Distributed Wind Impacts by HC120729222048

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									 Development of a Methodology for the
 Assessment of System Operation Impacts of
 Integrating Wind Generation on a Small
 Island Power System
  Jeff Smith*     Shari Ishikawa
 Daniel Brooks   Brenner Munger

 EPRI PEAC       Hawaiian Electric
 Corporation        Company


         *Presented at
European Wind Energy Conference
          London, UK
       November 25, 2004
                        Hawaiian Electric Company, Inc.
                        Planning and Engineering Department
                                                 HELCO System Capacity
                                                                                                         System Peak (MW)
                           Firm Capacity (253 MW)                                                        HECO 1,242 1
                                               Diesel                                                    Maui   198 1
                                                14%                                          Steam
    Geothermal                                                                                           HELCO 188 1
       12%                                                                                    33%
                                                                                                         SCE    20,477 2
                                                                                                         PG&E   24,681 2
                                                                                                         PNM     1,661 3
                                    Combustion Turbines
                                          41%
                                                                                           As-Available Energy (25 MW)
                                                                                                                        Wind
                                                                                                                        39%
Note 1: Based on 2003 peaks (net)
Note 2: Forecasted 2004 load from the 2002 California ISO Controlled Grid Study Report   Hydroelectric
Note 3: From the 2003 PNM Annual Report
                                                                                            61%
Current Challenges with Wind Energy on the
              HELCO System
   1980’s vintage WTGs on the system
   Resources are located far from major load centers
   Problems with system frequency regulation and power quality
   Wind generation requires additional operating reserve to be on-
    line
   Wind generation does not displace firm capacity and requires
    the availability of back-up generation
   Limited demand on island of Hawaii coupled with no
    interconnections leads to curtailment of wind generators
   Costs for ancillary services
                                  Current HELCO Load Curve
                                     Curtailment Issues
                                          System Load
                                                                                                               160.00

                 Regulating Reserve                                            Maximum Regulating Generation   140.00
                 Up
                                              Regulating Reserve Down
                                                                                                               120.00
   Curtailment
                                                                        Total Wind Production
   Area                                                                                                        100.00


                                      Minimum Regulating Generation                                            80.00


                                                                                                               60.00
Total Hydroelectric
                                                                                                               40.00

                                               Non-regulating Generation (Geoterhmal an d Coal Plant)
                                                                                                               20.00


                                                                                                               0.00
                      IGAP Objectives
   Develop comprehensive performance requirements for HECO, MECO
    & HELCO power systems based on sound utility practice and
    requirements of existing and future loads
   Develop and apply a methodology for assessing the value and impacts
    of intermittent generating resources on HECO, MECO and HELCO
    operations
   Apply methodology to specific problem of increasing penetrations of
    wind plants
   Evaluate opportunities for mitigating impacts of wind generation on
    power system operations and performance
   Evaluate technologies that would facilitate high penetration of wind
    energy on island systems
   FOCUS ON OPERATIONAL ISSUES
IGAP Key Impact Components
                Intra-Hr Load-Following Impact
                                                 Impact on Intra-Hr
               (Economic Dispatch Simulations)    Production Cost




                   Additional
 Regulation
                   Regulating
  Impact            Reserve                      Impact on Hourly
                                                  Production Cost



                 + Add'l Reg.      HELCO Unit
Dynamic Freq
                 Reserve           Commitment
  Deviation      + Constraints
                                                   Unit Startup/
                                    Simulation   Shutdown Pattern
   Impact        on units online
                                       Tool



  Forecast                                       Wind Generation
                   Additional
                                                   Curtailment
 Uncertainty       Operating
   Impact           Reserve
        Nature of Quantitative Results

 All numerical results provided in the following
  slides are preliminary and are included only
  to demonstrate the methodologies
  established for assessing various impacts
 Case study results are based on limited data
  sets for specified periods of wind generation
Sample Case Study Results – Regulating
              Reserve
   Potential increase in regulating reserve in the positive and
    negative directions that results from the increase fluctuation
    added by wind relative to baseline fluctuation of load alone.

                                       Pos RMS Index     Neg RMS Index
                Scenario               Load&Wind/Load    Load&Wind/Load
    9MW 10-Min Delta Up-Ramp                      1.06              1.01
    9MW 10-Min Delta Flat/Down-Ramp               1.19              1.03
    32MW 10-Min Delta Up-Ramp                     1.16              1.36
    32MW 10-Min Delta Flat/Down-Ramp              1.50              1.14
          Sample UC Case Study Results -
                  Curtailment
   For existing wind scenario of 9.3 MW capacity, simulations show
    no wind generation curtailment
   For future penetration scenario of 32 MW, small to moderate
    curtailment mainly during period of 1 - 4 a.m.

