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III GRAMMAR

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					                            Band 3 Practice Exercise

I. GRAMMAR
Directions: There are 80 sentences in this exercise. Beneath each sentence there are
four choices. Choose the word or phrase that you think best completes the sentence.

1. Bees___ in groups in a hive, and every bee___ certain work that helps the other
   members of the group.
   A. lived…did                          B. live…doing
   C. live…does                          D. living…doing
2. I hope you___ your stay in Venice next week.
   A. enjoy                              B. are going to enjoy
   C. would enjoy                        D. enjoyed
3. The Safe Drinking Water Act requires that municipal tap water___ for more than 80
   contaminants.
   A. ought to be screened               B. be screened
   C. need be screened                   D. is to be screened
4. ___ the hustle and bustle of the big city, he saved up for years to buy a cottage in
   the countryside.
   A. Tiring of                           B. Because tired of
   C. When tiring of                     D. Tired of
5. For the first time in her life, she___ a sense of fulfillment.
   A. felt                               B. has felt
   C. to feel                            D. has been feeling
6. It is the first time that she___ the moral standards of the community.
   A. is going to question               B. has questioned
   C. questions                          D. questioned
7. It was the second time that he___ as a counselor at a summer camp.
   A. worked                             B. had worked
   C. could have worked                   D. must have worked
8. The boy listened with amazement until the instructor insisted he___ it.
   A. tried                              B. try
   C. must try                           D. would try
9. Evidence from a recent study suggests that injuries___ most likely to occur at
   social gatherings right after somebody hollers, “Hey everybody, watch this!”
   A. should be                          B. be
   C. are                                D. were
10. It is a legal requirement that you___ insurance for your car.
   A. have                               B. need to have
   C. ought to have                      D. must have
11. Trying to set a good example for his team members, he was always the first one at
   practice and the last one___ .
   A. leaving                            B. having left

                                                                                      1
  C. being left                         D. to leave
12. He was said to be the first man___ around the world in a hot air balloon.
  A. to travel                          B. traveling
  C. having traveled                    D. traveled
13. Failures are more likely to hit___ .
  A. the unready and the unlucky         B. unready and unlucky
  C. one unready and unlucky              D. each unready and unlucky
14. Her mother believed that it wasn’t until Boyle obtained an acting scholarship___
  she became more willing to take part in social activities.
  A. when                                B. however
  C. then                                D. that
15. When he learned that he had no choice but___ , Jack muttered under his breath, “I
  hate this stupid road.”
  A. to drive                            B. drive
  C. driving                             D. drives
16.While___ college I worked evenings at a retail store, and on slow nights my
  co-worker Susan would often sing along the radio.
  A. attended                           B. attending
  C. to attend                          D. having attended
17. Tom___ fault with the way his wife cooks.
  A. always finds                        B. has always found
  C. always found                        D. is always finding
18. Why___ the milk? Does it smell sour?
  A. do you smell                        B. are you smelling
  C. smells                             D. does it smell
19. The rescue team reported that the water___ cold.
  A. was feeling                         B. had been feeling
  C. feels                               D. felt
20. The chef___ the pudding to see if it was sweet enough.
  A. was tasting                        B. is tasting
  C. should taste                        D. tastes
21. Jim is enjoying his holiday in the Arctic. He___ touristy places and he___ the
  cold.
  A. hated… didn’t mind                   B. hated… was not minding
  C. hates… doesn’t mind                  D. hates… isn’t minding
22. Chuck___ of emigrating, but I think he should stay where he is.
  A. thinks                               B. was thinking
  C. is thinking                         D. thought
23. It is five years since we last___ from him.
  A. hear                                B. have heard
  C. didn’t hear                         D. heard
24. We___ you were still on holiday. When did you get back?
  A. thought                             B. have thought
  C. had thought                         D. think

                                                                                    2
25.The fans___ for six hours, and the movie star still hasn’t turned up.
  A. waited                             B. have waited
  C. have been waiting                 D. wait
26. The first tourist who___ will get a surprise.
  A. arrives                           B. arrived
  C. will arrive                      D. is going to arrive
27. Look at the mess you’ve made. Your grandma___ a heart attack.
  A. is going to get                   B. will get
  C. gets                             D. is to get
28. Watch out! The roof___ .
  A. is to collapse                    B. is going to collapse
  C. will collapse                    D. collapses
29. No one___ the suspect without the permission of the police.
  A. is going to contact               B. is to contact
  C. contacts                          D. contacted
30. I___ to attend my roommate’s wedding, but something came up.
  A. had wanted                       B. have wanted
  C. wanted                           D. was to want
31. He orders me about as though I___ his wife.
  A. am                                B. am going to be
  C. were                              D. have been
32. He looked as if he ___ a decent meal for a month.
  A. hasn’t had                       B. didn’t have
  C. hadn’t had                        D. was not going to have
33. It is time we___ .
  A. left                             B. leave
  C. should leave                     D. ought to leave
34. Last Sunday we___ a barbecue party but it rained.
  A. were having                      B. had
  C. would have                       D. were going to have
35. We___ the contract when the detective phoned us.
  A. were about to sign               B. were going to sign
  C. would sign                       D. have signed
36. Charlie is gentle by nature, but___ rude this time.
  A. is                              B. is being
  C. being                           D. seeming
37. By the end of next month, they___ the financial report.
  A. would have completed            B. will have completed
  C. complete                        D. will complete
38. They would rather read than___ .
  A. to talk                         B. talking
  C. talk                            D. talked
39. My sister prefers___ to___ .
  A. talking… reading                B. talk… read

                                                                           3
  C. talking… read                    D. to talk… reading
40. ---Shall I give you a check?
    ---I’d rather you___ cash.
  A. pay                             B. paid
  C. paying                           D. to pay
41. Cathy wants to tell Henry, but I’d rather she___ .
  A. didn’t                          B. wouldn’t
  C. won’t                           D. doesn’t
42. A: Do you want Susan to repair it herself?
    B: I’d prefer her___ the electrician.
  A. ring                           B. rang
  C. to ring                        D. will ring
43. The government doesn’t wish Dr. Smith___ a professorship at a foreign university.
  A. will accept                   B. to accept
  C. accepts                        D. accepting
44. I’m broke. I wish I___ so much money.
  A. didn’t spend                   B. hadn’t spent
  C. haven’t spent                 D. don’t spend
45. Learning difficulty___ in detail in Chapter 4.
  A. will be dealt                  B. is going to be dealt
  C. will be dealt with             D. will deal with
46. The spokesman said that the case___ .
  A was been looked into           B. was being looked
  C. was being looked into         D. had been looked
47. The superintendent ordered that the area___ .
  A. evacuated                      B. be evacuated
  C. being evacuated                D. to be evacuated
48. Bill suggested___ the restaurant but Lucy was against it.
  A. to sell                        B. selling
  C. should sell                   D. sell
49. Alex suggested that the farm___ into a golf course but no one liked the idea.
  A. should be converted           B. being converted
  C. been converted               D. to be converted
50. Alan’s parents are still wondering who suggested___ in the car race.
  A. his taking part               B. for his taking part
  C. his take part                 D. him to take part
51. The instructor forbade___ mobile phones in the classroom.
  A. to use                        B. using
  C. for students’ using           D. for students to use
52. The instructor forbade the students___ mobile phones in the classroom.
  A. use                           B. used
  C. to use                        D. for use
53. John is determined to get a ticket even if it means___ in a queue all night.
  A. standing                       B. to stand

                                                                                    4
  C. stand                           D. will have to stand
54. When he declined the job offer, he didn’t mean___ the company.
  A. insulting                       B. wanting to insult
  C. any insult                     D. to insult
55. I regret___ that this time I cannot promise you anything.
  A. to say                         B. saying
  C. have to say                     D. must say
56. He has always regretted___ the opportunity at college.
  A. not to have taken              B. not having taken
  C. not to take                     D. not take
57. She tried___ the name of the boy, but was too confused to think of anything.
  A. to recall                      B. recalling
  C. recall                         D. recalled
58. The tourist tried___ something funny to get rid of the embarrassment.
  A. to talk about                 B. talked about
  C. talking about                  D. even talk about
59. Even experts have difficulty___ which depressed patients need protection.
  A. to decide                      B. decide
  C. when to decide                D. deciding
60. Margaret Mead, who sought___ the young and old to each other in a recent lecture,
  was sympathetic to the young.
  A. explaining                     B. to explain
  C. explanations                  D. explained
61. In spite of___ has been said about genetically modified food, most people remain
  skeptical.
  A. all what                       B. all that
  C. all which                      D. all it
62. Since they had no cars, the students could do nothing but___ a lift.
  A. to thumb                       B. thumb
  C. thumbing                       D. must thumb
63. I’m afraid that we have no choice but___ you to leave.
  A. to ask                         B. ask
  C. asking                          D. will ask
64. You may eat certain supermarket foods while shopping___ you save the wrapper
  so the checker can ring up the value of what you’ve consumed.
  A. provided                       B. however
  C. although                      D. as
65. They were fond of snakes and lizards, ____ surprised me.
  A. which                         B. that
  C. this                          D. it
66. The students are allowed to take only such books___ really necessary.
  A. as are                        B. as they are
  C. as when                       D. as if
67. The theme of discussion was___ we should enter for the competition.

                                                                                   5
  A. if or not                    B. whether or not
  C. what if or not               D. whether if or not
68. There is every indication___ the number of international teaching assistants at
  universities will remain constant or even grow in the future.
  A. what                        B. which
  C. that                        D. as
69. Metals, ___ shaped into coins, jewelry, plates, or bowls, were an important item of
  trade between East and West.
  A. whether                     B. which
  C. no matter                   D. however
70. That necklace of___ looks fabulous.
  A. you                        B. your
  C. yours                       D. yourself
71. ___ your warning, we would have crashed the car.
  A. But for                    B. With
  C. Because of                 D. Due to
72. Without your encouragement, we___ long time ago.
  A. would give up hope                  B. wouldn’t give up hope
  C. would have given up hope            D. wouldn’t have given up hope
73. ___ his parents’ objections, he would have become an artist.
  A. It had not been for                B. Hadn’t it been for
  C. Had it not been for                 D. If had not been for
74. You will be able to stay with the team provided that you___ make the same
  mistake again.
  A. won’t                    B. don’t
  C. are not going to         D. didn’t
75. Workers seldom commit acts of violence, because they can put their aggression
  into their work, ___ it physical like the work of a smith, or mental like the work of
  a scientist,
  A. be                      B. were
  C. is                       D. was
76. Under no circumstances___ to sell the land.
  A. will agree              B. they will agree
  C. will agree they         D. will they agree
77. ___ that we could hardly see the road signs.
  A. So dense the fog was                B. Such dense fog was
  C. So dense was the fog               D. So the fog was dense
78. A: These are imitation pearls.
    B: ___.
  A. So are they.            B. Such they are.
  C. So they are.            D. Such are they.
79. Not until after they reached the top of the mountain___ what they had been told.
  A. that they believed                 B. did they believe
  C. when they believed                 D. then they believed

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80. Next in line___, probably in her late 60s, wearing royal blue slacks and a white
  blouse.
  A. was a blond woman                  B. saw a blond woman
  C. a blond woman was                  D. found a blond woman

II. VOCABULARY
Section A

Directions: There are 80 sentences in this section. Beneath each sentence there are
four choices. Choose the word that you think best completes the sentence.

