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									         Tomato Production
• California and Florida make up almost two-
  thirds of the acres used to grow fresh
  tomatoes in the United States.
• Florida remains the leading domestic source
  of fresh-market tomatoes.
• Pennsylvania, Ohio, Virginia, New Jersey,
  Tennessee, South Carolina, and New York
  each plant between 3,000 and 4,500 acres.
       Solenaceous Crops Part I
•   Fusarium wilt
•   Bacterial wilt
•   Late blight
•   Early blight
          DISEASE: Fusarium Wilt
• CROP: Tomato, Potato, Pepper, Eggplant
• PATHOGEN: Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersic
  F. oxysporum f.sp. melongenae (eggplant) and F. oxysporum
  f.sp. vasinfectum

• PATHOGEN DESCRIPTION: gungus produces macroconidia,
  microconidia, and chlamydospores
     DISEASE SYMPTOMS AND
             SIGNS:
- yellowing of the lower foliage; yellowing
  progresses up the plant and the lower leaves dry
  and turn brown.
     DISEASE SYMPTOMS AND
             SIGNS:
- yellowing of the lower foliage; yellowing
  progresses up the plant and the lower leaves dry
  and turn brown.

- Plants begin to wilt in the top during the day and
  recover at night, but wilting becomes
  progressively worse until plants are permanently
  wilted.
     DISEASE SYMPTOMS AND
             SIGNS:
- yellowing of the lower foliage; yellowing
  progresses up the plant and the lower leaves dry
  and turn brown.

- Plants begin to wilt in the top during the day and
  recover at night, but wilting becomes
  progressively worse until plants are permanently
  wilted.

- vascular browning extends far up the stem and
   into large petioles.
   CONDITIONS FOR DISEASE
       DEVELOPMENT:

- warm weather favors disease development.
- disease is most prevalent on acidic, sandy
   soils.
- the pathogen is soilborne and persists many
   years in the soil without a host.
- three races are known to exist.
        CONTROL MEASURES:

- use resistant cultivars; race 1 and race 1,2 resistant
   cultivars are available
- raise soil pH to 6.5 - 7.0
- clean equipment to avoid infesting new fields
- 5 - 7 year rotation reduces losses but does not
   eliminate the pathogen
- use of flooded rice in rotation with tomato reduces
   disease losses.
     CONTROL MEASURES
- use resistant cultivars; some nematode
   populations may overcome resistance.
- practice crop rotation; flooded rice greatly
   reduces nematode populations.
- use of soil fumigants or soil nematicides are
   effective for control.
    DISEASE: Bacterial Wilt
CROP: Pepper, Tomato and other crops
PATHOGEN: Ralstonia solanacearum
DISTRIBUTION: Most severe in tropical and
subtropical climates with high rainfall
PATHOGEN DESCRIPTION: Gram-negative
rod
DISEASE SYMPTOMS AND SIGNS:
- occurs in scattered plants or groups of plants

- the initial symptom is wilt of lower leaves (upper
  leaves of seedlings) followed a sudden permanent
  wilt of the entire plant without yellowing
DISEASE SYMPTOMS AND SIGNS:
DISEASE SYMPTOMS AND SIGNS:
- occurs in scattered plants or groups of plants

- the initial symptom is wilt of lower leaves (upper
  leaves of seedlings) followed a sudden permanent
  wilt of the entire plant without yellowing

- vascular browning occurs and sometimes cortical
  decay is evident near the soil line

- bacterial streaming from vascular elements occurs
   when cross sections of the lower stem are
   suspended in water.
Bacterial Streaming
      CONDITIONS FOR DISEASE
          DEVELOPMENT:
- the disease is more severe on tomato, tobacco, potato,
  and eggplant, but it can be very damaging to pepper
  (occurs on 200+ spp.)

