Fair Trade by Ba3B23vM

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									‘Beyond the Barchart’                       Working on the Mathematics / Citizenship Interface


                                  Fair Trade
Overview
‘Fair Trade’ is a series of six separate mathematical activities which aim to raise
students’ awareness of fair trade issues.

1. Tuck shop
A handling data project for Key Stage 3 extended over a suggested period of 6
lessons.
Students, in groups, will be asked to prepare a report for the catering staff who
wish to convert the tuck shop to sell all fair trade products. They will have to plan
and carry out a questionnaire, then analyse the results.

2. Survey
A handling data project for Key Stage 4 extended over a suggested period of 6
lessons.
Students, in groups, will be asked to work for a Marketing company who want to
effectively advertise Fairtrade Fortnight which takes place every March. They will
have to plan and carry out a questionnaire, then analyse the results. This is similar
to the tuck shop activity but more suitable for Key Stage 4.

3. Ghanaian farmer
An activity suitable for a single lesson.
Students will be asked to prepare a yearly budget for a Ghanaian cocoa farmer.
They will discuss the impact their decisions have on the farmer, his family and
community. The effect of belonging to a fair trade organisation adds a more explicit
citizenship dimension to the discussion.

4. Chocolate eating habits
An activity suitable for two lessons.
Students will be given a set of facts about chocolate consumption and asked to
design a series of hypotheses and survey questions to test the facts. They will
also, with an option to collect their own data, compare fair trade and non-fair trade
chocolate bars. Again various hypotheses can be written and questionnaire design
discussed.

5. Breakfast food miles
An activity suitable for a single lesson.
Students will be asked to use relevant data, with an option for internet research, to
calculate the total food miles in their breakfast. They will be able to identify the
country of origin on a map and discuss the issues involved in increasing food
miles.

6. Trade game
A practical game for the whole class divided into 6 groups/teams.
Students, working in groups, will be given various raw materials and resources in
order to make a 2-D shape with a certain area and/or perimeter. This mimics a
simplistic version of international trade and a plenary discussion will draw out these
links with the chocolate and cocoa trade.
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Mathematical objectives include designing, using, and analysing the results
from questionnaires and surveys, and problem solving.

Citizenship objectives include an awareness of the implications of
international trade, including FairTrade, decision making within a budget, an
awareness of life in other countries



Please note:
In order to ensure that products labelled as ‘fair trade’ really are traded in a manner
beneficial to the countries of origin, OXFAM, Christian Aid and others have set up
the Fairtrade Foundation in order to scrutinise the practices of companies claiming
to be operating according to fair trade principles. Products certified by the
Fairtrade Foundation carry the FAIRTRADE Mark.

There are other companies marketing fairly traded products which do not fall within
the scope of the FAIRTRADE Mark. These reputable companies are likely to be
members of IFAT (International Fair Trade Association) or BAFTS (British
Association for Fair Trade Shops). ‘Fair Trade’ incorporates all of these. For more
information on this, see:
                      http://www.fairtrade.org.uk/
                      http://www.ifat.org/
                      http://www.bafts.org.uk/

These notes are, as far as possible, consistent in referring to ‘fair trade’ in general,
and ‘Fairtrade’ when referring specifically to products certified by the Fairtrade
Foundation and carrying the FAIRTRADE Mark.




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‘Beyond the Barchart’                      Working on the Mathematics / Citizenship Interface




                        Fair Trade: Tuck Shop
                           Teachers’ Notes
Learning objectives
   To plan, collect, analyse, represent and interpret data to support a given brief.
   To develop an awareness of fair trade issues and fair trade products available.


Resources
Resource sheet (one copy per student)
Information sheet (one copy per student or use one copy as prompt for teacher-led
discussion)
Internet access (optional)
Graph paper


Description
Assess students’ prior knowledge of fair trade issues by initiating a class
discussion. You might want to ask questions such as ‘Why do people pay more for
fair trade products?’, or ‘Where do fair trade products come from?’. Summarise
their current knowledge and opinions on fair trade. Use the information sheet to
challenge and add to the brainstorm.
Give out the resource sheet. Ask students to imagine that they are going to set up
a fair trade tuck shop at school. Go through ‘The Brief’ on the resource sheet with
students. They will need to find out what products are available, what fair trade
products students will buy and how much they are willing to spend. Discuss what
questions they will need to ask in order to find out this information.
Emphasise that the answers found will need to be analysed mathematically. It is
easier to do this with quantitative data (i.e. numerical values) rather than just
qualitative data (i.e. categories, e.g. answers such as ‘Yes’ and ‘No’). Questions
must therefore be phrased appropriately e.g. students might ask:‘ How many fair
trade products can you name?’ rather than ‘Can you name any fair trade
products?’ They could also:
            Provide a list of products and ask people to rate how likely they are to
             buy them on a scale of one to ten, the ‘average’ can then be calculated
             for each products popularity.
            The number of times in a week people would use the tuck shop
            The number of items people would buy in a week.
            The amount people would spend on different products

They will also need to consider advertising as they will be in competition with the
usual tuckshop items.