1. After earning a degree in creative writing at Carnegie Mellon University in
   Pittsburgh, Lois___ a job at the Sentinel Star in Orlando, Fla.
   A. applied                            B. looked
   C. found                              D. did
2. They have___ a hands-on approach to helping poor children and have launched
   similar programs to provide school supplies.
   A. taken                             B. come
   C. gone                               D. approved
3. Mutual funds are thus best for investors who don’t want to take the time to study
   stocks___ or who___ the resources to build a portfolio.
   A. in the detail… lack               B. in the detail… lack in
   C. in detail… lacking                 D. in detail… lack
4. As Blair was in Pakistan on the last___ of a south Asian diplomatic tour, India ruled
   out any immediate talks with Pakistan.
   A. portion                           B. leg
   C. part                              D. stage
5. A midwestern farm family___ after federal financial support and protection was
   withdrawn.
   A. went bankrupt                    B. became bankruptcy
   C. came broke                       D. approached bankrupt
6. According to a ___ by IKEA, the top five worries keeping people awake at night
   are fear of aging, personal finance, own weight, career and friends’ health.
   A. summery                          B. statistics
   C. sample                           D. survey
7. “___ ,” Kane told the boy, “you’ll be a contender for the Olympic team.”
   A. Some day                          B. Someday
   C. Some days                        D. Somedays
8. Hotel rooms used to be dictated by the seasons, but today hotels are using “yield
   management,” the same system airlines use to___ full flights.
   A. insure                            B. ensure
   C. sure                             D. make sure
9. The people who___ in your life are the ones who care.
   A. make a difference                B. make a distinction

                                                                                       7
  C. cause a distinction                D. bring a difference
10. For many working people, their largest___ is their ability to produce an income.
  A. access                              B. asset
  C. accession                            D. estate
11. If you moonlight, ___ of saving those additional dollars.
  A. make sure                           B. make a point
  C. careful                              D. pay attention
12. Do you know how many glasses of milk it___ to get your daily calcium?
  A. requires                             B. needs
  C. takes                               D. uses
13. Levels of pesticides and other toxins in fish___ in commercial ponds tend to be
  much lower than levels in fish caught recreationally.
  A. raised                               B. risen
  C. grown                                 D. produced
14. They had been___ with each other for years before they actually met in
  Pittsburgh.
  A. writing                              B. corresponding
  C. calling                               D. visiting
15. Has it ___ to you that he might have thought differently?
  A. known                                B. happened
  C. dawned                              D. occurred
16. It suddenly___ on me that I had turned to the wrong person for help.
  A. dawned                              B. occurred
  C. happened                             D. known
17. You can help___ your bones by eating foods containing vitamin D, needed for
  absorption of calcium.
  A. remain                                B. retain
  C. keep                                   D. maintain
18. The amount of time you spend outdoors___ your skeleton.
  A. affects                               B. effects
  C. impairs                                D. weakens
19. During his next race, in the last 100 meters he___ power and was beaten.
  A. came out of                           B. ran out of
  C. became out of                         D. went out of
20. Hearing the noise outside, the man went cautiously to the steel-sheathed door,
  which was___ by the heavy iron outer grille.
  A. included                               B. reinforced
  C. made                                   D. prevented
21. Chris ran into John at a sporting-goods trade show in New York and the two
  quickly___ an easy rapport.
  A. made up                                B. struck up
  C. built up                               D. turned up
22. In the South such roads are called cow trails because they are___ by farm
  equipment and vehicles that plod along at bovine speed.

                                                                                   8
  A. seen                                      B. taken
  C. frequented                                D. occupied
23. According to people who have been to the park, it is a place with views that will
  take your breath___ .
  A. off                                       B. away
  C. on                                        D. down
24. He viewed the match in 1998 as a turning___ in his life.
  A. place                                    B. corner
  C. position                                  D. point
25. The breakfast at the school cafeteria usually___ fried eggs, bacon, ham and hash
  browns.
  A. consists of                               B. is consisted of
  C. makes up                                  D. including
26. One evening as the manager was leaving the store, Susan and Jane expressed
  their___ to him about their safety, being two women working alone at night.
  A. comment                                   B. idea
  C. concern                                  D. wonder
27. Group discussions, moderated by the teacher, give young learners important
  practice in taking___ and stating one’s views.
  A. shifts                                    B. changes
  C. turns                                    D. parts
28. Jim says that he is willing to ___ tomorrow’s meeting.
  A. preside                                  B. chair
  C. lead                                     D. take part
29. In all countries it is good manners to behave___ toward others.
  A. considerably                            B. conscientiously
  C. consciously                             D. considerately
30. According to research findings, many suicide___ are impulsive.
  A. contempts                               B. tempts
  C. attempts                               D. trials
31. Opening remarks constitute a warm-up designed to put you___ and capture the
  audience’s attention.
  A. in ease                                B. at ease
  C. for ease                              D. with ease
32. These guidelines will prove helpful if you are a high-level executive___ a group
  of managers.
  A. addressing                             B. speaking
  C. talking                                D. discussing
33. The boys discovered that they had much more___ than their mix-race heritage,
  including a love of basketball, rap music and computers.
  A. as the common                           B. in common
  C. commonly                                D. with each other
34. A portal is a site that serves as a starting point, typically allowing easy___ to other
  sites.

                                                                                          9
  A. asset                                  B. access
  C. reach                                  D. way
35. Typing in all capital letters is poor etiquette, Internet etiquette, because it___
  shouting.
  A. equals to                            B. equates
  C. is equivalent to                     D. is equal
36. When my mother saw the school’s advertisement in the newspaper, she enrolled
  my older brother and me for music and literature___ .
  A. causes                                B. schools
  C. courses                              D. assignments
37. To my disappointment, it quickly became obvious that I knew___ nothing about
  their world.
  A. next to                               B. however
  C. quite                                D. rather
38. Writing has given her a broader___ on human nature.
  A. prospect                               B. aspect
  C. perspective                            D. interpretation
39. Cars are involved in many accidents, and they___ heart disease.
  A. contribute to                        B. attribute to
  C. tribute to                            D. result from
40. Most of the workplace accidents resulted from backward infrastructure, loopholes
  in management and___ work safety awareness.
  A. lacking in                           B. lack in
  C. lack of                             D. for lack of
41. The Prime Minister said that he would stay in power despite the___ number of
  members of parliament quitting his party.
  A. growing                               B. grown
  C. growth                                D. increase
42. The managing director has so far categorically refused to make any___ in the
  report.
  A. alternatives                          B. alterations
  C. views                                 D. disagreements
43. After high school, Joanne went to Detroit to take a job in an auto plant, but could
  not___ the routine and confinement.
  A. endure                                B. endow
  C. endear                               D. endorse
44. Make your controlling idea as specific as possible. You can continually___ the
  controlling idea to keep yourself on the right track.
  A. catch up with                        B. look up to
  C. go in for                            D. check back to
45. If you are unsure of your legal rights, you’d better check___ a lawyer.
  A. up                                   B. out
  C. in                                  D. with
46. For reasons which are not yet known, the warehouse___ last Saturday.

                                                                                     10
  A. got fire                            B. caught fire
  C. afire                               D. became fire
47. Because he did a very poor job and came up with bad results, his boss felt that he
  hadn’t___ his responsibilities.
  A. lived up to                         B. put up with
  C. looked forward to                  D. gone in for
48. WWF’s “ Living Planet Report 2002” states that humans are currently using over
  20 percent more natural___ than can be regenerated.
  A. sources                             B. environment
  C. elements                            D. resources
49. The article implies that people have realized the dangers of automobiles, and they
  are becoming less___ them.
  A. attached to                         B. detached from
  C. inclined to                        D. aware of
50. His friend suggested that he should___ advice from the legal department.
  A. seek for                           B. seek after
  C. seek                               D. seek out
51. The bad news deprived them___ the hope that there was a safe and socially
  approved road to success and happiness.
  A. from                                B. with
  C. about                              D. of
52. Most of the employees are said to___ the proposed new training system.
  A. object                              B. oppose
  C. disagree                            D. opposite
53. No one at the meeting seemed to___ to the closing of the old airport.
  A. object                              B. oppose
  C. opposite                            D. opposed
54. Many parents are apparently___ to the religious education in schools.
  A. object                              B. disagreement
  C. opposed                             D. objected
55. In 1998, Jenny___ divorce, saying that her husband physically and
  psychologically abused her.
  A. filled in for                      B. filed for
  C. sued for                           D. applied
56. “Physicians,” he said, “ are more interested in writing___ and billing patients than
  caring for and about them.”
  A. prescriptions                      B. descriptions
  C. transcriptions                      D. subscriptions
57. The couple bought their son an annual___ to the tennis club as a birthday gift.
  A. prescription                        B. description
  C. transcription                       D. subscription
58. The graduate students in the English department were told to study the
  phonetic___ of the conversations.
  A. prescriptions                      B. descriptions

                                                                                      11
  C. transcriptions                        D. subscriptions
59. With a new wife, alimony and child support to pay, he struggled to___ .
  A. make ends meet                         B. take ends meet
  C. manage ends to meet                    D. bring ends to meet
60. Barnes___ to involuntary manslaughter, and on May 29, 1981, a judge gave him
  three years in prison.
  A. pleaded guilt                         B. admitted guilt
  C. pleaded guilty                        D. admitted guilty
61. Money, the lifestyle and respect in the community were what___ him.
  A. caused                                B. drove
  C. caught                                D. motivated
62. The young man seemed to have few regrets for the damage he had___ on those
  closest to him.
  A. inflicted                            B. afflicted
  C. conflicted                            D. relied
63. The arguments the writer made in chapter III and chapter VIII obviously___ with
  each other.
  A. inflicted                            B. afflicted
  C. conflicted                            D. contradictory
64. It is a disease which mainly___ children below the age of 6.
  A. inflicts                             B. afflicts
  C. conflicts                             D. effects
65. I kept her___ till her parents returned home.
  A. the company                           B. the companion
  C. company                               D. companion
66. Cathy doesn’t care what she eats, but she is very___ about what she wears.
  A. particular                           B. caring
  C. careless                              D. demanding
67. ___ his right hand left the railing of the bridge, Buttenhoff knew he’d made a
  mistake.
  A. Instantly                             B. The instant
  C. At once                               D. Whenever
68. He had learned the story of these remarkable women from his mother, and was___
  their courage, passion for his life and their inner peace.
  A. with bewilderment about               B. for fear of
  C. under impression of                   D. in awe of
69. Dale said, “ I want my parents to be proud of me. I want them to know that what
  they did for me was not___ .”
  A. in vain                              B. for vain
  C. no use                               D. worthy
70. On Take Your Daughter to Work Day, I brought my niece to the office with me so
  she could experience many___ of being a social worker.
  A. respects                             B. ideas
  C. reasons                             D. aspects

                                                                                 12
71. It is common that some young mothers decide to postpone their___ and look after
  their kids at home.
  A. preparations                        B. aspirations
  C. inspirations                         D. speculations
72. The government___ great importance to intellectual property protection.
  A. attaches                            B. puts
  C. associates                          D. emphasizes
73. The speaker___ the importance of adopting a positive attitude towards life.
  A. attached                            B. emphasized on
  C. stressed                             D. pointed
74. More___ the issue of business ethics in the context of economic globalization.
  A. emphasis should be placed on        B. stress should be put about
  C. attention should be paid on          D. efforts should be made with
75. The investigators___ the possible consequences of the incident.
  A. analyzed about                      B. studied
  C. discussed about                      D. pointed
76. A recent study has shown that the___ to child care centers, for working mothers, is
  the all-purpose grandmother, who watches the children and does much of the
  cleaning, shopping and cooking.
  A. option                               B. choice
  C. alternative                          D. substitute
77. Please contact the supervisor if you have questions___ the accommodation on
  campus.
  A. concerning                          B. concerned
  C. concerning with                     D. concerned about
78. Some people don’t want to get up simply because they don’t like the activity
  that___ them.
  A. stimulates                           B. awaits
  C. irritates                           D. pleases
79. This article states that Indians have had a hard time___ their pride because they
  have had many problems.
  A. maintaining                         B. remaining
  C. detaining                          D. attaining
80. Color blindness is a genetically-caused condition in which a person cannot detect
  all colors, and this___ is more common in men than in women.
  A. fault                               B. defect
  C. shortcoming                         D. disease

Section B
Directions: There are 40 sentences in this section. Complete each sentence with the
appropriate form of the word provided in the parentheses.

