a.k.a. “The Great Compromiser”)

11. James Polk – (11th President: 1845 – 1849) Democrat; supported American claims for sole
    ownership of Oregon (“Fifty-four Forty or Fight” – referred to line of latitude Democrats
    believed should be the northern border of Oregon); believed greatly in Manifest Destiny;
    determined to get the California and New Mexico territories from Mexico; three-part plan for
    war with Mexico:

   1) American troops would drive Mexican forces out of disputed border region in
      Texas and secure border
   2) U.S. would seize New Mexico and California
   3) American forces would take Mexico City

12. temperance – the use of little or no alcoholic drink

13. nationalism – Loyalty to a nation and promotion of it’s interests above all others

14. sectionalism – Loyalty to a region

15. neutrality – A position of not taking sides in a conflict

16. suffrage – The right to vote

17. nullification – To cancel or make ineffective

18. reform - Change
                  REVIEW SHEET#4
                                       FINAL EXAM

Manifest Destiny – The idea popular in the United States during the 1800’s that the country
must expand its boundaries to the Pacific.

13th Amendment – abolished slavery

14th Amendment – African Americans were citizens

15th Amendment – gave African Americans the right to vote

Causes of the Civil War:

      1. States rights vs Federal Rights (which came first?). Southern states said they
         voluntarily joined the Union -- they can leave when they want.
      2. Tariffs – North wanted high/South wanted low
      3. Slavery
      4. Sectionalism
      5. Lincoln’s goal during the Civil War was to preserve the Union !!!!
         (not end slavery).

Results of Civil War:

      1. Union is saved
      2. Federal government is strengthened and more powerful than States.
      3. Millions of African Americans are freed.

Jim Crow Laws – created a segregated society in the South after the Civil War. The law
required separate public facilities (restaurants, bathrooms, etc.).

Plessy vs Ferguson – were upheld by separate but equal train cars

Poll Tax – fee to vote (African Americans could not afford it)

Literacy Test – needed to read in order to vote. Most had little or no education.

Effects of War on Civil Liberties: Civil liberties are sometimes ignored. (ex.: Lincoln
takes away right of habeas corpus, Congress passes Espionage Act (1917) and Sedition Act
(1918), Japanese Americans sent to Internment Camps (1942).
Sectionalism – loyalty given to your section or region before your country

Nationalism – loyalty to a nation

Industrial Revolution – Period after the Civil War (1865 – 1900)
    Rise of Big Business (ex: Rockefeller – Standard Oil / Carnegie – Steel)
    Change from producing goods by hand to making with machines
    Many monopolies
    Cities grew rapidly

Homestead Act – Purpose was to encourage settlement of the West. Gave 160 acres to
individuals moving West who settled there for 5 years (1862).

Corporations – Benefits: allowed businesses to raise money for investment (selling stocks).

Labor Unions: formed because of working conditions
   Low wages
   Child labor
   Long hours
   Unsafe conditions

      Results: (1870 – 1900)
      Strikes: Usually violent / government supported business /
                 They usually did not get new benefits / broken by force /

   Child Labor:
     Why ?? Worked for extremely low wages
                Small spaces

Laissez-faire – Idea that government should not interfere with the operation of business /

Monopolies – Total control of a type of industry by one person or company (ex. Rockefeller
Standard Oil).
    Resulted in higher prices and a decrease in competition
    Drove small businesses out of business
    Trustbuster – Teddy Roosevelt – broke up large monopolies
    Sherman Anti-Trust Act

Stereotypes – ideas about a certain group.
Progressive Era (early 1900’s)

      Goal: Correct social and industrial problems
              ex: Muckrakers – a journalist who uncovers abuses and/or
              corruption in society. (Ida Tarbell broke up Standard Oil. Upton Sinclair,
              author of The Jungle, wrote about the horrors of the meat-packing industry.)

                ex: Meat Inspection Act
                    Pure Food and Drug Act
                    Housing regulations
                    Women’s Rights Movement
                   19th Amendment (1920) – Women gain right to vote

Isolation – Policy of avoiding involvement in world affairs. (We changed this policy at the
end of the 1800’s – early 1900’s. We go back to it after WWI.)

Panama Canal – Connects Atlantic and Pacific Oceans; eliminates long and dangerous
voyage around South America. Colombia would not let us build it, so we helped
Panamanians revolt and recognized their independence.
     Teddy Roosevelt was President -- “Speak softly and carry a big stick”
                                         (Don’t threaten, but use military action!)