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‘Beyond the Barchart’                    Working on the Mathematics / Citizenship Interface

Divide the class into small groups of 3 or 4. Each group should plan together how
they are going to collect the data. They may decide to visit a supermarket or look
on the internet to find the range of products available and the average prices. Once
they have collected the data, each group should analyse and decide how best to
represent the data and prepare a report based on ‘The Brief’ (on resource sheet).
Finally each group should present their report to the rest of the class. The final
report could be presented to the staff in charge of the tuck shop and/or the
headteacher or other senior teacher(s).

The following is given as a guideline for the timing of each element of the project:
Planning: 2 lessons
Data Collection: 1 lesson
Representing data: 1 lesson
Interpreting and writing the report: 2 lessons


Healthy eating: implications
Whilst these materials are primarily concerned with fair trade, there are also
implications for healthy eating. It might very well be that it would be appropriate to
discuss this when setting up questionnaires and hypotheses. Please note: fair
trade chocolate tends to have a higher cocoa content, as opposed to sugar and fat,
than other chocolate brands.



Suggestions for further study
Students could compare their findings with information provided by shops,
supermarkets or mail order companies selling fair trade products.




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‘Beyond the Barchart’                       Working on the Mathematics / Citizenship Interface


                        Fair Trade: Tuck Shop
                           Resource Sheet


                                     The tuck shop

        The tuck shop is going fair trade! The catering staff need to justify
        why they should sell fair trade products. They need to know what
        are the best fair trade products to buy as they do not want to waste
        any food. They will also need to advertise the new products. They
        need to know what type of information about fair trade products
        would appeal to most students.

                                        The brief

        Your brief is to prepare a report on behalf of the catering staff to
        help them with the tasks described above. The report should
        include:

              Reasons for selling fair trade products;
              What suitable fair trade products are available;
              How much the products are;
              What products students at the school would buy;
              If the students would buy fair trade products rather than their
               usual snacks;
              Advice on how the fair trade products should be advertised.




        All recommendations and facts need to be backed up with data.




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  ‘Beyond the Barchart’                   Working on the Mathematics / Citizenship Interface


                          Fair trade: Tuck Shop
                           Information Sheet
                                   What is fair trade?
The idea behind fair trade is that producers of the things we buy are given a fair deal.
The Fairtrade Foundation makes sure that this is happening by guaranteeing a better
deal to producers in the Southern hemisphere. Growers and producers are given a fair
price for the work they do. This price has a set minimum and will always cover the cost of
production. They are also given an extra amount to be invested in the business or social
and environmental schemes for the wider community.
Fairtrade helps producers to have more control over their own lives; they have better
working conditions, health and safety standards, job security and are able to support
their families. Many children of producers are now able to go to school and new job
opportunities are available to women.


                            What are Fairtrade products?
Fairtrade certified products always carry the FAIRTRADE Mark
(the symbol of a cheering person).
Many products now carry the FAIRTRADE Mark and are
available in all major supermarkets. The most common are coffee, tea, sugar, bananas,
oranges, fruit juice, cocoa, chocolate, honey and cereal bars. Products which say they
are fair trade but don’t have the FAIRTRADE Mark may or may not be traded in a way
which is helping the original producers of the goods. Ask your teacher if you need to
know more about this.


                             What is Fairtrade Fortnight?
In 1994 only three Fairtrade products were available; Clipper tea, Green & Black’s Maya
Gold chocolate and Cafedirect coffee. Since then the number of products and the sales of
these have increased rapidly. Fairtrade Fortnight celebrates and raises awareness of this
phenomenon. Promotional events are held throughout the UK in shops, offices, towns
and many other organisations. Towns and cities also compete to gain Fairtrade status
and supermarkets have Fairtrade promotions. Fairtrade fortnight is an annual event which
usually takes place in early March.