1. Among the 12,000___ , women outnumbered men nine to one, and most had seen a
   lot more of life than Zaslow, who was 28 and never married. (contest)

                                                                                     13
2. Beth Tolkoff, the third of four children, grew up in___ Philadelphia. (suburb)
3. When Tom told Jennifer he was applying for her old job, she warned him it was an
   18-hour-a-day___ that required a strong, stable personality. (commit)
4. The columnist’s most___ idea grew out of letter from a woman who challenged his
   claim that Chicago is home to plenty of eligible men. (innovate)
5. In the 1970s, the U. S. witnessed an increased interest in physical fitness, and one
   result is the current widespread___ of marathons in many American cities.
   (popular)
6. As there are thousands of items within hand’s reach on the shelves, the___ to buy
   things you don’t really need or want is very strong. (tempt)
7. Evidently, women often find that as they grow older and have___ complicated lives,
   some friendships can be more of a burden than a support. (increase)
8. Hotel chains___ offer special promotions, so check newspapers to get a better
   discount. (period)
9. The two trucks collided with each other at the crossroads, but the drivers were___
   unhurt. (miracle)
10. If your doctor doesn’t take your concerns seriously, find another one or contact the
   foundation for___ . (assist)
11. Embarrassed, the boy finally began to read and soon got wrapped up in the story
   describing heroism, ___ , loyalty and deceit. (coward)
12. If people have a___ between beef and shrimp, a lot of them will still choose beef.
   (choose)
13. The purpose of this organization is to protect customers from unethical business
   practices and to promote the___ of high business and professional standards.
   (maintain)
14. Is there any one place that is particularly___ for you? (memory)
15. They are trying to introduce the___ hearing aid that clarifies the spoken word.
   (digit)
16. According to Stuart Vyse, superstitions emerge whenever there is___ and anxiety
   about something that people want. (certain)
17. Who are qualified to perform the delicate___ task of suicide prevention?
   (psychology)
18. Since it began operation in January 1999, the group has received many letters
   of___. (grateful)
19. “___ , not perfection is emphasized,” notes the dance program director.
   (participate)
20. For centuries the Chinese have believed that planting shoots of bamboo
   assured___. (prosper)
21. She felt hurt, but didn’t have the emotional resources for a___ . (confront)
22. As she developed her talents as a writer, Katherine began to make an identity for
   herself that was not dependent on peer___ . (approve)
23. ___ is the fundamental driving thrust that generates behavior. (motivate)
24. According to Professor Sears, Americans have trapped themselves by allowing the
   economy to become so___ on the automobile industry. (rely)

                                                                                     14
25. In his___ message the Premier hailed the achievements of the Organization of
  African Unity and the birth of the African Union. (congratulate)
26. The leader was facing threats not only from his former___, but also his two
  coalition parents. (loyal)
27. Now we know that problem is solvable, but it wasn’t easy to find the___. (solve)
28. No longer is war seen as the automatic solution for international___ . (agree)
29. His wife and children are his___ . (depend)
30. Kerosene engines are more___ than gasoline engines because they will increase
  speed. (desire)
31. Margaret Mead is an anthropologist who won fame describing primitive people to
  more___ evolved people. (culture)
32. They think the weather in Pennsylvania is___ so they plan to move to Florida.
  (bear)
33. It is believed that weight training can increase strength, help restore bone___ and
  diminish knee pain from arthritis. (dense)
34. The crew laid their paddle blades flat on top of the water to___ the boat. (stable)
35. It is___ that you realize the importance of your decision. (essence)
36. My friends think that I should___ the hole some more before putting my money in.
  (deep)
37. In Russia, the loss of 15 millions men in World War II meant that women had to
  become the doctors, the engineers, and the___ . (profession)
38. Large organizations usually send a formal letter to an___ , acknowledging receipt
  of the application. (apply)
39. The oil comes___ in floating patches that stain the coral black and gray. (shore)
40. A severe housing___ , especially in the cities, is also responsible for the declining
      birth rate. (short)


III.    READING COMPREHENSION
  Section A       Close Reading
  Directions: There are 30 passages in this section. Read carefully and then answer the
   questions that follow.
   Passage 1
   According to the World Health Organization, malaria kills about 3,000 people a day,
as many as 70% of whom are children under the age of five. Many groups of
researchers are working on vaccines against the disease, but most agree that any
vaccine that results will be imperfect. Nobody is expecting to confer full immunity
with a vaccine, because the organisms that cause malaria are not viruses or bacteria.
(the traditional targets of vaccination) but single-celled animal-like creatures. These
are a lot more complex and diverse than traditional vaccine targets. It is therefore hard
to prime the immune system against all the strains of them that may cause the disease.
     That might not be thought to matter much, on the basis that some protection is
better than none. But a paper by Sylvain Gandon, Margaret Mackinnon and their

                                                                                      15
colleagues at the University of Edinburgh, published in this week’s Nature, shows that
this isn’t necessarily so. Partially effective vaccines may end up doing more harm
than good. The researcher’s mathematical models suggest that such vaccines may
provoke the evolution of particularly virulent strains of the pathogen that causes the
disease.
     To understand why an imperfect vaccine might increase a disease’s virulence,
consider the matter from the pathogen’s point of view. The main cost of increased
virulence is that it will shorten the lifespan of the host, reducing the chances of
disease being transmitted to new hosts. On the other hand, a pathogen benefits from
increased virulence because pathogenic organisms that are more virulent are less
easily defeated by a host’s immune system. That means that once a pathogen gets into
a new host, it has a better chance of establishing itself.
     In nature, the balance between these two forces is what governs the virulence of
a given disease. The effect of a vaccine that confers full immunity, from the
pathogen’s point of view, is to reduce the size of its host population, since only
unprotected individuals can then be infected. If anything, that will tend to reduce
virulence, since the pathogen will have to hang on longer between transmission
opportunities, and so will “want” its host to survive. But a vaccine that confers only
partial immunity will increase host survival anyway, allowing pathogens that are not
affected to “bank” this increased survival by becoming more virulent themselves.
     This means two things. First, in the long run, the vaccinated will be no better off
than they would otherwise have been. Second, the unvaccinated are actually worse off,
since the newly virulent strain will spread at the expense of the older, less virulent
ones. That is something that policymakers need to consider carefully if and when they
are presented with a vaccine against malaria.

       1.    What is the main idea of the first paragraph?
            A. Malaria kills about 3,000 people a day.
            B. 70% of the victims of malaria are children
            C. No vaccine at present is perfect against malaria.
            D. A vaccine will increase host survival anyway
       2.    What does the word “virulent” mean in the third paragraph?
            A. Fatal     B. Poisonous C. Risky           D. Perilous
       3.    How does an imperfect vaccine increase a disease’s virulence?
            A. By shortening the lifespan of the host
            B. By breaking the balance between the two forces that govern a
                 disease’s virulence.
            C. By reducing the size of the host population
            D. By allowing pathogens that are not affected to become more virulent
                 themselves.

  Passage 2
  The writers of murder stories go to a great deal of trouble to keep us guessing right
up to the end. In actual fact, people often behave more strangely I real life than they

                                                                                     16
do in stories.
   The following advertisement once appeared in a local newspaper. “An opportunity
to earn $250 in a few minutes. A man … willing to take chances wanted for an
out-of-the-ordinary job which can be performed only once.” A reader found this offer
very generous and applied to the advertiser. But a bit suspicious. He gave a false name.
Soon afterwards, he received a reply. Enclosed in the envelope was a typed note
instructing him to ring a number if he was still interested in the job. He did so and
learnt on the telephone that the advertiser wanted him “to get rid of somebody” and
would discuss it more fully with him next day. But the man told the police and from
then on acted under their instructions. The police saw two men meet and watched
them as they drove away together. In the car the advertiser came to the point at once:
he told the man he wanted him to shoot his wife. The reason he gave was that he was
suffering from an incurable disease and wanted to live in a warmer country, but his
wife objected to this. Giving the man some money, the advertiser told him to buy a
gun and warned him to be careful of the dog which though would not bite, might
attract attention. He also gave him a photograph of his wife so that he would be able
to recognize her. After that the advertiser suggested that the man should “do the job”
next morning. Meanwhile he would prepare his wife by telling her that a young man
was going to call. After the murder, they would meet again outside a railway station
and the money would be paid as arranged. The second meeting never took place, for
the advertiser was arrested shortly afterwards and charged with attempting to persuade
someone to murder his wife.

       4.    Of the four sentences, which best express the meaning of the opening
            sentence?
            A. The writers of murder stories meet with a lot of trouble.
            B. Usually the stories show us who is the murder in the middle
            C. While reading, we can easily guess who is the real murderer.
            D. The murder stories often lead us in a round-about way.
       5.    When a reader saw the advertisement, ____.
            A. he applied for the job under a false name
            B. he was eager to get it
            C. he was doubtful whether such a generous offer could be true
            D. he was sure he was the man the advertiser was looking for
       6.    When the police received the report, ____.
            A. they arrested the advertiser at once
            B. they sent a dog to keep watch on him
            C. they didn’t arrest until they got enough evidence
            D. they arrested him after his wife was killed

  Passage 3
  Danny and Sylvia, about the stormy marriage and showbiz collaboration of
entertainer Danny Kaye and his wife, songwriter Sylvia Fine Kaye, debuted last fall
as a production of American Century Theater. It was reprised last spring. Now the

                                                                                     17
show, written by Kaye’s long-ago publicist Bob McElwaine and composer Bob Bain,
is about to open in a New York theater festival. It will play from Thursday through
Sept. 22. McElwaine, a former advertising man and Hollywood press agent, worked
for the volatile Kayes from 1952 to 1958.”They just devoured my whole life, you
know? I tried to leave several times,” he recalled recently. At 79, the writer still
marvels at Danny Kaye’s ability to charm an audience with patter songs (many
written by Sylvia) and other inspired stage silliness. “He had the ability to become a
child, which was quite remarkable,” said McElwaine. “Danny Kaye was a
consummate professional, a perfectionist. I think it was Sylvia who converted him
into being a perfectionist.”
   Danny and Sylvia contains three songs that Kaye actually performed--- Minnie the
Moocher, Tschaikowsky and Anatole of Paris--- the last the only song by Sylvia Fine
Kaye to which McElwaine and American Century Theater could get the rights. The
other 25 numbers in the show were written by McElwaine and Bain, 78, pals since
high school in Culver City, Calif.. Bain is a big band veteran and former
guitarist-arranger on Johnny Carson’s Tonight Show. Brian Childers, who won a
Helen Hayes Award in May for his portrayal of Kaye, will again play the role in New
York. “I red every book, I watched every movie … to get every little twitch, every
little move.” Said Childers. (Among Kaye’s best-known films are The Secret Life of
Walter Mitty, Hans Christian Andersen, Knock on Wood and On the Double.) “Again,
it’s not an impersonation, It’s a tribute.” The actor emphasized. Perry Payne, a
Cabaret performer in New York, filled in for Sylvia. Tony winner Thommie Walsh, a
frequent collaborator of Payne’s, will direct. “She really wanted money and she was
very stylish and she was very cool and she smoked like a chimney and she was not
necessarily polite,” said Payne of Sylvia. Her research was more limited than that of
Childers: “Whereas Brian could look at footage and tapes and scripts… I just had to
imagine Sylvia, but I heard I’m pretty close.”
   Danny Kaye died in 1987 and Sylvia Fine Kaye in 1991. Of the New York debut,
McElwaine mused, “I was always afraid of going to New York with it because it’s not
a sophisticated kind of story. It’s a love story, and I worried that the New York critics
will go, ‘Where’s all the dirt? Where’s the gossip? … We’ll just have to take a chance
and see what happens.”

       7.    What is true of Danny and Sylvia?
            A. They are two imaginary characters in a play.
            B. They were both famous singers in the 1950s.
            C. They were a couple who cooperated in their professional career.
            D. They only performed on the stage.
       8.    Who are the actor and actress in the play Danny and Sylvia?
            A. Bob McElwaine and Bob Bain.
            B. Brian Childers and Johnny Carson.
            C. Perry Payne and Thommie Walsh.
            D. Brian Childers and Perry Payne.
       9.    Of the two roles, Danny and Sylvia, which is more difficult to play?

                                                                                       18
             A.   Danny, because of his stormy character.
             B.   Sylvia, because the acting of her is based on imagination
             C.   Danny, because it’s hard to sing all the songs in the play.
             D.   Sylvia, because audience have their own interpretation of a “cool”
                  woman.

