Accessory Dwelling Unit Update by s2939Sm


									Accessory Dwelling Unit
   MNAPA Annual Conference
  River Edge Convention Center
          St. Cloud, MN
     September 28-30, 2011
           Today we’ll review
• Evolving demographic trends that may influence
  demand for ADUs, other shared housing
• Related national information
• Examples of modular ADUs
• Dialogue on ADU-related issues, concerns
       Potential trend - shift in
         home occupancy
• Many current seniors are aging in place in
      • MN 65/+ ownership - nearly 80% (MN
        Board on Aging’s “Survey of Older
• A % of boomers may age in place far longer
  than parents’ generation
• May take a variety of forms
   – Continued single-household residency
      Potential trend - shift in
      home occupancy, con’t.
– Various types of shared housing
  • By related individuals
  • By unrelated individuals, e.g.,
     –“Golden Girls/Guys”
     –Roommate matching
     –Caregiving assistance
  • By persons of similar, different ages
           Trend - increase in
             single boomers
• MN Dept. of Human Services, MN Board on
  Aging, MN Dept. of Health
  – Conducted major initiative during previous
    decade (“Transform 2010”)
  – Purpose -
     • Analyze demographic trends
     • Begin repositioning policies, programs,
           Trend - increase in
         single boomers, con’t.
• Key finding
   – Far higher % of boomers single in older years
     vs. past generations
   – % of single Minnesotans living along expected
     to double between 2000 and 2030
• Current level - all-time high for state
• Due to 30-year trends - those never married,
  didn’t remarry
           Trend - increase in
         single boomers, con’t.
• U.S. Census Bureau data
  – 33% of 55- to 64-year olds were single in
    2010, compared to 30% in 2000
• Pew Research Center data (2010)
  – 27.4% of adults 65/+ living along
  Trend - multi-generational living

• Data show these arrangements increasing
• Key report on subject - “The Return of the Multi-
  Generational Family Household” (Pew Research
  Center, 2010)
• Analyzed Census and American Community
  Survey data
      Trend - multi-generational
             living, con’t.
• U.S. population living in multi-generational
   – 1980 - 28 million (12%)
   – 2008 - 49 million (16%)
• Of the 49 million in 2008
   – 47% two adult generations
   – 47% three/more adult generations
   – 6% “skipped” generation
Trend - multi-generational
       living, con’t.
     Trend - multi-generational
            living, con’t.
• Age breakdown of U.S. multi-generational
   – About 1 in 5 ages 25-34
   – Also about 1 in 5 ages 65/+
• Growth reflects factors including
   – Later marriage age
   – “Boomerang” young adults
   – Increase in immigrant populations
       Trend - multi-generational
              living, con’t.
• Recession’s impact - 2.6 million increase in
  multi-generational households 2007 - 2008
• Time magazine, Oct. 3, 2011 issue:
         “A recent government survey showed that
          5.9 million people ages 25-34 live with their
          parents, up from 4.7 million prerecession.”
     MN Medicaid development
• Medicaid (aka Medical Assistance in MN) -
  services for low-income persons
   – Acute and chronic/long-term care needs
   – Many - acute needs; major expense - chronic
• Costs are shared roughly 50/50 between
  federal, state governments
   – Huge issue in national budget debates
   – Very, very large piece of MN’s budget,
             MN Medicaid
          development, con’t.
• Historic model - delivery in hospitals, state
  institutions, clinics, etc. (began later 1960s)
   – States requested - “waive” regulations
      • Apply to assist chronic needs in certain
        target populations
          – “Home and Community-Based Waivers”
• Major federal/state Medicaid/Waiver reform
  being explored around the country
   – States seeking budget/regulatory relief
              MN Medicaid
           development, con’t.
• MN now preparing “Global Waiver” application
  – Legislature supports
  – Redirect MN Waiver delivery 180 degrees
  – Make home/community-based support the
    default; institutional only for limited high-
    needs exceptions
  – Goal - complete for submittal to federal
    government early in 2012
             Possible impacts
• Multiple households in existing homes may
  increase going forward, e.g.,
   – Could be related, unrelated individuals
   – Could be similar ages or age spread
• Elderly care/assistance costs may play a role
   – $70,000/+ per year nursing home
   – $30,000-40,000/+ per year assisted living
   – Adult day care
• If Global Waiver OKd, could play a role
• Other end of age spectrum - child care costs
        National ADU inquiries
• Checked with APA and National Association of
  Home Builders
  – Neither has data on trends in ADU
    ordinances, construction
  – NAHB did provide:
      “In the fourth quarter of 2010, a summary of NAHB
      remodelers reported that 68% of the respondent
      remodelers were involved with aging-in-place projects.”
              AIA survey-
      multi-generational housing
• Quarterly surveys on industry issues, involves
  about 500 architectural firms
• 3rd quarter 2010 “Home Design Trend Survey” -
  on community/neighborhood design
• % reporting popularity of multi-generational
  housing increasing minus those reporting
  decreasing - 47%
• (May be existing homes, new construction)
               AIA survey -
• Similar survey in 4th quarter 2010 on kitchen and
  bath trends
• % reporting popularity of adaptable/UD features
  increasing minus those reporting decreasing
   – Kitchens - 24%
   – Baths - 44%
• (Again, may be existing homes, new
           Status within states
• States identified (via Web, literature) with
   – Laws mandating/regulating ADUs: California,
     Vermont, Washington
   – Model guidelines, voluntary promotion,
     resource materials, etc.: Massachusetts,
     Florida, Delaware
• Metro mandates - e.g., Portland, OR regional
• Range of counties, cities in states with/without
       Status within states, con’t.
• Laws, initiatives from past decades - address
  multiple issues, e.g.,
   – Affordable housing/rental housing (often in
     high-cost markets)
   – Support for older individuals
• More recently - smart growth, sustainability
     Modular units, small-house
           ADU designs
• Have been monitoring past few years
• May be new focus area for modular home
• However, appearance may/may not meet many
  local ADU design, etc., requirements
Med Cottage
At a glance