Spanish American War (1898) – Cuba wanted independence from Spain.
               U.S. sympathy for Cuba
               Businesses worried about trade and investments
               Government concerned about rebellion close to the U.S.
               Yellow Journalism – sensational, biased, false reporting
               Sinking of the Maine
               Dissolved most of Spanish empire
               Cuba was an American protectorate
               U. S. gains Puerto Rico, Guam and the Philippines

Monroe Doctrine – designed to limit European expansion and influence in Latin America.

Imperialism – gathering of colonies / controlling weaker countries. (ex: U.S. gaining
Hawaii, U.S. controlling Philippines, etc…)

Appeasement – giving into demands to avoid war. (ex: Munich Conference / Germany)
World War I:

         Alliances – grouping of countries for defense purposes
         Imperialism – gathering of colonies
         Nationalism – extreme loyalty to your country
         Militarism – increases army / military build up

      Causes of U.S. entry:
         Germany – unrestricted sub warfare
         Propaganda
         Trade and loans
         Sinking of the Lusitania
         Zimmerman Telegraph

Treaty of Versailles:
          Destroyed Germany
          League of Nations -- President Wilson supported it but the U.S. Senate did not.
           They wanted to go back to a policy of isolation. They thought it would bring
           U.S. into European affairs.
          Would lead to WW II

Harlem Renaissance (1920’s – 1930’s) -- a flowering of African American culture in an
African American section of NYC; pride
(ex: Langston Hughes – poet; Jazz, etc…)

Nativism – a person who favors those born in his country and is opposed to immigrants

      Old Immigrants                 vs.                New Immigration

 Before 1865                                       Mid – 1880’s
  Northern: Western Europe                          Eastern: Southern Europe
            Protestant                                       Catholics or Jews
            Spoke English                                    Few spoke English
            Blended into society                              Did not blend well
                                                              Settled into ethnic

Chinese Exclusion Act – (passed in 1882) prohibited Chinese workers from entering the
U.S. for 10 years; Congress extended law in 1892, again in 1902.

Suffrage – right to vote
19th Amendment – (1920) Women gained the right to vote

Red Scare – fear of Communism (1920’s and 1950’s)
            Mitchell Palmer
            Joe McCarthy
            People lost jobs / black listed

Ku Klux Klan – (formed in 1866) acts of violence against African Americans. Wanted to
prevent freed men and women from exercising rights; helped whites to regain power.

Immigration Quotas – Goal to limit number of immigrants entering U.S. It discriminated
against certain groups (eastern & southern Europe); fear of communism.

Causes of the Great Depression:

      1.   Overproduction
      2.   Unequal distribution of wealth
      3.   Credit
      4.   Weak Banking System
      5.   Stock Market Crashes

We get out of the Depression after we enter WW II

Social Security Act – provides regular income for the elderly

New Deal – expanded the role of government in the economy; Alphabet Soup programs

FDIC – still benefits Americans by protecting people’s bank accounts / government insures
money in banks up to $100,000

Business Cycle – the economy goes through periods of growth and decline

Results of Depression – U.S. is a welfare state; we now expect government to take care of
those in need

Neutrality – Not taking sides in a conflict. (In both world wars the U.S. started neutral.)
World War II:

        1. Treaty of Versailles
        2. Rise of Dictators
        3. Germany invading Poland

        1. Allies win
        2. Many deaths
        3. Nationalist movement grows / many colonies seek independence
        4. U.S. leader of western world
        5. Soviet Union also leader
        6. Cold War begins

Pearl Harbor – December 7, 1941; Japanese bomb Pearl Harbor, Hawaii; U.S. enters the

Japanese Relocation – loyalty questioned; more than 100,000 Japanese American on the
West Coast were put in internment camps

          Based on racial prejudice
          Shows personal freedoms may be restricted in times of war

United Nations – World organization designed to settle disputes between nations and
prevent future wars

Cold War – threat of war; period after WW II where the U. S. / Soviet Union fought a series
of short wars because of political differences (ex: Korean War, Vietnam, Space Race, Arms

NATO – An alliance formed after WW II, to defend against a communist invasion

Marshall Plan – part of containment, gave European countries money to rebuild so they
didn’t fall to a communist revolution

Containment – policy to prevent expansion of communism

Civil Disobedience – refusal to obey laws that are considered unjust as a nonviolent way to
press for changes
Boycotts – refusal to buy/use products / sit-ins (Used to try to end discrimination in the

Brown v. Board of Ed. – (1954) Supreme Court ruled segregation in public schools illegal /
overturned Plessy v. Ferguson

Johnson’s Great Society – programs aimed to combat poverty (ex: Head Start, Job Corps,


         Policy of Containment
         Domino Theory

         Tore nation apart
         Public distrust of government
         Loss of American lives
         Vietnam turned communist