   Passage4
   Early one morning more than a hundred years ago, an American inventor called
Elias Howe finally fell asleep. He had been working all night on the design of a
sewing-machine but he had run into a very difficult problem: it seemed impossible to
get the thread to run smoothly around the needle.
   Despite his exhaustion, Howe slept badly. He tossed and turned. Then he had a
nightmare. He dreamt that he had been captured by a tribe of terrible savages whose
king threatened to kill and eat him unless he could build a perfect sewing-machine.
When he tried to do so, Howe ran into a rage and ordered his soldier to kill Howe.
They advanced towards him with their spears raised. But suddenly the inventor
noticed something. There was a hole in the tip of each spear. The inventor awoke from
the nightmare with a start, realizing that he had just found the solution to the problem.
Instead of trying to get the thread to run around the needle, he should make it run
through a small hole in the center of the needle. This was the simple idea that finally
enabled Howe to design and build the first really practical sewing machine.
   Elias Howe was far from being unique in finding the answer to his problem in this
way. Thomas Edison, the inventor of the electric light bulb, said that his best ideas
came to him in dreams. So did the great physicist, Albert Einstein. Charlotte Bronte
also drew on her dreams in writing Jane Eyre. The composer, Igor Stravinsky, once
said the only way he could solve his problem in musical composition was to sleep on
them.
   To appreciate the value of dreams, you have to understand what happens when you
are asleep. Even then, a part of your mind is still working. This unconscious, but still
active part digests your experiences and goes to work on the problems you have had
during the day. It stores all sots of information and details which you have forgotten
or never have really noticed. It is only when you fall asleep that this pat of the brain
can send message to the part you use when you are awake. However, the unconscious
part expresses itself through its own logic and its own language. It uses strange
images which the conscious part may not understand at first. This is why dreams are
sometimes called “secret message to ourselves”.

       10. According to the passage, Elias Howe was _____.
          A. the first person we know of who solved problems in his sleep
          B. the only person at the time who appreciated the value of dreams
          C. the first person to design a sewing-machine that really worked
          D. much more hard-working than other inventors.
       11. The problem Howe was trying to solve was____.
          A. how to stop the thread from getting caught around the needle

                                                                                       19
          B. how to make thread thin enough to pull through a needle
          C. how to design a needle which would not break
          D. how to find a place in the machine to put the needle
       12. Dreams are sometimes called “secret messages to ourselves” because
           _____.
          A. only specially trained people can understand them
          B. strange images are involved which have no meaning
          C. we can never understand the real meaning of our dreams
          D. strange images are used to communicate ideas

   Passage 5
   New York mayor Michael R. Bloomberg said that investors who sank their
paychecks into companies with no earnings and no prospects for ever having them
were just as culpable for the mess in the markets as those companies that government
officials say defrauded investors.
   Almost as soon as the words had left his lips some people who work in the City
Council were quick to deride them. Mr. Bloomberg was asked by John Gambling, the
host of the radio program, what he thought about the recent accusations that
companies like Enron and WorldCom had engaged in fraudulent accounting practices
that bilked investors out of millions of dollars.
   “It is a disgrace if there was fraud committed,” the mayor said. “People in
management have a responsibility to conduct their affairs honorably and legally.” But
when questioned further about Wall Street meltdown of the last two years, the mayor
went on to say: “People who were buying stocks in the stock market at multiples that
never made any sense should look at themselves in the mirror. They’re as responsible,
I think, as those who actually committed the crimes of misstating earnings and
fudging the numbers.” Mr. Bloomberg appeared to be referring both to dot-coms
during the Internet boom. “The mayor was offering the perspective that if the numbers
don’t make sense, either because of market hysteria or possible fraud, then people
should use basic investment principles before buying shares in companies” said his
spokesman, Edward Skyler. “You can’t get something for nothing.”
   Right after the mayor’s program, the phones began ringing in mad succession
around the City Hall press room, with council members or council staff members
offering to provide views on his comments. “Our mayor had made some unfortunate
remarks that I’m sure were brought on by the frustration of seeing such a criminal
misuse of the stock market,” said James Sanders Jr., a councilman from Queens. “Just
as we no longer say that a woman who dresses in a provocative fashion cried out for
rape, nor should we say that anyone who was simply misled by the stock exchange or
its members was a willing victim.”

       13.    What did the New York mayor say in the radio program about recent
             accusations involving companies like Enron and WorldCom?
             A. These companies have defrauded investors.
             B. Unlike other government officials, he doesn’t think these companies

                                                                                   20
               have defrauded investors.
            C. The investors who sank their paychecks into these companies are to
               blame.
          D. Both the companies and the investors are to blame for creating a
               mess in the market.
       14. From the third paragraph, what can you infer about the dot-coms?
          A. Their stocks used to rise at multiples in the stock market.
          B. They do not conduct their affairs honorably and legally.
          C. They are accused of defrauding investors.
          D. They have brought about the Wall Street meltdown of the last two
               years.
       15. According to the mayor, what is the best way for the investors to avoid
           economic loss before buying a stock?
          A. They should consult the specialists.
          B. They should use basic investment principles.
          C. They should make a thorough investigation of a company.
          D. They should stop buying stocks altogether.

   Passage 6
   “At Antoine’s. At seven,” the woman’s voice said at the other end of the phone.
   “At Antoine’s. at seven.” I repeated. I always repeat such information on the phone
in case I haven’t heard correctly. Not that I’m hard of hearing, but it’s better that way.
   “Very well, then. I’ll be expecting you.” She replied.
   “Just a moment. How will I recognize you?” I asked. I was trying to imagine what
she looked like. Her voice suggested someone in her early 30’s. There was something
smooth but at the same time hard about that voice, something that goes with diamonds
and an expensive education.
   “You won’t have to. Just don’t be late!” she said curtly. Then she hung up.
   Antoine’s was one of those new-style French places that specialize in very small
portions and very high prices. I left my old Ford in the car-park. There was only one
other car there, a white Mercedes. I wondered if it could be hers.
   “Yes, sir? Have you got a reservation?” the headwaiter asked as soon as I came
through the door. I looked around. Even though it was candle-lit, I could see the inside
of the place was as empty as the car-park.
   “No, but I don’t think I’ll need one,” I answered.
   The waiter smiled. But his eyes didn’t. He looked at my well-known sports jacket
and not very new shoes.”
   “I’m afraid we’re fully booked this evening,” he said.
   “ It’s all right. I think the gentlemen is looking for me.”
   It was the same voice I’d heard on the phone and it came from a table in the corner.
   The waiter’s manner suddenly changed.
   “You should have said she was waiting for you,” he said in low voice as he showed
me to the table. I looked down. She had red hair and was dressed casually in denims.
But they were the sort of denims you can’t buy in most shops. It was hard to tell how

                                                                                        21
old she was in the candle-light. But it was obvious she was beautiful. Very beautiful.
   “Sit down, Mr. Nelson. What would you like to drink?” she said.
   “Beer”
   “Excuse me, sir. Did you say … beer?” the waiter pronounced the last word as if he
didn’t quite understand it.
   “Perhaps you’d better have a glass of champagne instead,” the woman said and
nodded to the waiter before I could refuse. She waited for him to leave. Then she took
out a photograph of two people at a beach. The woman’s face was famous, but I had
never seen the man with her before. He was middle-aged, tanned and had his arm
around her.
   “ I’ll get straight down to business if you don’t mind,” she said. She looked around
and then laid some neatly-typed notes on the table, too.
   “ Go ahead. Read them. I thought I’d better put it all in writing just in case someone
is listening.”
   She looked around the empty restaurant again.
   “You can never be to careful, even in a place like this,” she said.

       16. The writer repeated “At Antoine’s, at seven,” because he _____.
          A. had trouble with his hearing
          B. wanted to be sure he had understood
          C. hadn’t understood the woman
          D. thought she hadn’t understood him
       17. When the writer got to Antoine’s, at first the waiter _______.
          A. wasn’t going to let him stay
          B. said someone was looking for him
          C. looked at him as if he were afraid
          D. said he didn’t need a reservation
       18. When the writer sat down, the woman______.
          A. said he couldn’t refuse champagne
          B. ordered champagne for him without asking him
          C. refused to order champagne for him
          D. suggested he have champagne instead of beer

   Passage 7
   Rachel Nall was feeling overwhelmed. As a new teacher at Public School 175 in
Harlem, she was struggling to assert her authority, but nothing seemed to work. “In
my classroom I often have altercations that involve students hitting each other or
taking things,” she said. “Originally I would reprimand both or sometimes even
automatically blame the one who gets in trouble most often.”
   Finally, Ms. Nall, who graduated from college in 1999, realized the problem was
not just with her students’ behavior; it was also with her approach. She was reacting
quickly, often inventing a solution that did not relate to the problem. While many new
teachers are left to their own devices, Ms. Nall was able to get help because she is
taking part in the New Teacher Institute, a fledgling program of Teachers College at

                                                                                       22
Columbia University. The program offers a steadier version of the conventional
mentoring that experienced teachers provide in many schools as well as a forum for
discussing problems with other new teachers. The course meets 15 times during the
school year in the local district and gives new teachers ideas about how to deal with
nuts and bolts issues like pre paring lesson plans and what to do if they fall behind.
   Ms. Nall said that using the strategies she learned through the institute makes her
feel more in control of the classroom. “I let the children say what they themselves
have done. I then repeat, saying, ‘What I heard you say was that…’ encouraging them
to take responsibility for their actions.” While Ms. Nall found practical advice, others
like Rosalinda Rubinstein said they were helped by having other teachers dealing with
the same issues. Ms. Rubenstein now teaches science at Intermediate school 347 in
Bushwick, Brooklyn. “The institute,” she said, “gives you perspective; you see that
other people are feeling what you’re feeling.” And because an independent institution,
not the city, runs the program, it offers a safe place to vent frustrations. “ You can
speak freely here,” she said.
   The New Teacher Institute has been successful in keeping teachers on the job, albeit
on a very small scale. While only 76 percent of new teachers from the 2000-2001
school year returned to assignments in the school system citywide, 14 of 15 returned
to assignments from the institute’s pilot program in Bushwick. In fact, 14 of the 17
teachers from 1999-2000 and 10of the 12 teachers from the 1998-1999 program are
still teaching (including one who has risen to assistant principal). For the first three
years over all, 86 percent of the teachers hired are still in the city’s school and 73
percent are still in District 32 in Bushwick.
   Those statistics were strong enough, however, to encourage the institute’s
expansion this year to District 5 in Harlem and for Philadelphia and Stamford, Conn.,
to begin pilot programs with the institute.

  19. Why can’t Ms. Nall assert her authority in the classroom?
        A.     She was too young.
        B.     She blamed both the students instead of the troublemaker.
        C.     Her reaction was too quick.
        D.     Her solution to the problem wan not to the point.
  20. The program of Teachers College at Columbia University is intended to ____.
        A.     get the mew teachers to listen to experienced teachers
        B.     give the new teachers some help in their teaching career
        C.     let the new teachers discuss the problems in a forum
        D.     give new teachers ideas about how to prepare lessons
  21. Which of the following statistics is NOT evidence of the New Teacher
       Institute’s success in keeping teachers on the job?
       A. 76 percent new teachers from the 2000-2001 school year returned to
           assignments in the school system citywide.
       B. 14 of 15 new teachers returned to assignments from the institute’s pilot
           program in Bushwick.
       C. For the first three years over all, 86 percent of the teachers hired are still

                                                                                      23
             in the city’s school.
          D. 14 of the 17 teachers from 1999-2000 and 10 of the 12 teachers from the
             1998-1999 program are still teaching.