                 9.3 MW Wind Capacity       32.36 MW Wind Capacity
                MWh % of Total Total # of MWh     % of Total Total # of
                      Production Hours            Production  Hours
    Low Wind        0        0%         0      0            0          0
    Med Wind        0        0%         0   4.32       0.17%           1
    High Wind       0        0%         0 119.79       3.14%          20
             Sample UC Case Study Results –
                  Startup/Shutdown
      Wind and “Other As-Available” generation affect
       startup/shutdown
      Low and Med wind have less affect on DTCC, but reduce
       startup/shutdown of smaller CTs and Diesels
      High wind at high penetration increases cycling of DTCC

                           0 MW Wind Cap     9.3 MW Wind Cap 32.36 MW Wind
              Other As-
   Wind                                                      Cap
              Available
  Scenario                 DTCC    CTs &      DTCC CTs & DTCC         CT &
              Generation
                                   Diesels           Diesels          Diesels
Low Wind           13.15    2/1    69 / 69     2/1   69 / 69   3/2   69 / 69
Med Wind           24.53    7/6    42 / 42     7/6   33 / 33   9/8   13 / 13
High Wind          29.33    7/7    34 / 34     7/7   23 / 23 13 / 14 23 / 23
                          UC Tool Example Results
Commitment program can be run                             Adjust Wind
for varying hourly time frames                            Energy Input                        Output of other
                                                                                              units is displayed
         Adjust the amount of regulating
         reserve (spinning reserve)

 HR           Sysload    RegUp      RegDn      Wind       Hill5           Hill6           PunaSteamPGV         HEP

       1.00      96.58       4.00       5.00      26.18           12.96           20.30      10.00     23.58          0.00
       2.00      90.98       4.00       5.00      25.07            9.00           19.76      10.00     23.77          0.00
       3.00      88.95       4.00       5.00      24.02            9.00           16.00      10.00     23.81          7.00
       4.00      88.51       4.00       5.00      23.37            9.00           18.65      10.00     23.99          0.00
       5.00      94.86       6.00       5.00      19.08            9.00           17.50      10.00     23.94         12.24
       6.00     108.31       6.00       5.00      11.28           11.47           20.30      10.00     23.80         28.50
       7.00     126.79       6.00       5.00      16.44           11.50           20.30      10.00     23.58         28.50
       8.00     138.35       6.00       5.00      20.82           11.50           20.30      10.00     23.48         28.50
       9.00     145.75       6.00       5.00      13.44           12.00           20.30      10.00     23.15         28.50
      10.00     151.13       4.00       5.00      17.58           13.10           20.30      10.50     22.97         28.50
      11.00     153.00       4.00       5.00       8.69           11.50           20.30      10.00     22.68         28.50
      12.00     153.59       4.00       5.00      10.03           11.50           20.30      10.00     22.57         28.50
Sample Case Study Results - Intra-Hour
          Load Following
                             Energy Costs
                              9.3 MW Wind        32.36 MW Wind
             Wind Case       (k$)    (¢/MWh)     (k$)        (¢/MWh)
             Low-Wind         No Wind Gen             0.16      36.39
             Med-Wind         -0.09    -39.51        -0.04      -1.16
             High-Wind         0.01       1.61        0.69      18.09




                     Startup/shutdown
 Wind Case       Load Only             9.3 MW Wind           32.36 MW Wind
 Low-Wind           32                      32                     38
 Med-Wind           20                      13                     20
 High-Wind          12                      10                     17
       HELCO System Frequency Deviation
 As a small island            Wind Farm Production (MW) and System Frequency
  system, HELCO                                (Five Minutes)
  sees frequency                             Total Wind (Lalamilo+Kamaoa)
                                             System Frequency

  deviations at     4.10                                                                60.06

  governor          3.90                                                                60.04

  response time 3.70                                                                    60.02
  frame             3.50
                    MW




                                                                                                Hz
                                                                                        60.00
                    3.30
 Concerned with                                                                        59.98
                    3.10
  impact of higher 2.90                                                                 59.96
  wind levels       2.70                                                                59.94
                           0        50       100           150              200   250
                                                   seconds
        Frequency Deviation Assessment

   Conduct dynamic simulations of HELCO system for
    various wind generation profiles
   Frequency impact results used to determine potential
    operational modifications
       additional reserves, AGC or governor adjustments, curtailment, etc.
   Revised objective for IGAP Phase #1 to
    assessing/validating/improving/validating existing
    HELCO dynamic models (PSS/E)
                  IGAP Future Direction

   IGAP Phase 2
       Utilize HELCO system dynamic model validation from IGAP #1 as
        basis for evaluating platforms for frequency deviation assessment
        methodology
       Uncertainty and wind generation forecasting for high penetrations
       Wind plant operation and control strategies
       Evaluation of storage technologies of scale
       Scope still being defined. Input and additional participation sought
   Future Phases of IGAP Research Plan
       Evaluation of Advanced Operating Strategies (utility- and windplant-
        based)
       Evaluation of compensation solutions

								
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