Operation Desert Storm – U.S. accepts role in international involvement in Persian Gulf /
Saddam Hussein invades Kuwait

Primary Source – 1st person account (diary entry / newspaper article written during the time
/ newsreel of event)

Secondary Source – 2nd hand account (TV show / movie)

Free Enterprise Economy – same as Laissez-faire (policy that government should interfere
as little as possible in the nation’s economy)
                       OTHER NAMES
                        OF INTERST

Harriet Beecher Stowe – wrote Uncle Tom’s Cabin (impact on Civil War)

Upton Sinclair – wrote The Jungle; (changed the meat packing industry); muckraker

Teddy Roosevelt – 26th President (1901 – 1909)
   “Speak softly and carry a big stick.”
   Imperialist
   Rough Rider / Spanish American War
   Trustbuster
   Bull Moose Party
   Panama Canal

Franklin D. Roosevelt (FDR) – 32nd President (1933 – 1945)
   New Deal / Alphabet Soup
   WW II
   Changed role of Federal Government

Woodrow Wilson – 28th President (1913 – 1921)
   President during WW I
   League of Nations
   14 points

Elizabeth Cady Stanton / Susan B. Anthony – female abolitionists; women’s right to vote

Charles Lindbergh:
   first person to fly alone across the Atlantic Ocean
   hero of the l920’s
   Isolationist
   Anti-expansionist

Hitler – Germany’s dictator / Holocaust

Martin Luther King – Civil Rights leader / non-violent protests
John F. Kennedy – 35th President (1961 – 1963)
    Bay of Pigs
    Cuban Missile Crisis
    Civil Rights
    Peace Corps
    Assassinated in 1963

Dwight D. Eisenhower – 34th President (1953 – 1961)
   WW II Hero
   Cold War President

Harry Truman – 33rd President (1945 – 1953)
   Dropped Atomic Bomb
   Fair Deal
   Containment

Lyndon B. Johnson – 36th President (1963 – 1969)
   Great Society
   War on poverty
   Succeeded Kennedy after assassination
   Heightens our involvement in Vietnam

Richard Nixon – 37th President (1969 – 1974)
    Vice President under Eisenhower
    Elected in 1968
    Ended our involvement in Vietnam
    Watergate scandal
    Resigns from office

Gerald Ford – 38th President (1974-76)
   Vice President under Nixon
   Succeeded Nixon as President after resignation
   Pardoned Nixon after Watergate Scandal
   Offered amnesty to those who avoided military service in Vietnam

Jimmy Carter – 39th President (1976-1980)
    First Democratic President since Johnson
    Senator Walter Mondale from Minnesota became Vice President
    Campaigned as an outsider to Washington Politics-was elected on this premise
     however, this made it hard rally others to work with him
    Turned over US control of the Panama Canal to Panama
    America suffered through an energy crisis and high inflation
    Iran Hostage crisis
Ronald Reagan – 40th President (1980-1988)
    Former Hollywood actor and Governor of California
    Reganomics simulate the economy through an increase in the supply of goods and
    Increased defense spending and SDI (Strategic Defense Initiative)
    1983 began a steady recovery of the economy, the first since the 1970s
    Iran- Contra Scandal
    A changing Soviet policy with Mikhail Gorbachev and “glasnost”

George Bush – 41st President (1988-1992)
   End of the Cold War – Dismantling of the Berlin Wall
   Reunification of Germany
   Signed START Treaty with Soviet Union the drastically reduce arms
   The Persian Gulf War to Liberate Kuwait –Operation Desert Storm
   War in the Balkans Yugoslavia collapses with the end of the Cold war
   Economic Downturn -- high federal debt

William Clinton- 42nd President (1992-2000)
   Set out to reduce the federal deficit
   Signed the Brady Bill requiring a waiting period to purchase a handgun
   Hillary Clinton redefined the role of first lady by taking a larger role in public policy
   Ratified NAFTA a trade policy that would decrease barriers between the US, Mexico
      and Canada and increase trade.
   Expansion of technology through the home computer and access to the internet creates
      an economic boom
   Elected to a 2nd term in 1996
   Survives impeachment hearings to finish out second term
   Helps to balance the US budget by 1999

George W. Bush – 43rd President (2000- )
   Son of the 41st President
   Narrowly defeated Democratic candidate
   Proposed sweeping tax reform and rebates to all Americans
   Increased government spending for he military
   Presided over the Presidency during the 9-11 disaster
   Launched the War on terror and Al-Qaida –invades Afghanistan in 2001
   Invades Iraq on suspicion of Weapons of Mass Destruction in 2003
   Faces growing opposition to the war over clear direction and increased federal deficit

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