   Passage 8
   Irrespective of what many may school to believe, the marriage between the United
States economy and the free enterprise system has not been without problems. From
the time of Alexander Hamilton there has been regular resort to governmental
intervention into economic matters. Usually both efforts went on simultaneously. In
any event, in does not hurt to start by nothing that the great American contribution to
social philosophy is “pragmatism.” The pragmatic test was that in addition to
everything else an acceptable theory had actually to work. Pragmatism is not the same
as opportunism. What they have in common is an emphasis on successful
accommodation; where they differ is what pragmatism has a philosophical, ethical
basis.
   The economic system of any nation is the mechanism which brings together natural
resources, the labor supply, technology, and the necessary entrepreneurial and
managerial talents. Anticipating and then meeting human needs through production
and distribution of goods and services is the end purpose of every economic system.
While the type of economic system used by a nation is the result of political decision,
it is also in even larger part the result of a historical experience, which over time
becomes a national culture. America has been blessed by being a land rich in mineral
resources and fertile farm soil, together with a moderate climate. Generally, it has
been fortunate in having enough people to provide the labor necessary for a constantly
expanding economy. Until 1924 most of these workers were white immigrants (or
their immediate descendants) who came to America from Europe. When too many
laborers arrived from Europe to be absorbed by the East-coast economy, they could
move on to farmland in the interior. It is true that at times the country has experienced
periods of acute unemployment as well as labor shortages, but on the whole
immigrants came when work was plentiful and the economy grew fast enough to
absorb them, providing they were willing to work productively at slightly less than the
wage rates paid to acculturated workers.
   In assessing the success of an economy one must ask how hard the people are
willing to work and how skilled they are. The frontier demanded hard work, and the
Protestant religious ethic supported that demand. Further, the strong emphasis placed
on education, including technical and vocational education, also contributed to
America’s economic success. Likewise, the willingness to experiment, to change and
to invest in technology was significant in a land that had prided itself on being a new
experiment in freedom.
   However, the existence of an abundant natural resources and a skillful and willing
labor force accounts for only part of the story. These resources must be directed as
efficiently as possible into the areas where they will be most productive. In the
American economy, capital and management perform this function.

                                                                                       24
     22.   The Unite States economy has adopted the free enterprise system____.
                A.     from the very beginning
                B.     only recently
                C.     with the intervention of the government
                D.     without the intervention of the government
     23.   Americans have accepted “pragmatism” as ______.
                A.     a key to success
                B.     a way of dealing with people
                C.     a means of getting rich
                D.     a philosophy of life
     24.   In the United States, most labors necessary for an expanding economy
           before 1924 were _____.
            A. Indians                           B. British immigrants
            C. Negroes                            D. European immigrants

   Passage 9
   To a philosopher, wisdom is not the same as knowledge. Facts may be known in
prodigious numbers without the knower of them loving wisdom. Indeed, the person
who possesses encyclopedic information may actually have a genuine contempt for
those who love and seek wisdom. The philosopher is not content with a mere
knowledge of facts. He desires to integrate and evaluate facts, and to probe beneath
the obvious to the deeper orderliness behind the immediately given facts. Insight into
the hidden depths of reality, perspective on human life and nature in their entirety, in
the words of Plato, to be spectator of time and existence—these are the philosopher’s
objectives. Too great an interest in the minutiae of science, may, and often does,
obscure these basic objectives.
   Philosophers assume that the love of wisdom is a natural endowment id the human
being. Potentially every man is a philosopher because in the depths of his being there
is an intense longing to fathom the mysteries of existence. The inner yearning
expresses itself in various ways prior to any actual study of philosophy as a technical
branch of human culture. Consequently every human being in so far as he has ever
been or is a lover of wisdom has, to that extent, a philosophy of life.

     25.   According to the author, which statement concerning philosophers is most
           nearly accurate?
                A.    They are an impractical lot.
                B.    They are too radical.
                C.    They are a thoughtful group.
                D.    They have contempt for humanity.
     26.   The author indicates that a philosopher is a person who ____.
           A. disregards facts                     B. loves wisdoms
           C. desires technical knowledge          D. collects all types of data
     27.   The author suggests that a man becomes a philosopher when he ____.

                                                                                      25
           A. studies philosophy as a subject         B. collects all the facts
           C. realizes obvious truths                 D. seeks a meaning for life

   Passage 10
   Life insurance isn’t fun to buy. It forces you to think about your death, a subject
many prefer not to confront. Indeed, many people choose not to think about the topic.
But for these people there’s a single, overriding reason to buy life insurance: to
provide an income for your dependents should you die.
   Don’t depend solely on an agent to figure life-insurance needs. Rule-of-thumb
estimates such as five or eight times your income are guesses; they may produce too
little or too much insurance. Carry too little insurance and you may not provide a
reasonable standard of living for your family after your death; carry too much and you
may not enjoy a reasonable standards of living while you’re alive.
   Most people who have life insurance don’t have enough. The median amount of
coverage for all adults with life insurance was only $25,000 in 1998. That’s obviously
not enough to sustain a family with young children for very long. Nationwide
insurance found that the married men in its 1998 survey carried an average of about
$131,880 in life insurance; they needed about $110,706 more. Married women carried
about $53,516 worth insurance but needed some $108,507 more.
   How do you determine the amount of life insurance you would need to maintain
your family’s current life-style if the breadwinner died? First, figure what your
family’s expenses would be if you died tomorrow. Then analyze your assets and the
sources of income that you can use to cover the expenses. Finally, subtract the assets
from the needs. The results is the amount of additional insurance that you’ll need to
buy.

    28.   Why is life insurance not fun to buy?
               A.     Because many people prefer not to confront the subject.
               B.     Because it reminds you that you may die one day.
               C.     Because there is a single, overriding reason.
               D.     Because it forces you to think.
    29.   If you carry too much or too little insurance, ____.
               A.     either you or your family might suffer
               B.     you may not provide a reasonable standard of living while you
                      are alive
               C.     you may not enjoy a reasonable standard of living while you are
                    alive.
               D.     you will know in the end that they are just wild guesses
    30.   How do you determine the amount of life insurance you would need?
               A.     By analyzing your assets and sources of income.
               B.     By estimating your family’s expenses.
               C.     By taking away the assets from the expenses.
               D.     All of the above.



                                                                                    26
   Passage 11
   For an actor whose screen roles included Pontius Pilate, Napoleon, Al Capone,
Benito Mussolini and W.C. Fields, Rod Steiger will be best remembered for his
portrayals of ordinary men: a small-town Southern sheriff, a Harlem pawnbroker, a
brother-loving Mob lieutenant and a sad butcher whose love is never returned.
   The Oscar winner died in Los Angeles Tuesday at 77 of pneumonia and kidney
failure, after he’d survived a major surgery and eight years of depression during an
up-down movie career that lasted just over 50 years. His performances were often on
the broad side; one 60’s reviewer laughed at “that clenched-teeth Steiger mistakes for
overpowering emotion.”
   But actors should be judged by their best work, and Steiger brought almost as much
as Marlon Brando did to their famed brotherly “ I coulda been a contender” taxi scene
in 1954’s On the Waterfront, part of which Steiger had to film alone after Brando left
the set early.
   Born April 14,1925 in Westhampton, N.Y., the World War II Navy vet landed his
first prime role on TV in 1953. He was writer Paddy Chayefsky’s original big-hearted
butcher in NBC’s production of Marty, but the movie role—and the Oscar – went to
Ernest Borgnine. There were other disappointments. Many thought Steiger would
definitely win an Oscar Award for 1965’s The Pawnbroker, but Lee Marvin won for
Cat Ballou. Later, social activist Steiger turned down Patton because he feared it
would glorify war.
   When Steiger’s Oscar came, it was for perhaps his most classic role: the racist,
gum-chewing sheriff from 1967’s best picture In the Heat of the Night, opposite
Sidney Poitier. The picture’s success briefly led to a series of similar roles, but Steiger
was always a character actor at heart, and a physically strong one at that.
   Yet he was more adaptable than he sometimes seemed. Steiger memorably acted
together with Gordon MacRae in Poor Jud Is Dead in Oklahoma. Later, he acted the
unforgettable role of John Gielgud in The Loved One, then performed in Ray
Bradbury’s The Illustrated Man, co-starring with Claire Bloom, his second of five
wives. He played gangster in a TV serial and a judge in Denzel Washington’s
Hurricane. He even did a voice-over on The Simpsons. Of his training method,
Steiger said, “My generation of actors was taught to be able to create different people;
that’s what an actor is supposed to do.” This he did; the proof if in the height of his
filmography.
      31. For which of the following roles did R. Steiger win an Oscar Academy
            Award?
                 A.    The big-hearted butcher Marty.
                 B.    The pawnbroker in New York.
                 C.    The gun-chewing sheriff in southern USA.
                 D.    The judge in Denzel Washington’s Hurricane.
      32. Why did Rod Steiger refuse to act in the movie General Patton?
                 A.    He was a social activist.
                 B.    He was afraid that it would lead to another disappointment.
                 C.    He was afraid that the movie would glorify war.

                                                                                         27
               D.    He didn’t take much fancy to General Patton.
     33.   Which of the following is the best title for this article?
               A.    Rod Steiger’s life.
               B.    Rod Steiger remembered.
               C.    Rod Steiger’s success in his career.
               D.    Smaller roles defined Steiger’s huge talents.

   Passage 12
   One bright June morning, when I was nineteen, I packed all I had on my back, left
my native village and walked up to London looking for gold and glory. That was more
than fifteen years ago, and I have been here ever since. I shall probably stay here for
the rest of my life. Yet I still cannot think of myself as a Londoner, nor ever will, nor
ever want to.
    For fifteen years I have lived in the flats, rooms and garrets of this city. Yet when I
talk of my home I still think of that damp, green valley near Painswick where I was
brought up. The boys I went to school with have long since grown and fattened, got
married and gone bald, and they would probably have to give me a very long look
before they recognized me if I turned up there again. But that is my home, and the
image of it the day I left it is still more real to me than fifteen years of this crowed
capital city.
   There is one great virtue in size, and of course, London is greatest show on earth,
for never have so many human characters been gathered together at one place. Here,
in a day, you can see the world. Stand at the entrance to the main-line station, during
the rush hour, and you see every possible human species going past. One becomes
amazed by the multiplicity of the human race, by its infinite differences, by its
graduation from ugliness to beauty, evil to good. And you cannot get this concentrated
view anywhere but London. The sad, noisy clamor of life lived at close quarters;
lovers on doorways, children in back streets singing on bus-tops on Saturday nights,
fish shops, cinemas, fairs, chimneys on fire, and the warmth in the winter streets
generated by a million fires and a million bodies—it is this mass gregariousness, this
feeling that one is at non-stop party, that I like best of all.
   Yet even this makes me long more for home. For this very gregariousness whets the
appetite to know more of the human story, and in the country personal histories are
everybody’s property, but in London, man is the most secret animal on earth.

     34.   The author was____ years old when he wrote the passage?
             A. 19        B.50      C.43 D.34
     35.   Does he think of himself as a Londoner?
             A. Yes.                      B. Sometimes.
             C. No.                        D. No, but he will.
     36.   How do you understand the sentence “… and in the country personal
           histories are everybody’s property, …”?
                A.     The countryfolk are proud of their personal histories.
                B.     The country has a longer history than London.

                                                                                         28
               C.    The countryfolk have a less private life than Londoners.
               D.    The countryfolk don’t value their personal histories.

   Passage 13
   Blink, and another billion-dollar company may have disappeared. Step out for
coffee, and an entire industry could be transformed.
   Almost without warning, the U.S. had entered a new era of bigness. Since the
beginning of 1995, more than $270 billion worth of mergers and takeovers have been
announced, according to Securities Data Co. And that could mark the start of a merger
wave that may dwarf the merger mania of the 1980s. Chase-Chemical, Disney-ABC,
Time Warner-Turner--- these are just the tip of a worldwide move toward combination
and consolidation.
   Today’s deals are not the financially driven hostile takeovers and leveraged buyouts
that dominated the 1980’s. No raiders carrying out bags of cash this time around. Now,
it’s the corporate leaders of America who are riding the merger boom. Their goal: to
acquire the size and resources to compete at home and abroad, to invest in new
technology and new products, and to control distribution channels and guarantee
access to markets. “ We are moving toward a period of the megacorporate state in
which there will be a few global firms within particular economic sectors.” says
Steven Nagourney, chief investment strategist for Lehman Brothers Inc.’s private
client group.
   That’s certainly true in the media industry, where the race to lock up key
distribution channels such as television and cable networks just got more frenzied.
Market dominance is also driving such mergers in the drug industry as Merck & Co.’s
purchase of Medico Containment Services Inc. “ As your competition get bigger,
you’re almost forced to get bigger to stay equal,”: says Norman C. Selby, head of
McKinsey & Co.’s pharmaceutical practice. “It’s continual game of catch-up.”
   Other deals are driven by a need to bulk up as U.S. companies take on global
competitors. The Chemical –Chase merger produces a band that’s No. 1 in the U.S.,
but only 21st in the world, by assets. And the combination of Upjohn Co. and
Sweden’s Pharmacia, announced on Aug. 20, will create a titan that only ranks about
ninth in sales among drugmakers worldwide.
   Besides adding sheer size, acquisitions can provide an instant presence in foreign
markets. Scott Paper Co. was acquired by Kimberly-Clark Corp., in large part,
because Scott had strengths in Europe that Kimberly lacked. And Philadelphia-based
Crown Cork& Seal Inc. recently said it would buy France’s Carnaud metalbox to
create a global packaging giant.
   Many of these mergers would not have been possible without today’s permissive
climate in Washington. Companies no longer fear the knock on the door from the
antitrust police. While noting that some transaction are “troublesome”, Federal Trade
Commission Chairman Robert Pitofsky observes that “many of these mergers are not
between competitors and represent a healthy restructuring of certain industries,
especially those with vast over-capacity.”