Approximately 300 sq. ft.
Electricity and water connected directly to home utilities


Room temperature
Room oxygen
Lighting for both interior and exterior
Water temperature
Water levels in both tub and sink
Door latching system
Smoke/carbon monoxide detection

Web cam and voice communications by computer or cell phone
Movement locator through an ankle or wrist bracelet
Feet Sweep
Interactive monitoring service by an alert necklace
Medical support monitoring for vitals
Medicine consumption monitoring and notification
Monitor liquid consumption

Pathogen Protection

Positive pressure system for patient protection
Negative pressure system for pathogen containment
Air filtration
Protective clothing dispenser
Hazardous waste disposal
FabCab (Fabulous Cabin)

          Seattle, WA
550 sq. ft., 1 BR, 1 bath
Exterior kit - $49,000 Interior kit - $28,900

Other kits: 848 sq. ft. (1 BR, 1 bath), 1,029 sq. ft. (2 BR, 1 bath),
1,337 sq. ft. (3 BR, 2 bath)
Exterior Kits
*Machine-milled and pre-cut
timber-frame structure.
*Can be sent as a kit of parts -
frame components, wall and roof
Structural Insulated Panels,
doors, windows, siding, as well
as finishes, fixtures, and
*Shipped to customer’s building
site, erected/built by licensed

Interior Kits
*All models universally
designed - wide doors,
curbless showers, stepless
entries, ergonomic cabinets,
flexible floor plans.
1,600 sq. ft. version displayed at 2010 Seattle Home Show
Photo credits: Fab Cab Design, copyright Dale Lang

                                    Taunton model
                                   About 800 sq. ft.
(Seattle, WA architectural firm)
Larson+Shores Architects, Inc.
  San Francisco, CA firm -

 “Bungalow” - 538 sq. ft.

 “Carriage” - 490 sq. ft.
      Metro concept exploration
• Late-2000s Dakota County initiative
   – “Living Longer and Stronger in Dakota
     County” - to prepare for boomer age wave
• Looked at a many ways to promote aging in
  place in key focus areas - finances,
  health/wellness, transportation, etc.
• Housing work group explored single- and multi-
  family issues, community connections
 Metro concept exploration, con’t.
• Looked into ADU and “ECHO housing”
   – ECHO (“Elderly Cottage Housing
     Opportunity”) - self-contained, usually
     removable unit
• Discussed if east metro demonstration possible
• Also discussed possibly conducting ADU design
• Overall initiative curtailed due to recession,
  budget cuts, etc.
From Taunton Press
By Michael Litchfield (a founder of
“Fine Homebuilding” magazine)