                                   Useful Internet Sites
 www.fairtrade.org.uk              Fairtrade Foundation
 www.maketradefair.com             Oxfam
 www.dubble.co.uk                  Dubble Chocolate bar / Comic Relief
 www.divinechocolate.com           Divine from The Day Chocolate Company
 www.Fair Tradefederation.com      The Fair Trade Federation
 www.traidcraft.co.uk              Traidcraft
 www.christian-aid.org.uk          Christian Aid
 www.twin.org.uk                   Twin Trading
 http://www.ifat.org/              International Fair Trade Association
 http://www.bafts.org.uk/          British Association for Fair Trade Shops

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‘Beyond the Barchart’                      Working on the Mathematics / Citizenship Interface




                           Fair Trade: Survey
                            Teachers’ Notes
Learning objectives
   To plan, collect, analyse, represent and interpret data to support a given brief;
   To develop an awareness of fair trade issues and fair trade products available.

Resources
Resource sheet (one copy per student)
Information sheet from ‘Fair Trade: Tuck Shop’ activity (one copy per student or
use one copy as prompt for teacher-led discussion)
graph paper
Use of a PC/ Internet access (optional)


Description
Assess students’ prior knowledge of fair trade by initiating a class discussion. You
might want to ask questions such as ‘Why do people pay more for fair trade
products?’, or, ‘Where do fair trade products come from?’. Summarise their current
knowledge and opinions on fair trade. Use the information sheet to challenge and
add to the brainstorm.
Divide the class into small groups of 3 or 4 and explain that each group represents
a marketing company. You may want to check the students are aware of what a
marketing company is. Each group could decide on a name and logo for their
company. Give out the resource sheet. Explain that they have been asked to
advertise Fairtrade Fortnight, which is an annual event which usually takes place in
the first two weeks of March which aims to increase the awareness and sales of
Fairtrade products. Go through ‘The brief’ on the resource sheet with students.
They will need to find out what products are available, where fair trade products
are available from, how to identify Fairtrade products and the benefits of buying fair
trade products. Discuss what questions they will need to ask in order to find out
this information. Emphasise that the answers found will need to be analysed
mathematically. It is easier to do this with quantitative data (i.e. numerical data)
rather than just qualitative data (i.e. categories or answers such as ‘Yes’ and ‘No’).
Questions must therefore be phrased appropriately e.g. students might ask:
            ‘How many fair trade products can you name?’ rather than ‘Can you
             name any fair trade products?’
            Provide a list of products and ask people to rate how likely they are to
             buy them on a scale of one to ten, the ‘average’ can then be calculated
             for each products popularity.

Each group should plan together how they are going to collect the data. They may
decide to visit a range of supermarkets or look on the internet to find the range of
products available. They may also wish to contact a local supermarket to ask for
the sales figures for their fair trade products. Once they have collected the data,
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‘Beyond the Barchart’                     Working on the Mathematics / Citizenship Interface

each group should analyse and decide how best to represent the data and prepare
a report based on ‘The brief’ (on resource sheet). Finally each group should
present their report to the rest of the class. The final report could be presented or
sent to a representative from a local supermarket.

The following is given as a guideline for the timing of each element of the project:
Planning: 2 lessons
Data Collection: 1 lesson
Representing data: 1 lesson
Interpreting and writing the report: 2 lessons

Suggestions for further study
Students could compare historical and current sales figures for fair trade products
from a range of supermarkets. They could use this data to predict future sales
figures.

Please note
In order to ensure that products labelled as ‘fair trade’ really are traded in a manner
beneficial to the countries of origin, OXFAM, Christian Aid and others have set up
the Fairtrade Foundation in order to scrutinise the practices of companies claiming
to be operating according to fair trade principles. Products certified by the
Fairtrade Foundation carry the FAIRTRADE Mark.

There are other companies marketing fairly traded products which do not fall within
the scope of the FAIRTRADE Mark. These reputable companies are likely to be
members of IFAT (International Fair Trade Association) or BAFTS (British
Association for Fair Trade Shops). ‘Fair Trade’ incorporates all of these. For more
information on this, see:
                      http://www.fairtrade.org.uk/
                      http://www.ifat.org/
                      http://www.bafts.org.uk/

These notes are, as far as possible, consistent in referring to ‘fair trade’ in general,
and ‘Fairtrade’ when referring specifically to products certified by the Fairtrade
Foundation and carrying the FAIRTRADE Mark.