- the bacterium survives in the soil for long periods

- the bacterium gains entry through natural root wounds,
  insect or nematode wounds, and cultivation wounds

- high temperature and high soil moisture favor disease
   development.
        CONTROL MEASURES:
- use pathogen-free seedbeds to produce disease-
  free transplants; fumigate plant beds and
  pasteurize the planting medium for container-
  grown plants
- rotate with non-susceptible crops (limited value)
- avoid cultivation that damages roots
- rotate with flooded rice
       DISEASE: Late Blight
• CROP: Tomato and Potato
• PATHOGEN: Phytophthora infestans
• Distribution – Temperate and tropical
  climates worldwide
           SYMPTOMS AND SIGNS:
- all above-ground plant parts may be affected

- leaf lesions are irregular water-soaked patches mat may expand
  to encompass large areas of the leaf, white fungal sporulation
  may be observed on underneath side; later the lesions dry and
  turn brown; blighting of the entire foliage may occur.

- stem lesions are at first irregular water-soaked areas that may
  progress and kill sections of stems and petioles or they may
  remain superficial and dry out to form dark brown lesions.

- fruit lesions are firm, olive to brown, irregular shaped areas that
  cause the fruit to have a rough leathery surface; lesions may
  enlarge to encompass the entire fruit.
Late Blight of Potato and Tomato
Late Blight of Potato and Tomato
Late Blight of Potato and Tomato
    PATHOGEN DESCRIPTION
Sporangiophores arise through stomata and
produce lemon-shaped hyaline sporangia that
usually release zoospores.

Sporangiophores are hyaline, branched, and
indeterminate, with swellings (knees) at the
point where sporangia were produced.
zoospores
Late Blight of Potato and Tomato
       CONDITIONS FOR DISEASE
           DEVELOPMENT:
- extended periods of leaf wetness from frequent rain or dew
  formation and cool to moderate temperatures are required
  for disease development; hot, dry weather stops disease
  development

- the fungus persists on tomato and potato plants and in
  potato tubers; it does not survive saprophytically
- many strains attack both tomato and potato
- sporangia are produced on infected tissues and are
  dispersed by wind and splashing rain
- water on plant surfaces is required for germination and
  penetration
Late Blight of Potato and Tomato
Late Blight of Potato and Tomato
         CONTROL MEASURES:

-   use disease-free transplants or seed
-   use fungicidal sprays
-   avoid planting tomatoes near potatoes
-   host resistance can be overcome
Late Blight of Potato and Tomato
Late Blight of Potato and Tomato
         DISEASE: Early Blight
•   CROP: Tomato, Potato
•   PATHOGEN: Alternaria solani
•   DISTRIBUTION: Worldwide – IL
•   Tomato - The greatest damage from early blight
    spot results from loss of foliage and the exposure
    of ripening fruit to sunscald. Plants severely
    defoliated in midsummer will not produce good
    quality fruit. Such fruit may be small, flabby,
    cracked, orange instead of red, and off-flavor.
    CONDITIONS FOR DISEASE
        DEVELOPMENT:
 - the pathogen can be seedborne; it also may persist
   in crop debris or on volunteer tomatoes and wild
   solanaceous plants.
- extended periods of leaf wetness from frequent
   rain, irrigation, or dews favor disease development
- stressed plants are more susceptible, e.g. when
   attacked by nematodes and also during fruiting.
Early Blight of Potato and Tomato
         DISEASE SYMPTOMS

- small dark circular spots that enlarge into circular
   lesions composed of concentric rings.
         DISEASE SYMPTOMS

- small dark circular spots that enlarge into circular
   lesions composed of concentric rings.
- elliptical lesions occur on stems and petioles
   which are drastically weakened at the site of the
   lesion.
         DISEASE SYMPTOMS

- small dark circular spots that enlarge into circular
   lesions composed of concentric rings.
- elliptical lesions occur on stems and petioles
   which are drastically weakened at the site of the
   lesion.
- fruit rot (green or ripe) - large dark lesions
   develop in the calyx area or on the -upper
   shoulder.
Early Blight of Tomato
    PATHOGEN DESCRIPTION:

• The fungus produces long muriform conidia
  borne singly or in chains of two.
      CONTROL MEASURES:

- seed treatment
- disease-free transplants
- crop rotations
- avoid planting adjacent overlapping crops
- a fungicide spray program is often necessary
   to manage this disease
Early Blight of Potato and Tomato

								
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