                                                                                    29
     37. What does the first paragraph probably suggest?
               A.     American companies are threatened by bombardment.
               B.     The world of American companies change quickly.
               C.     American office workers like to go to the coffee shop for a
                       break.
               D.     Government interference helps to transform American
                    companies.
     38. According to the passage, mergers of companies in the 1980s are usually
         for ____ reason.
         A. financial      B. transportation     C. marketing D. production
     39. Which of the following is NOT a reason why one company takes over
         another today?
               A.     To get the size and resources that are required for competition
                       nationally and internationally.
               B.     To be more convenient in the investment of new technology and
                       products.
               C.     To dominated the market.
               D.     To get more economic profit.

   Passage 14
   Three years ago, Diane Doster decided to expand her personal-training business by
creating CancerFit, a workout program intended for caner patients. She was confident
that her new enterprise would succeed, based on her extensive background in physical
fitness, but she did not know how she would spread the word about the business. “ As
a small business, I didn’t even know that I needed public relations,” said Ms. Doster,
37, of Sedona, Ariz. “I certainly couldn’t afford to pay for it.”
   As it turned out, she did not have to. Just as CancerFit was starting, Ms. Doster said
she met Mary Schnack, 43, who was undergoing treatment for uterine cancer and
looking for a person trainer. Ms. Schnack also happened to run her own public
relations firm, based in Sedona. So the two women agreed to barter their services: Ms.
Schnack would participate in the CancerFit program in exchange for helping Ms.
Doster publicize her business.
   Business, of course, have been bartering for years. Many of them now use formal
agreements or barter networks that require annual dues, usually around $100, and are
based on elaborate point systems. Swapping goods and services also allows
businesses to preserve cash and unload excess inventory, among other things.
   But arrangements like the one between Ms. Doster and ms. Schnack have also been
gaining in popularity, especially in a week economy. Many people who are striking
out on their own, perhaps after a recent layoff, will barter for services to keep their
young businesses going.
   Businesses that use informal bartering do not have to fill out lengthy froms or
contracts. They just make a deal and carry it out. Another advantage of informal
bartering is that participants do not have constantly keep track of bartering points.
Informal arrangements do not cost anything up front but they do pose problems of

                                                                                       30
their own. The first challenge, of course, is finding a barter partner. Some people may
be insulted by proposals to barter instead of paying for services. Without a formal
contract there is no protection against shoddy or incomplete work. Therefore it is
suggested that people who engage in informal bartering put their agreements in
writing, making note of the services that each participants is to receive and their
estimated value. That will also be useful when it comes time to file an income tax
return.
      40. How do Ms. Diane Doster and Ms. Mary Schanck help each other?
               A.      Diane became Mary’s personal trainer and Mary sold some
                     shares of her firm to Diane.
               B.      Mary helped Diane to run CancerFit while participating in the
                         program herself.
               C.      Diane worked in Mary’s firm in the day and Mary came to help
                         Diane at CancerFit at night.
               D.      Diane participated in the CancerFit program free of charge and
                         in return she publicized the program.
      41. Which of the following is problem posed by informal bartering?
               A.      You have to constantly keep track of bartering points.
               B.      Some people felt insulted by proposals to barter.
               C.      The contracts are usually informal.
               D.      It’s difficult for barterers to pay income tax.
      42. What is the main idea of the passage?
          A. Diane Doster and Mary Schnack have set a good example for bartering.
          B. Informal bartering is a new phenomenon in the economic life today.
          C. Informal bartering is a useful pattern in doing business during the
             economic recession though it’s not without problems.
          D. Businesses have been bartering for years and you are still doing it.

   Passage 15
   Books even in this age of cheap literature cost money? The shortage of paper,
together with the high cost of living, has made book an expensive item in our list of
requirements. This would mean that fewer people can afford to have them. Yet there
are people who think nothing of spending money on a rich dinner, but would consider
it a waste of money to spend the same sum on books. Therefore the time has come for
an adventurous public library policy to be introduced, for the higher the price of
books the greater the need to give them the widest circulation possible.
   The Hong Kong Government has set up Urban Council Libraries and study rooms
in various districts. There is no doubt that Libraries are a great blessing, and when
books are wisely selected, they have a great educational value, and have done much to
encourage the habit of reading among the people.
   For setting up libraries, some factors should be taken into consideration. In the first
place, it is not enough to have just a building, equip it with shelves and fill them with
books. The library building itself must be attractive in structure, conductive in
atmosphere, and unencumbered in administration. Then secondly, there is the choice

                                                                                        31
of suitable books to look into. This presents difficulties: though most of the books are
novels and most of the readers are novel-readers, moreover, reading fiction is quite a
source of amusement and pleasure, also, it is a means of broadening one’s mind and
learning more about life and human being, yet, there should always be a good
selection of serious books--- history, biography, travel, poetry and literature---- which
are appreciated by many readers. Young readers are naturally interested in books
which cater to their personal preferences.
   In those countries (for instance, Singapore) where several different races share
equal weight, there are not only the above problems in hand when setting up libraries.
There is a third issue--- readers with different family and racial background have
different preferences. The problem seems soluble if they can provide the readers with
books written against familiar background and in their own language.

     43.   The writer’s opinion in the first paragraph is that____.
            A. books are less expensive than they used to be
            B. rich people are not fond of reading
            C. the high price of books has made their circulation impossible
            D. a public library policy is beneficial to both the rich and the poor
     44.     The difficulty in setting up a library according to this passage is____.
              A. the shortage of paper               B. selecting suitable books
              C. the high price of books             D. the lack of government subsides
     45.   If readers are provided with books written against familiar background and
           in their own language, the problem in selecting suitable books______.
            A. can be solved                           B. is certainly solved
            B. looks as though it cannot be solved D. will never be solved

   Passage 16
   As the capital of Mexican America, Los Angeles has elevated the mixture of two
cultures to an art: whole-wheat tortillas, margarita-flavored wine coolers, bilingual
dogs. To that list we nominate another L.A. institution--- the perfect fusion of
Mexican tradition and American indulgence, of old-country song and suburban buffet:
the Sunday-morning all-you-can-eat mariachi brunch.
   The city has a mariachi restaurant to suit almost every taste, from the touristy
elegance of La Fonda near MacArthur Park to the salty bustle of La Perla and EI
Tarasco on the top floor of EI Mercado in Boyle Heights. But to experience the ritual
in all its cross-cultural splendor, you must venture east, to the San Gabriel Valley,
where immigrant customs merge with middle-class aspirations. Just off 60 freeway in
South EI Monte, between North American Foam and Kruse Feed & Supply, rises a
white ranch house, the temple of the mariachi brunch, Cielito Lindo. (Its name means,
roughly, “heavenly sweetheart”; it is also the title of a lovely ballad, which was
corrupted into the theme of a popular street song.) Inside, artificial plants crawl up the
walls, white Christmas lights woven through the vines.
   The buffet runs from handmade tortillas to a cook-to-order omelette-and-waffle bar.
By the time the first show begins at 11:30 a.m., the narrow yellow tables are packed

                                                                                        32
with three and four generations--- Mexican grandparents, Chicano homeboys, pocho
toddlers --- all slipping pink lemonade or splits of champagne. There are presents,
balloons, cakes, candles; everyone, it seems, is celebrating a birthday or an
anniversary, and the waiters discreetly, José Hernádez, is also the leader of the house
band, Mariachi Sol de Mexico, which he has been directing since 1981.
   Emerging in brown cowboy suits, with golden horse heads dangling from their
chests like military badges, the band plays with an easy professionalism; Sol de
Mexico has performed with Mexican icons, recorded with U.S. pop stars, and
appeared on Hollywood soundtracks. For $13.95 a person, you get to stuff yourself
and sing song --- to pay salute assimilation and preserve heritage, without ever
contracting yourself. After filing their own plates with, boiled shrimp, fruit, and pie,
the musicians return at 1:15 p.m., then again at 6, 8and 10:30. “Beautiful and beloved
Mexico,” they sing in Spanish, hands over their hearts. “ If I die far from you, let it be
said I’m asleep, and have me brought here … Beautiful and beloved Mexico, if I die
far from you.”

     46.  This passage is about a special____.
          A. institution     B. band        C. restaurant     D. movie
     47. Which of the following is NOT true?
         A. Cielito Lindo is the title of a popular street song.
         B. Cielito Lindo is the title of a lovely ballad.
         C. Cielito Lindo means, not exactly, “heavenly sweetheart”.
         D. Cielito Lindo is the name of the band at the restaurant.
     48. Once you are inside Ceilito Lindo, _____.
         A. You can enjoy a delicious buffet of both American and Mexican food
         B. You should tell your name to the waiters in order to be better served
         C. You can enjoy a band of musicians playing at different times of a day
         D. You see that everyone is celebrating a birthday or an anniversary

   Passage 17
   International airlines have rediscovered the business traveler, the man or woman
who regularly jets from country to country as part of the job. This does not necessarily
mean that airlines ever abandoned their business travelers. Indeed, companies like
Lufthansa and Swissair would rightly argue that they have always catered best for the
executive class passengers. But many lines could be accused of concentrating too
heavily in the recent past on attracting passengers by volume, often at the expense of
the regular traveler. Too often, they have seemed geared for quantity rather than
quality.
   Operating a major airline is essentially a matter of finding the right mix of
passengers. The airlines need to fill up the back end of their wide-bodied jets with low
fare passengers, without forgetting that the front end should be filled with people who
pay substantially more for their tickets.
   It is no coincidence that the two major airline bankruptcies were among the
companies specializing in cheap flights. But low fares require consistently full aircraft

                                                                                        33
to make flights economically viable, and in the recent recession the volume of traffic
has not grown. Equally the large number of airlines jostling for the available
passengers ha created a huge excess of capacity. The net result of excess capacity and
cut-throat competition driving down fares had been to push some airlines into collapse
and leave many others hovering on the brink.
   Against this grim background, it is no surprise that airlines are turning increasingly
towards the business travelers to improve their rates of return. They have invested
much time and effort to establish exactly what the executive demands for sitting apart
from the tourists.
   High on the list of priorities is punctuality; an executive’s time is money. In-flight
service is another area where the airlines are jostling for the executive’s attention. The
free drinks and headsets and better food are all part of the lure.
   Another development has been the accent on seating arrangements. Regular
travelers have become well versed in the debate about seat pitch--- the amount of
room between each passenger. And first-class passengers are now offered sleeperette
seats, which, for long journeys, make it possible to snatch a proper night’s sleep.
Sleeperettes have proved so popular that they will soon become universal in the front
end of the most aircraft.
   The airlines are also trying to improve things on the ground. Executive lounges are
commonplace and intended to make the inevitable waiting between flights a little
more bearable. Language handling is being improved. Regrettably, there is little the
airlines can do to speed up the boring immigration and Customs process, which
manages to upset and frustrate passengers of all classes in every continent.
   Although it is the airlines’ intention to attract executive passengers from their rivals,
the airlines themselves would nonetheless like to change one bad habit of this kind of
traveler--- the expensive habit of booking a flight and then failing to turn up. The
practice is particularly widespread in Europe, where businessmen frequently book
return journeys home on one of several flights.
   As a result, the airlines throw away a perishable commodity—the empty seat—
which cannot be resold. Some airlines have attempted to thwart the practice by
offering discounts to passengers who travel on their booked flight. But this inevitably
means that the structure of air fares, already highly complex, becomes even more
baffling.