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‘Beyond the Barchart’                         Working on the Mathematics / Citizenship Interface




                             Fair trade: Survey
                              Resource Sheet


                                   Fairtrade Fortnight

         Your innovative marketing company has been selected to advertise
         the annual Fairtrade Fortnight, and to raise awareness and
         increase the sales of fair trade products.

                                         The Brief

         Your brief is to prepare a report to show how you will go about the
         task described above. Your report should include customers’
         current awareness of:

             what a fair trade product is;
             where they can buy fair trade products from;
             how to identify a Fairtrade product;
             the range of fair trade products available;
             the reasons for buying a fair trade product instead of a normal
              brand.

         All recommendations must be backed up with data.




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‘Beyond the Barchart’                      Working on the Mathematics / Citizenship Interface


                    Fair trade: Ghanaian Farmer
                           Teachers’ Notes
Learning objectives
            To investigate the impact on cocoa farmers of fair trade chocolate;
            To convert between units of currency;
            To select and use suitable strategies to solve budgetary problems.


Resources
Resource sheet (one copy per student)
Information sheet (one copy per student or use one copy as prompt for teacher-led
discussion)
Internet use for further research (optional)


Description
Assess students’ prior knowledge of cocoa and chocolate production by initiating a
class discussion. You might want to ask questions such as ‘Why do you think most
cocoa is grown in Ghana and other countries close to the equator?’ and ‘Why do
you think most chocolate is produced and consumed in Europe and other
industrialised countries?’ (see ‘Cocoa and Chocolate Production’ on Information
sheet for further ideas)
Divide the class into small groups of two or three and give out the resource sheet
(and information sheet if using). Ask students to use the case study to work out
what they would spend their yearly income on if they were a farmer in Ghana.
They should present their findings to the class and must explain how they made
their decisions. What was the hardest decision to make? What would need to
change in order to be able to afford to do what they wanted to do?
Give a question (see examples below) to each group of students and ask them to
discuss and feedback to the rest of the class. The list below is not intended to be
exhaustive, they are suggestions only and can be added to or amended according
to the needs of the class.
            What would happen if there was a measles epidemic in the farmer’s
             area?
            Each of the farmer’s children can produce an average of a quarter of a
             sack of cocoa each per year. What impact does this have on the farmer
             and his family?
            Who would be sent to school and why?
            What possible impact could it have on the family if a child was sent to
             secondary school?
            What ‘extras’ are important to the family? What would you need to earn
             in order to afford them?



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Use the information below (and on the resource sheet) to initiate a whole class
discussion about how belonging to a fair trade organisation might benefit a cocoa
farmer:


            Cocoa farmers typically earn £600 per tonne when sold to a normal
             company compared to £1000 when sold to a fair trade company;
            An extra £100 per tonne of cocoa is given by the fair trade company to
             be spent on community projects to help farmers such as clean water and
             better toilets.

You may want to ask questions such as ‘What extra things could the farmer buy?’,
‘How might the extra money benefit his whole family and/or community?’ and ‘How
might the farmer’s life change in the future?’

Ask the students to review their answers to their question in the case of a fair trade
farmer.




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                    Fair trade: Ghanaian Farmer
                           Resource Sheet
Imagine you are a farmer in Ghana. You have a wife and 6 children. At the start of
each year you have to decide how you are going to spend your income. Use the
following lists of costs and facts to draw up a budget for the year.

Ghana’s currency is called the Cedi (C). The exchange rate is about C10 000 = £1

List of Costs*

Secondary School fees (per year per child)                                  C360 000
Primary School fees (per year per child)                                     C5 000
Boy’s school uniform, books and pens                                        C15 000
Girl’s school uniform, books and pens                                       C24 000
New Wellingtons                                                              C5 000
A loaf of Bread                                                              C2 500
A large can of cooking oil (lasts for a year)                                C6 000
A sack of maize which will feed a family for a month                        C50 000
A bus ride to the city                                                      C12 000
A large bar of Ghanaian chocolate                                            C3 000
A big bar of soap                                                            C3 000
A trip to the government hospital when you’re sick                          C30 000
A cutlass to cut cocoa                                                      C25 000
A new pair of children’s trousers                                           C15 000
A little radio                                                              C25 000
A new battery (e.g. for a radio)                                             C1 000
A music tape (locally produced)                                          C5 000 - C8 000


Further Information*

On average one of your children gets sick a year and needs to go to the
hospital in the city
An ordinary cocoa farmer sells 5 sacks of cocoa a year and earns around
C500 000 a year or C1370 per day.
You must feed, clothe and try to educate your children (two are of Primary
school age and four of Secondary school age)
You have to spend C200 000 a year on the upkeep of your farm.