Chapter 1: Is an In-Law Unit Right for
Chapter 2: Designing In-Laws
Chapter 3: Choosing Appliances,
            Fixtures, Materials
Chapter 4: Plans and Permits
Chapter 5: Basement In-Law Units
Chapter 6: Garage Conversions
Chapter 7: Stand-Alone In-Laws
Chapter 8: Bump-outs, Carve-outs,
            and Attics
               If of interest...
• “You Tube” interview by Michael Litchfield of
  David Foster
   – Foster - core member of “Affordable Housing
     Advocates” - prime organizer promoting
     adoption of Santa Clara, CA ADU ordinance
   – On “You Tube” at: “In-Laws, Outlaws and
     Granny Flats” (www.cozydigs)
      MN ADU ordinance review
• Looked at
   – Greater MN communities around 20,000/+
   – Metro, other Greater MN communities
• Came up with 20 locations with varying types of
  ordinances - view as sample of universe...
• Contacted the MN Builders Association, Builders
  Association of the Twin Cities - no data
          Community contacts
• Visited with around half
  – Reason for designing ordinance
      • Parties wanting to develop ADUs
      • Timely/proactive policy
      • Deal with illegal units
  – Demand
      • Light - e.g., few/year (when a conditional
  – Identified a few communities exploring or
    drafting ordinances in process
           Feature - regulation
• Slightly under three-quarters handle as
  conditional/interim use, administrative review
• A few
   – Permitted vs. conditional use by zone
   – Allow as permitted uses
   – Handle as variance or accessory use
   – Require periodic registration/certification
• A couple - deed restrictions
• Councils in a few cases - can revise standards
     Features - occupancy, owner
• A few
   – Establish maximum numbers of occupants
      • From 2 - 4
   – Only permit relatives to live in ADU
• About a quarter require owner to live in PU
  (primary unit)
• About a third - owner can live in either unit
 Feature - development conditions
• About three-quarters - only one ADU per lot
• About a quarter - ADU only permitted in PU or
   – One - floor plan must be capable of
     conversion back to PU use
• Around a quarter permit only in home/above
  garage or above garage
• A third - PU and ADU ownership can't be
        Feature - development
          conditions, con’t.
• About half set some type of siting standards
• A few:
  – Have standards on if/when garage conversion
  – Require that there’s no adverse impact on
  – Require city license if used as rental property
  – Set an address standard - either the same or
     separate from PU
          Feature - development
            conditions, con’t.
• About a quarter - standards connected with
  home occupations
   – Either permitting or not, and in which unit
• A few - ADU must be constructed after the PU,
  or conditionally concurrent
• One has density standard - not permitted if 3 in
  1/2-mile radius
             Features - lot size,
             building area ratio
• About half set lot size - range from 2,500 sq. ft.
  to 5 acres; varies by zone in some cases
   – Concentrate in the 8,000 - 11,000 sq. ft. range
• A few have building area ratios
   – Maximum 25 - 30% of lot
           Feature - minimum/
           maximum unit size
• Over three quarters set minimum/maximum unit
   – 200 - 300 sq. ft. - minimum
   – Range from 500 - 1,800 sq. ft. maximum
      • Over a third - 800 - 950 sq. ft.
   – A number handled maximum as
      • % of PU’s sq. ftge.
      • Lesser of a maximum % of PU's sq. ftge. or
        maximum sq. ft. standard
 Features - exterior design, height
• Three-quarters required compatibility with PU
  appearance or single-family character, e.g.,
   – Materials, color, trim, door style, window
     orientation, roof pitch, eaves, etc.
• A few addressed exterior stairs - either not
  permitting or setting requirements
• Height maximum typically PU’s or lesser %,
  separate standard if garage ADU
        Feature - interior design
• About a quarter - required at least kitchen, bath
• A few set maximum number of bedrooms - 2
       Feature - parking, utilities
• About three-quarters addressed parking -
   – Typical - 1 or 2 spaces in addition to PU’s
   – One - based on matching bedroom count
• A few - total combined with PU’s requirement
• A few also stipulated no additional drive serving
• Utilities - half required city sewer and water
  connection, a few no separate metering
             Dialogue about...
• ADU issues of interest, concern
• Expectation in relation to demographic trends
• Demand for ADUs going forward
   – Economic impact
      • In footprint, addition vs. free-standing?
   – In early stage of demographic impact?
Thanks for the opportunity to present!

             Diane Sprague
         Lifetime Home Project
             PO Box 17097
         Minneapolis, MN 55417

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