     49.  One of the reasons why two major airlines went bankrupt was that______.
         A. the recession had reduced the overall number of air passengers
         B. the companies failed to attract an adequate number of passengers
         C. competition from other airlines creamed away all their trade
         D. they introduced cheap travel for all categories of passengers
     50. There is, however, little hope of improvement when it comes to _____.
         A. waiting in uncomfortable airport lounge
         B. retrieving baggage after the flight
         C. undergoing routine customs check
         D. mingling with all kinds of different passengers

                                                                                         34
     51.    One problem which particularly frustrates the airlines arises when____.
           A. executive passengers fail to book their seats in advance
           B. passengers do not travel on seats they have booked
           C. executive passengers receive large discounts don bookings
           D. rival airlines offer empty seats to be resold

   Passage 18
   The number of infants born in the United States with HIV infection has declined
80% during the last decade, new research shows. Experts say the findings presented at
the 14th International AIDS Conference represents a great success story in the battle to
reduce the ravages of the AIDS virus in the United States. The progress is attributed to
increased voluntary HIV counseling and testing of pregnant women and to subsequent
anti-AIDS therapy, said one of the study’s investigators, Patricia Fleming, a researcher
with the U.S. Center for Disease Control and Prevention.
   The study estimated that about 325 American infants were born infected with HIV
in 2000, compared with about 1,760 babies in 1991, a decrease of about 80%. In
developing countries where breast-feeding is commonplace, about 30% of babies born
to HIV positive mothers are infected. In areas where mothers don’t tend to breast feed,
the rate is about 20%. A similar pattern was seen in the United States before
prevention strategies targeting pregnant women were introduced. In 2000, only 6% of
the infants born to HIV-positive women were born with the virus, the study found.
Researchers said similar prevention programs needs to be stepped up in the
developing world, where about 700,000 babies were born with HIV last year.
   However, the CDC researchers warned that HIV infection rates among women are
on the rise, which means that eliminating the transmission of the virus from mothers
to children will prove increasingly difficult without a cut in the number of women
becoming to as many as 135,500, Fleming said. According to the CDC, advances in
treatment methods have reduced the risk of transmission from 25% for untreated HIV
mothers to 2% for those taking combinations of anti-AIDS drugs.
   However, the treatment is far from perfect and improvement in drug therapies
appear to be reaching a limit. Fleming estimated that even with the best antiretroviral
treatment, up to 130 infants would be infected each year. “The simple fact is that the
best way to prevent new infections in babies is to prevent infections in women,” she
said.

     52.  Which of the following statements is true?
         A. About 80% less infants were born infected with HIV in 2000 than in
            1991.
         B. In some developing countries, about 30% babies are born infected with
            HIV.
         C. Breastfeeding is the main cause for infants to be infected wit HIV.
         D. Altogether 700,000 babies were born with HIV in the world in 2000.
     53. However, in the future it will be more and more difficult to prevent the
          children from being infected by the virus because______.

                                                                                      35
        A. the present treatment is far from effective
        B. anti-Aids drugs are too expensive for families in the developing
           countries
        C. the number of mothers infected with HIV is on the rise
        D. the environment has become too polluted for effective therapy
    54. Which of the following best presents the main idea of the passage?
        A. The United States has made outstanding achievements in reducing the
           number of infants born infected with HIV.
        B. HIV infection among infants is still a serious problem in the world today,
           especially in the developing world.
        C. All the people in the world should work together to fight against AIDS.
        D. Experts estimate that people will eliminate HIV infection among women
           and children one day.

   Passage 19
   Telecommuting---- substituting the computer for the trip to the job---has been
hailed as a solution to all kinds of problems related to office work.
   For workers it promises freedom from the office, less time wasted in traffic, and
help with child-care conflicts. For management, telecommuting helps keep high
performers on board, minimizes tardiness and absenteeism by eliminating commutes,
allows periods of solitude for high-concentration tasks, and provides scheduling
flexibility. In some areas, such as Southern California and Seattle, Washington, local
governments are encouraging companies to start telecommuting programs in order to
reduce rush-hour congestion and improve air quality.
   But these benefits do not come easily. Making a telecommuting program work
requires careful planning and an understanding of the differences between
telecommuting realities and popular images.
   Many workers are seduced by rosy illusions of life as a telecommuter. A computer
programmer from New York City moves to the tranquil Adirondack Mountains and
stays in contact with her office via computer. A manager comes in to his office three
days a week and works at home the other two. An accountant stays home to care for
her sick child; she hooks up her telephone modem connections and does office work
between calls to the doctor.
   These are powerful images, but they are a limited reflection of reality.
Telecommuting workers soon learn that it is almost impossible to concentrate on work
and care for a young child at the same time. Before a certain age, young children
cannot recognize, much less respect, the necessary boundaries between work and
family. Additional child support is necessary if the parent is to get any work done.
   Management, too, must separate the myth from the reality. Although the media
have paid a great deal of attention to telecommuting, in most cases it is the
employee’s situation, not the availability of technology, that precipitates a
telecommuting arrangement.
   That is partly why, despite the widespread press coverage, the number of companies
with work-at-home programs or policy guidelines remains small.

                                                                                    36
     55.  What is the main subject of the passage?
         A. Business management policies.
         B. Driving to work.
         C. Extending the workplace by means of computers.
         D. Computers for child-care purposes.
     56. Which of the following does the author mention as a possible disadvantage
          of telecommuting?
         A. Telecommuters have difficulty concentrating on their work at home
             while taking care of their children.
         B. Computer technology is not advanced enough to accommodate the needs
             of every situation.
         C. Electrical malfunctions can destroy a project.
         D. The worker often does not have all the needed resources at home.
     57. Which of the following is an example of telecommuting as described in the
          passage?
         A. A scientist in a laboratory developing plans foe a space station.
         B. A technical writer sending via computer documents created at home.
         C. A computer technician repairing an office computer network.
         D. A teacher directing computer-assisted learning in a private school.

   Passage 20
   The Motor race was not due to begin until 2:30 and the large crowd cheered loudly
when at 2:15 the first cars were wheeled out to take up their positions. So many
racing-cars gathered together were a rare and splendid sight. Shining red, blue, and
silver in the bright sunshine, they looked rather like jet-areoplanes without wings. On
the course, drivers dressed in helmets were talking to each other or standing by their
cars, while engineers checked the engines for the last time. Soon a great many people
began arriving at the starting-point and the crowd broke into clapping when the two
champions, Mercer and Torres, arrived on the scene.
   At 2: 30 sharp there was a pistol-shot followed by a roar of engines. The race had
begun and in a few seconds the cars were fighting for the first place. All the cars got
off well except No. 5, which refused to start and was hurriedly wheeled off the track.
   From the very beginning it seemed as if the race would be entirely between Torres
and Mercer, for they were soon in front of the others. A small blue car with an
unknown driver at the wheel was following close behind, but was not near enough to
offer the champions any serious challenge. The cars flashed by like bullets and there
were cheers when Mercer’s car took the lead. But this did not last long, for after a
while he seemed to be having trouble and he stopped his big silver car to have a wheel
changed. Though this was done at great speed, it gave Torres time enough to get well
in front. There seemed little chance for Mercer to catch up now. The only car
anywhere near Torres was the blue car—until something went wrong with it. On a
dangerous bend it got out of control, spun round several times, and shot up the side of
the bank. Its driver steered it skillfully back on the course and went on as if nothing

                                                                                     37
had happened. Torres was now over half a lap in front and the race was nearing its end.
Mercer was just coming into third place when the blue car moved away at tremendous
speed. There were gasps of surprise from the crowd as the unknown driver drew
closer and closer to Torres and finally sped past him in the last lap to win the race.

    58.  “…fighting for the first place” in the second paragraph means____.
         A. coming first                           B. getting ahead
         C. trying hard to take the lead           D. remaining in front
    59. What happened to car No.5?
        A. It broke down after it had gone a few yards.
        B. It refused to start and remained on the track.
        C. It didn’t take part in the race at all.
        D. It was the only car that got off well.
    60. When the race was towards its end, it looked as if______.
        A. Mercer would win
        B. Torres would win
        C. The blue car would win
        D. Torres and Mercer would tie for the first place

  Passage 21
  So you’ve got an MBA from Stanford University, an impressive resume and believe
beyond the shadow of a doubt that you were born to manage. So what? Those
credentials don’t make you suitable for that executive spot you applied for if you
don’t do your homework and show a little humility.
  Confidence is key, but hiring managers recognize the difference between
self-assurance and arrogance--- the latter being the No. 1 mistake an upper-lever
management job candidate can make in an interview. “Anyone you meet at a company
can have an influence on your ability to get the job,” says Laura Ceccato, regional
manager of RHI in San Jose.
  Ceccato says hiring managers want executives who are amiable and able to
communicate well with employees at all levels. For this reason, she says, a job
candidate who displays arrogance toward the receptionist, for example, might be
passed over for that reason alone.
  No doubt times have changed, and the law of supply and demand is clearly in favor
of the corporations, which have a vast pool of qualified candidates from which to
choose. But, as the survey indicates, arrogance still worms its way into the interview
room. “A lot of candidates still feel that we should sell the company to them,” says
Bob Shawhan, director of staffing for Mountain View-based Web conferencing
company PlaceWare Inc. “While that was the case two years ago, it doesn’t work
anymore,” he adds. “They should be the ones proving their value to us.”
  Shawhan says the biggest problem he encounters is a lack of knowledge about the
company and the position. “Even recently, we’ve had candidates who don’t really
understand the market or the company,” he says, who expects interviewees to come to
the interview not only with a keen understanding of the market, but also with a short

                                                                                    38
list of solutions or suggestions for the company.
   After all, any executive or other senior-level position demands a keen ability to
solve problems, so proper preparation by a job candidate---or lack of it---before an
interview is a big issue. “And nowadays, with the easy accessibility of information,
there’s really no excuse for not being prepared,” Shawhan says.
   Of those candidates who may have done their homework on the company, many
have difficulty speaking about their own achievements. And sometimes, job
candidates can’t even remember what is on their resumes. Furthermore, it is important
for an executive candidate to know what they want out of their career. Many of the
people he interviews are unclear about this.
   So remember that when you’re interviewing for a senior-level position--- whether
it’s in a bull or a bear market--- it pays to be prepared. And leave the attitude at the
door.

     61.  Which of the following do you think is the best topic of this article?
         A. How to apply for a job.
         B. Managers should be humble to the receptionists.
         C. Some tips for MBA students in their job interviews.
         D. The bear market makes it difficult for people to look for jobs.
     62. Compared with what was two years ago, ____.
         A. fewer qualified candidates are available in the job market
         B. more and more candidates appear to be arrogant
         C. fewer interviewers are ready to sell their companies to the candidates
         D. there are more MBA students looking for jobs than the vacancies in
            corporations
     63. How do you understand the last sentence “ And leave the attitude at the
          door”?
         A. The candidates should not expect too much in a job interview.
         B. The candidates should be dressed well before they walk into the door of
            the interview.
         C. The candidates should know how to behave from the very beginning of
            the interview.
         D. The candidates should smile at the receptionist as they enter the door of
            the company.

   Passage 22
   For months the old tanker, African Queen, lay turned over in her side, stuck fast in
the sands off the coast of Maryland. She had run around so badly that her owners had
decided to leave her to her fate. It was considered impossible to refloat her and the
ship began to rust and sink deeper and deeper into the sands. Men frequently came out
in small boats and removed any parts that could he sold--- until two men decided to
attempt the impossible: to float the African Queen once more. Both men were
engineers and had no experience of ships so that few people thought they could
succeed.

                                                                                      39
   The men began by studying the exact state of the African Queen and came to the
conclusion that she would float again if air was pumped into the tanks which were
now full of sea water. A diver was sent down to examine the underside of the ship. In
the cold, dark water he found an enormous hole in her side which had been torn when
the ship run aground. It was plain that nothing could be done until the hole was
repaired. As no single sheet of steel would cover it, the men were obliged to order a
great number of sheets which had to be joined together. For several weeks divers
worked continually to close up the hole. At times, the sea was so rough that it was
difficult to go down; and on more than one occasion, they had to contend with sharks.
   At last the hole was covered and the men began to pump the sea-water out of the
ship’s tanks. It seemed as if they were bound to succeed, for when the tanks were full
of air, the African Queen began to stir in the water. The men could not understand
why she still would not float until they discovered that her rudder was embedded in
mud. Huge crane were brought to haul the sunken rudder out and the ship was again
afloat. By this time, the men were almost exhausted. They had worked ceaselessly for
three months to save the African Queen and had succeeded when everyone thought
they would fail. Now they stood on the bridge of the ship, tired but proud, as tugs
brought the African Queen into the harbor.