An extra £100 per tonne of cocoa is given by the Fair Trade company to be
spent on community projects to help farmers such as clean water and better
toilets.
Cocoa farmers earn £600 per tonne when sold to a normal company
compared to £1066 when sold to a Fair Trade company
Consider giving your family luxuries like a music tape.

*All information taken from Comic Relief Pa Pa Paa and www.dubble.co.uk (correct in 2005)



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                    Fair trade: Ghanaian Farmer
                          Information Sheet

                               Cocoa and chocolate production
    Cocoa is produced in countries within latitudes of 10oN and 10oS of the
    equator where the climate is appropriate for growing cocoa trees. The
    largest producing countries are Côte d'Ivoire, Ghana and Indonesia.
    Roughly two-thirds of bean production is used to make chocolate and one-
    third to make cocoa powder.
    Though chocolate has reached all regions of the world, 60% of all
    chocolate is still consumed in the USA and European Union (EU) –
    representing only 20% of the world population.
                        Information taken from the International Cocoa Organization (ICCO)



                                               Measles
    Measles is one of the world’s most preventable diseases.
    Approximately a quarter of children under 5 who contract measles will die.
    WHO (World Health Organisation) ,CDC (Commonwealth Development
    Corporation) and UNICEF (United Nations Children’s Fund) are helping
    eight priority countries in Africa to implement an immunisation plan. They
    are Burkina Faso, Chad, Ethiopia, Mali, Niger, Tanzania, Uganda and
    Zambia.
    Ghana currently immunises 81% of children under 12 months
    Information taken from www.afro.who.int              World Health Organisation




                                                Ghana
     39.5% of the population live in poverty
     The life expectancy is 54.9 years
     The infant mortality rate is 60 infants per 1000 live births
     The under 5 mortality rate is 97 per 1000 births
     The average number of births is 4.1 per female
     73.8% of people aged 15 and over are described as literate
     65.9 % of females aged 15 and over are described as literate
     60.2 % of the relevant age group enrol at Primary school and 58.6%
     complete their primary schooling (56.5% for females)
     31.1 % of the relevant age group enrol at secondary school

     Information taken from World Development Indicators Database, 2004
     www.worldbank.org/data/               The World Bank
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            Fair trade: Chocolate Eating Habits
                      Teachers’ Notes
Learning objectives
   To plan, collect, analyse, represent and interpret data.
   To develop an awareness of issues surrounding fair trade chocolate.


Resources
Resource sheet (on OHT or one copy per student)
Information sheet (one copy per student)
Fair trade and non-fair trade chocolate bar wrappers (optional, students could bring
in their own)


Description
Give out the resource sheet (chocolate facts) to the class (it may be preferable to
put this onto an OHT) and ask where and how these figures may have been
obtained.
Explain that their task is to design a questionnaire to test these facts. Discuss what
questions they will need to ask in order to find out this information. Emphasise that
the answers found will need to be analysed mathematically. It is easier to do this
with quantitative data (i.e. numerical data) rather than just qualitative data (i.e.
categories or answers such as ‘Yes’ and ‘No’). Questions must therefore be
phrased appropriately in order to be compared with the facts on the resource
sheet.
Once they have collected and analysed the data, ask students how their data
compares to the chocolate facts.
Add to the chocolate facts that a cocoa farmer who does not sell to a fair trade
company earns £50 a year. What can we compare this to? (we spend £62 a year
on chocolate).
Give out the information sheet (you may want students to collect their own
information by each bringing in a chocolate bar wrapper and the price of the
chocolate bar).
The origin of ingredients will probably not be on the wrapper. This can be a useful
point of discussion about where most cocoa is produced (countries close to the
equator) and used to make the bars (industrialised countries).

Pose some hypotheses to the class, for example:
            Fair trade bars are significantly more expensive than other chocolate
             bars;
            The difference in price between fair trade bars and other chocolate bars
             is less marked for larger bars;

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            Most people are prepared to pay the extra cost for a fair trade bar;
            Younger people are more likely to buy fair trade bars than older people.


