The manipulations of the film strip by the
camera in the shooting phase and by the
laboratory in the developing phase.
What is involved?
Photographic aspects of the shot
Framing of the shot
Duration of the shot
• "writing in the movement”
• the Cinematographer/ Director of
Photography is responsible the images we
see on film
• manage and orchestrate the entire camera
and lighting crew
• Traditionally - cinematography = film stock
• Modern - cinematography = video and
Photographic Aspects of
• Film Stock:
– Fast v slow film
– Black and White v. Color
• Speed of motion: Slow-motion, fast-motion
• Decisions made by the
cinematographer affect the
entire “look” of the film.
• Decisions are similar to
that of a photographer
• controls the film itself, the
exposure, focus and the
distance of the shot.
• Cinematography is
photography is captured in
the still image.
• Where a photographer
works on his/her own
works with a team
• Even the director
Film Stock & The Cinematographer
• overall artistic effect of the movie
• Decisions made through the film.
• Pre-production - selection of film stock
• Film stock can adversely affect how your
intended film looks.
Technicolour = rich & strong colours
Singin’ in the Rain- Technicolor film stock
• not as sensitive to light
• Starker and more "contrasty" blacks and
whites with little range of grays in between.
• On the other hand, a faster (or high-speed)
film stock will decrease contrast, giving a
wider range of grays.
• Fast films are also grainier compared with
The Camera Lens
• Focal Length: the distance from the center
of the lens to the point at which the light
rays meet in sharp focus. This length
determines perspective relations and depth
cues on the flat screen surface.
Normal lens: 35-50mm, presuming 35mm camera
Wide Angle: short focal length ( 35 mm or less) which
produces a wider angle of view.
Effect: distorting straight lines, exaggerating depth
Telephoto Lens: lens with a long focal length (75mm or more).
Effect: collapse depth cues by enlarging distant planes and making
them seem close to the foreground planes.
• Lens with a focal length that can be
changed during a shot.
– Shift to telephoto range magnifies the image
and flattens the space
– Shift to wide-angle increases depth cues and
demagnifies the background.
• Tracking back and zooming in,or
• Tracking in and zooming out
• CLIP: Punch-Drunk Love (P.T. Anderson,
*offscreen space /onsceen
* angle, level, height, distance
* Mobile Framing
Depth of Field
• range of distance within which objects can
be photographed and remain in sharp focus.
– Shot focal length: greater depth of field
– Long focal length, reduces depth of field.
Size of Shot
The use of different shot sizes can influence the meaning which an audience will
• The size of the subject in frame depends on two things: the distance the camera is away
from the subject and the focal length of the camera lens.
• Choice of shot size is also directly related to the size of the final display screen the
audience will see.
Common shot sizes:
• Extreme close-up: Focuses on a single facial feature, such
as lips and eyes.
• Close-up: May be used to show tension.
• Medium shot: Often used, but considered bad practice by
many directors, as it often denies setting establishment and
is generally less effective than the Close-up.
• Long shot has much more dramatic power on a large
theater screen, whereas the same shot would be powerless
on a small TV or computer screen.
• Establishing shot: Mainly used at a new location to give
the audience a sense of locality.
Extreme Long Shot (ELS)
Long shot, LS
Medium Long Shot (MLS) “plan américain”
Medium Shot (MS)
Extreme Close-up (ECU)
TYPES OF ANGLES
• Aerial shot • Low-angle shot
• American shot • Master shot
• Bird's eye shot • Matte
• Close up • Medium shot
• Crane shot • Pan shot
• Dolly zoom • Point of view shot
• Dutch angle • Reaction shot
• Establishing shot • Sequence shot
• Follow shot • Shot
• Forced perspective • Shot reverse shot
• Freeze frame shot • SnorriCam
• High-angle shot • Tilt (camera)
• Long shot • Talking head
• Long take • Tracking shot
• Trunk shot
• Two Shot
• Video frame
• Pan: camera is set on the tripod turning left
or right. On the screen, the camera appears
to scan the space horizontally.
• Tilt: camera is fixed on a tripod swivels up
or down. This movement produces a
Lighting technique and aesthetics
• Light is necessary to create an image exposure on a
frame of film or on a digital target (CCD, etc.). The
art of lighting for cinematography goes far beyond
basic exposure, however, into the essence of visual
storytelling. Lighting contributes considerably to the
emotional response an audience has watching a