You may want the students to create their own hypotheses from the data (on the
information sheet).
Hold a discussion with the class about how they would analyse and present the
data (on the information sheet) in order to test the hypotheses and what additional
information they would need to collect. A possible extension to this activity is to
actually collect and analyse the data.
Discuss with the class how to estimate how much money the whole school spends
on chocolate a year (you will need to know the total number of students and staff).
You could ask questions such as ‘How much purchasing power does this school
have?’, ‘What would happen if all the purchases became fair trade purchases?’
and ‘Who would benefit/lose out if all the bars bought were fair trade?’. You may
need to explain that a fair trade farmer earns significantly more money than a non-
fair trade farmer and benefits from community enhancement projects.


The following is given as a guideline for the timing of each element of the activity:
Chocolate facts questionnaire: 1 lesson
Comparing chocolate bars and discussing hypotheses: 1 lesson




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          Fair Trade: Chocolate Eating Habits
                   Information Sheet
Non fair trade chocolate bars
      Product                    Company                  Weight           Price         % cocoa
                                                                                          solids
Caramel                  Cadbury                             50g           £0.39            20
Dairymilk                Cadbury                             49g           £0.42            20
Flake                    Cadbury                             34g           £0.38            25
Twirl                    Cadbury                             22g           £0.41            25
Delight                  Mars                                40g           £0.36             *
Snickers                 Mars                                64g           £0.32             *
Double cream             Nestle                              47g           £0.42            26
Yorkie                   Nestle                              70g           £0.39            25
Bournville               Cadbury                            200g           £1.04            39
Milk Chocolate           Cadbury                            400g           £1.88            20
Milk Chocolate           Green & Black                      100g           £1.19            34
Dark Chocolate           Lindt                              100g           £1.09            70
Double cream             Nestle                             150g           £1.04            26
Galaxy                   Mars                               150g           £0.89            25
Chocolate Orange         Terrys (Kraft Foods)               175g           £2.29            20
Toblerone                Terrys (Kraft Foods)               200g           £1.79            28
* not given on product



Fair trade chocolate bars
      Product                    Company                  Weight           Price         % cocoa
                                                                                          solids
Dubble                   The Day Chocolate                   40g           £0.35
                         Company
Maya Gold                Green & Black                      100g           £1.19             55
Divine Dark              The Day Chocolate                  100g           £0.99             70
                         Company
Divine Milk              The Day Chocolate                  100g           £0.99             28
                         Company
Milk Chocolate           The Co-op                          150g           £0.95             35
Dark Chocolate           The Co-op                          150g           £0.95             40

Weights and prices taken from a variety of sources 2004




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          Fair Trade: Chocolate Eating Habits
                    Resource Sheet


                                      Chocolate facts

               in the UK in 2004, we spent over £3,700 million on confectionery -
                that's the equivalent of about 200 chocolate bars - about £62
                worth - a year per person.

               women ate 40% of the chocolate consumed in the UK, men 26%,
                and children 34%.

               75% of secondary school children ate an average of 4 chocolate
                items every week.

               66% of all chocolate was bought by women and nearly ¾ of all
                confectionery was bought on impulse.

               snack chocolate bars accounted for most chocolate sales,
                followed by boxed chocolates, then twist-wrap assortments.

               9 out of 10 people said that they really love chocolate.

               the Swiss ate more chocolate per person than any other
                nationality in the world, though the British are catching up.




    Figures taken from www.dubble.co.uk




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              Fair Trade: Breakfast Food Miles
                      Teachers’ Notes
Learning objectives
       To realise how dependent we are on growers and producers around the
        world;
       To round numbers to decimal places and significant figures;
       To give solutions in the context of the problem to an appropriate degree of
        accuracy, recognising limitations on the accuracy of data.


Resources
Resource sheet 1(optional on OHT)
Resource sheet 2 (one copy per student)
Resource sheet 3 (optional, one per student)
World Map/Atlases (optional)
Website: Great Circle Distances between Capital Cities of the World
www.wcrl.ars.usda.gov/cec/java/capitals.htm or the information sheet (one copy
per student)



Description
Display the quote from Martin Luther King (on Resource Sheet 1) and discuss with
the class what they think it means.
Divide the class into small groups of two or three. Give each student resource
sheet 2, a world map and the information sheet if using.
Ask them to write down what they had for breakfast that morning and another list of
a different, typical breakfast.
Explain how to calculate the distance travelled (called ‘food miles’) for one item
using the website or the information sheet. The world map could be used to identify
where the country of origin is. Emphasise that the countries listed on resource
sheet 2 are the most common, but not the only sources for each food type.
Ask the students to calculate the total distance travelled by their breakfast.

Pose the following questions to be answered by each group:
       What is the ‘longest’ or the ‘shortest’ breakfast?
       What is the best degree of accuracy to use in the final answer? Why?
       Can they find a breakfast that is just from the UK?


Initiate a discussion about the accuracy of their answers based upon the fact that
the distances given are from the capital cities of each country. The distances given

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are accurate to 4 decimal places, what does this mean in context? How
realistic/sensible is this? How were they calculated? You may want to ask the
following questions:


            How does this affect the accuracy of your answers?
            Does all food travel out of a capital city and come to London first?
            How does a capital city impact on the countryside in terms of food
             production and distribution?
            Who might use different degrees of accuracy (e.g. newspapers reporting
             about the effect of food miles might use a lower degree of accuracy than
             importers who are calculating the cost of transportation)?
            Some people think that food should be bought and consumed as close
             as possible to where it is grown. What do you think about this? What
             would be the advantages? What would be the disadvantages? What
             about the impact this would have on consumers, local producers and
             producers in other countries? Use the information sheet to challenge
             and direct the discussion. You could set up a formal debate on this
             issue.


Suggestions for further study
Students could take the approximate weight of each item into consideration and
calculate a numerical index based on weight and distance travelled.
Letters, using the information on the ‘longest’ and ‘shortest’ breakfast, could be
written to supermarkets about their policy on food miles. What is most important to
them, sourcing in the UK or cost?




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                             Fair Trade: Breakfast Food Miles
                                     Resource Sheet 1




           Before you’ve finished your
          breakfast this morning you’ll
          have relied on half the world.

                             Martin Luther King


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                   Fair Trade: Breakfast Food Miles
                           Resource Sheet 2

   Before you’ve finished your breakfast this morning
           you’ll have relied on half the world
                               Martin Luther King


      Food                               Most common countries or
                                         regions of origin
      Orange juice                       USA (Florida), Israel, Cuba, Brazil
      Pineapple juice                    Kenya
      Apple juice                        France
      Grapefruit juice                   Florida
      Bread                              UK
      Croissants                         UK
      Rice Krispies: rice                China
                      sugar              Australia, Brazil, India
      Corn Flakes: maize                 USA
                     sugar               Australia, Brazil, India
      Bran Flakes:                       USA, India
      Shreddies:                         USA, India
      Sugar Puffs: wheat                 USA, India
                     sugar               Australia, Brazil
      Porridge oats                      UK (Scotland)
      Raisins                            USA (California)
      Dried apricots                     Turkey
      Dried prunes                       USA
      Fruit yoghurt                      UK
      Milk                               UK
      Bacon                              UK
      Bananas                            Colombia, Jamaica
      Marmalade: oranges                 USA (Florida), Israel, Cuba, Brazil
                    sugar                Australia, Brazil, India
      Strawberry jam                     USA, China, Spain
      Raspberry jam                      Russia, Poland
      Honey                              Argentina, Australia, Spain
      Butter                             New Zealand, Ireland, UK
      Margarine                          USA
      Marmite                            UK
      Coffee                             Central and South America
      Tea                                India, China
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                   Fair Trade: Breakfast Food Miles
                           Information Sheet

     Country/Region         Capital city          Distance from London (km)
Argentina                Buenos Aires           11120.8250
Australia                Canberra               16973.2680
Brazil                   Brasilia               8784.32538
Central America          San Jose               8718.92006
(Costa Rica)
China                    Beijing                8138.22949
Columbia                 Bogota                 8492.67821
Cuba                     Havana                 7483.54631
France                   Paris                  342.395176
India                    New Delhi              6706.97843
Ireland                  Dublin                 459.670252
Israel                   Jerusalem              3608.53070
Jamaica                  Kingston               7527.95982
Kenya                    Nairobi                6816.04416
New Zealand              Wellington             18802.4882
Poland                   Warsaw                 1449.30656
Russia                   Moscow                 2506.83786
South Africa             Pretoria               9019.45983
South America (Chile)    Santiago               11664.0761
Spain                    Madrid                 1262.61196
Turkey                   Ankara                 2834.34942
USA                      Washington DC          5894.39193
USA (California)         Los Angeles            8747.93278
USA (Florida)            Miami                  7119.72758
UK (Scotland)            Edinburgh              551.259589




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                              Fair trade: Breakfast Food Miles
                                      Resource Sheet 3




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                        Fair Trade: Trade Game
                            Teachers’ Notes
Learning objectives
To understand the international chocolate trade
To construct 2-D shapes and calculate the area and perimeter


Resources
Resource Sheet 1 (one copy on card, cut up with one piece given to each group)
Resource Sheet 2 (on card, cut up with amounts specified on Resource Sheet 1 allocated
to each group)
10 rulers, 11 pens / pencils, 22 sheets of squared paper and 17 sheets of plain paper
(allocated to each group as specified on Resource Sheet 1


Description
Divide the class into 6 groups. The aim of the game is to make as many shapes that fit a
certain criterion. Possible criteria include:
   Shapes with an area of 24 cm2
   Shapes with a perimeter of 24cm
   Shapes with an area of 24 cm2, the shorter the perimeter the more the shape is worth.
   Quadrilaterals with an area between 20 and 24 cm 2

    Circles with an area between 20 and 24 cm2
You can choose a shape that fits best with the topic studied and the target level of the
class.
Explain to the class that each group will be given a different set of resources - do not allow
students to use their own equipment. Give full information about the resources for each
group so all groups can plan their strategies.
Give each group a card from resource sheet 1, listing their resources and all of the items
on the card. They have to make as many shapes that fit the chosen criteria as possible.
They must be cut out neatly (you could appoint some students to act as quality control).
Some of the groups will need to buy raw materials and/or equipment in order to produce
their shapes. These do not have set prices and can be determined by the companies who
are selling. Bartering is also allowed.
Give the groups a set production time. Only completed shapes will be counted. At the end
of the production time you could ask each group to put an identification mark on their
shapes and swap them with another group for checking.
Each completed shape is worth £5, at the discretion of the teacher/quality controllers e.g.
money taken off for messy cutting out. The groups should work out how much profit they
made, they should include any money made from selling raw materials at the start of the
exercise.

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On completion of the activity, ask each group to feedback how they felt about their
situation e.g. Group 6 had all of the resources but couldn’t do anything with them. You
might want to ask questions like ‘How fair was the whole situation?’, ‘Which group had the
best/worst deal and why?’ and ‘Which groups made the most, why?’
Ask the groups to imagine they were representing a country and the resources and
products were linked to chocolate. What commodities could be represented by the
resources they used? What countries do they think they might be representing? You may
want to use the information on ‘Fair trade: Ghana farmer information sheet’ to add to the
discussion.
Initiate a discussion about how the countries trade with each other and how the unfairness
of the trading system leads to dependence and increasing levels of inequality. You might
want to ask questions such as ‘How would their country feel about the other countries?’,
‘How does each country benefit/lose out?’ and ‘How fair do they think International trade
is?’
You might want to ask the class as a whole what conclusions they can draw about
different countries trading with each other?


Solutions
Groups 1 and 2 represent the Industrialised West, e.g. The UK and USA
Groups 3 and 4 represent less industrialised countries which are able to buy and process
a small amount of raw material, e.g. Brazil and South Africa
Groups 5 and 6 represent resource rich countries, e.g. Ghana and Indonesia
The paper represents cocoa beans (squared paper is a higher quality bean)
The rulers, scissors and pens represent the machinery and equipment used to convert
cocoa beans into cocoa products. The money represents the wealth of the country.




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                        Fair Trade: Trade Game
                           Resource Sheet 1
Group 1

You have no paper, 6 rulers, 6 pens and £30



Group 2

You have 2 sheets of squared paper, 2 rulers, 2 pens/pencils and £20



Group 3

You have 3 sheets of squared paper, 1 ruler, 1 pen/pencil and £10



Group 4

You have 3 sheets of squared paper, 3 sheets of plain paper, 1 ruler, I pen/pencil and £5



Group 5

You have 4 sheets of squared paper, 4 sheets of plain paper, no rulers, 1 pen/pencil and
£5



Group 6

You have 10 sheets of squared paper, 10 sheets of plain paper, no rulers, no pens/pencils
and no money.




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                        Fair Trade: Trade Game
                           Resource Sheet 2



£5 £5 £5 £5 £5 £5
£5 £5 £5 £5 £5 £5
£2 £2 £2 £2 £2 £2
£2 £2 £2 £2 £2 £2
£1 £1 £1 £1 £1 £1
£1 £1 £1 £1 £1 £1
£1 £1 £1 £1 £1 £1
£1 £1 £1 £1 £1 £1
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