    64.  African Queen was ______.
        A. an old tanker abandoned by her owner because she was too old
        B. a ship containing ancient treasures
        C. a cruise ship lying at the bottom of the Pacific Ocean
        D. an old tanker which ran aground and would not refloat
    65. The African Queen floated again after____.
        A. the sea water was pumped out of the tanks
        B. the tanks were filled with air
        C. the rudder was removed from the seabed
        D. the hole was covered with sheets of steel
    66. What did the two engineers do according to passage?
        A. They successfully saved the African Queen because they had a lot of
           experience with this kind of situation.
        B. They succeeded in refloating the African Queen after working hard for
           more than half a year.
        C. They managed to have the African Queen refloated and brought into the
           harbor though many people thought they were doomed to failure.
        D. They made a name for themselves by saving the most valuable old
           tanker.

  Passage 23
  Esprit de Corp., a San Francisco empire, is closing its Silicon Valley stores after
passing the baton to its Hong Kong offshoot. The clothing manufacturer succeeded in
spreading its brand name worldwide, but will close the last of its U.S. stores by the
end of the month. Virtually all of the last remaining assets--- its headquarters and a

                                                                                    40
four-acre parcel near Mission Bay in San Francisco --- are on the selling block and
valued at roughly $45 million.
   In late April, Esprit de Corp., founded in San Francisco in 1968, sold all of its
trademark rights in the United States and the Caribbean and its 37 percent interest in
Esprit International for $150 million to Esprit Holdings Ltd., an Esprit trademark
owner based in Hong Kong. EHL’s purchase of Esprit de Corp.’s interest gives it full
ownership of the brand worldwide.
   While Esprit winds down U.S. operations, the brand thrives throughout the rest of
the world. It remains to be seen if Bay Area residents will be able to walk into an
Esprit store in the future. EHL has not decided if it will open its own Esprit stores in
the United States, says a company spokeswoman. But the Esprit brand will be
available in the states as EHL is signing contracts with companies to design and
distribute its products here. Esprit de Corp. produced three product lines: women’s
clothing, shoes and accessories. EHL has a much broader product line with casual and
working women’s clothing, as well as men’s and kid’s clothes, shoes, accessories and
underwear. Those will gradually penetrate the U.S. market.
   The main remaining assets of the original Esprit de Corp. are its headquarters
buildings and its outlet store property. Its headquarters is located a few blocks south
of the massive Mission Bay development, next to China Basin in San Francisco.
Although the San Francisco outlet store is only about 45,000 square feet, the land is in
the process of receiving development approvals as part of a larger 475,000 square feet
of development. Esprit had hired a consultant to pursue those entitlements so the
company could sell the property and use the cash to infuse the business. That was
before Esprit decided to sell out. In this economy it may take a while to sell that
property.
   A couple of years ago the Esprit outlet property would have been worth about $45.5
million. It’s difficult to value now since there are so few sales transactions, but it is
estimated that it’s worth about $30 million. Esprit is leaving the price open to
negotiation.

  67. Esprit de Corp. sold _____ to Esprit Holdings.
          A. all of its trademark rights throughout the united States and the Caribbean
          B. a certain percentage of interest in Esprit International
          C. full ownership of the brand worldwide
          D. both the trademark rights in the U.S. and the Caribbean and some of its
       interest
  68. Esprit de Corp. produces____.
          A. men’s, women’s and children’s clothes
          B. women’s clothes, shoes and accessories
          C. casual and working women’s clothing as well as underwear
          D. men’s clothing only
  69. After the sale, people in the United Sates_____.
          A. will not be able to buy Esprit de Corp. clothing
          B. will still be able to walk into an Esprit store

                                                                                       41
         C. can still buy Esprit clothing, but in the stores of another brand
         D. can still buy the same style of clothing under the new brand EHL

   Passage 24
   Early next morning the man left the little village where he had spent the night. He
took the narrow, winding country road which he knew led to a small town twelve
miles away. After walking for two hours, he came to a path which cut across the
country and led directly to the town. Leaving the road, the man passed through a gate
and was soon walking through the path. The fields were deserted. To the left and right
of the path, corn sheaves were arranged in neat row. The only sign of human
habitation was a small farmhouse across the field where the brilliant morning sun was
reflected in the windows.
   Suddenly the man heard the low hum of an engine. At first he thought that it must
be a car traveling along the road he had recently left. He expected the noise to fade
away in the distance. Instead, it grew louder and louder and seemed to be coming
from above. He looked up quickly and saw an aeroplane cutting a crazy, zig-zag path
across the sky. It disappeared for an instant behind some clouds, then emerged and
plunged towards the field. The aeroplane was coming towards him. He gazed at it
terrified and immediately took cover in a small hollow in the field, his eyes following
the course of the aeroplane the whole time. As he watched it, he felt sure it would
crash and burst into flames before his eyes. Then, as if by miracles, it pulled out of the
dive and touched down on the field. The aeroplane bounced wildly across the uneven
ground carrying away anything that lay in its path. In a matter of seconds, it crashed
through a hedge only a few yards away from where the man was crouching. After that
all was still. The man stood up dazed. For a moment he thought of running the
farmhouse and asking for help; but he changed his mind and rushed towards the gap
in the hedge.

  70. The man left the road_____.
         A. in order to pay a visit to the small farmhouse
         B. because he wanted to get something to eat in the fields
         C. so that he could take a shortcut to town
         D. for none of the above reasons
  71. When he first heard the noise, he_____.
         A. realized that it was a car
         B. didn’t realize that it was an areoplane
         C. knew it was coming from the above
         D. believed it would continue for a long time
  72. “… cutting a crazy, zig-zag path” in the second paragraph means____.
      A. moving in straight line                     B. moving wildly from left to right
      C. going mad                                   D. tearing up a path

  Passage 25



                                                                                        42
   Allegheny Energy Inc. said Monday it will cut 600 jobs, or 10 percent of its work
force, and cancel construction of two power plants to help cut costs after an
unexpectedly weak first half.
    The company--- with customers in parts of Maryland, Ohio, Pennsylvania,
Virginia and West Virginia--- also lowered its 2002 earnings estimate by more than
25 percent, citing lower wholesale energy prices, mild winter and spring weather, and
substantially decreased energy trading since the collapse of Enron Corp.
   The news sent Allegheny Energy’s stock price down more than 6 percent, or $1.58
a share, to $24.45 in morning trading on the New York Stock Exchange.
   Most of the job cuts will come this year, through a combination of early retirements,
normal attribution and layoffs, the company said. Allegheny employs 6,000 people
overall. The job cuts will reduce costs by about $5 million this year and $40 million to
$50 million annually in coming years, Allegheny said. The Hagerstown-based
company also said it has canceled construction of a 1,080-megawatt generating plant
in La Paz, Ariz., and an 88-megawatt plant in St. Joseph, Ind., reducing capital
expenses by about $700 million over the next several years. Those actions and others
are aimed at lowering pretax operating expenses by $45 million for the rest of 2002,
Allegheny said.
   The company estimated 2002 earning at $2.50 to 2.70 a share, down from its
previous forecast of $3.60 to $3.70 per share. The consensus forecast of analysts
surveyed by Thomson Financial/ First Call was for 2002 earnings of $3.15 a share
Allegheny will announce second-quarter earnings later this month.
   As a result of its actions, Allegheny said it expects to record charges to earnings in
the second and third quarters of 2002. The cancellation of power plants will result in a
pretax charge of about $40 million; the charge related to the job cuts hasn’t yet been
calculated, the company said. In addition, Allegheny said it may take a charge against
earnings this year reflecting overpayment for two West Virginia companies---
Mountaineer Gas Co. and West Virginia Power Co.--- that Allegheny bought in 2000.
New accounting rules this year require companies to review the amount, known as
“goodwill”, that they paid above and beyond the asset’s book value. Allegheny
recorded $195 million worth of goodwill in its acquisition of the West Virginia assets.

  73. What has been mentioned about Allegheny Energy Inc.?
        A. In order to cut costs, Allegheny Energy Inc. will reduce 10 percent of its
             employees and delay construction of two power plants.
        B. The company mainly focuses on customers in the southwest part of the
             United States.
        C. After the news was released, the stock price of the company lowered
             more than 60 cents in the New York Stock Exchange.
        D. Before the announcement of the news, the stock price of Allegheny
             Energy Inc. was $26.03 a share
  74. How will Allegheny Energy Inc. reduce its employees?
       A. By means of early retirement and normal attrition.
       B. By early retirement and job layoff in addition to normal attribution.

                                                                                      43
       C. By volunteer resignation with compensation.
       D. By means of early retirement and resignation.
  75. How much is the company’s estimated earnings for 2002 now?
         A. $3.15 a share
         B. $ 3.60 to $ 3.70 a share
         C. $ 2.50 to $ 2.70 a share
         D. $ 1.60 to $ 1.70 a share

   Passage 26
   Smoke continued billowing southward Sunday from forest fires in the Canadian
province of Quebec, cresting high above some areas and permeating other
neighborhoods at ground level. As a result, the Departments of Environmental
Protection in New Jersey and Pennsylvania issued air advisories, warning some
people to stay inside today.
   New Jersey’s warning was statewide, while Pennsylvania’s focused on 20 eastern
and central countries. “We are advising residents, especially people with respiratory
conditions, children and the elderly, to stay indoors for the next 24 hours,”
Pennsylvania DEP Secretary David Hess said Sunday in a prepared statement.
   Until the smoke passes out of the Northeast, Dr. Eric Schenkel of the Valley
Clinical Research Center said health effects will vary depending on the individual and
the area. People without respiratory problems could experience some irritation but do
not face as much risk as people with afflictions such as asthma, emphysema or
bronchitis.
   People in northwestern New Jersey first noticed the smoke Saturday and the smoky
haze grew more obvious by Sunday. Fire companies throughout the area have
received calls from people reporting smoke from different counties. Parts of Easton’s
College Hill retained an acrid smell similar to that which lingers in the days following
a fire. On the other hand, lowland areas had no more than slightly hazy skies.
   National Weather Service meteorologist Roy Miller said the haze over the northeast
United States is expected to begin drifting out over the Atlantic Ocean sometime
today. It’s not uncommon for forest fires to release smoke over so large an area,
Miller said. “Mostly the forest fires occur in the western states,” Miller said. “We’re
just not used to them here.”
   In Quebec, there are more than just respiratory hazards, however. About 10 blazes
are out of control and likely will continue to grow until rain comes late this week,
according to Quebec fire protection service spokesman Eric Santerre, Two Indian
villages south of James Bay, Quebec have been evacuated. Smoke was so dense
Saturday and Sunday that Quebec forest fire protection service couldn’t fly into the
region. “It’s impossible to fly over and drop water with the waterbombers,” Santerre
said. Smoke has blanketed Montreal and drifted as far south as Washington, D.C. and
west to Michigan. In some areas, it crests at 10,000 feet above sea level. In others, it
can be smelled at ground level.

  76. Which of the following groups of people should be especially careful?

                                                                                      44
       A.      Old people with respiratory illness.
       B.      The old and the young as well as those with respiratory diseases.
       C.      Females, particularly the old and the young.
       D. People who work outdoors.
  77. What will be the problem facing Quebec in the near future?
       A.      People will suffer from various kinds of diseases.
       B.      All the villages will be evacuated.
       C.      It will be very difficult to bring the fire completely under control.
       D. Waterbombers cannot be dropped into the region.
  78. What is the most appropriate title for the message?
        A.       Smoke from the Forest Fire in Canadian Went Out of Control.
        B.      Forest Fire in Quebec--- Its Potential Dangers.
        C.      Forest Fire in Canada Spread to the U.S.
        D.      U.S. Citizens Suffered from Smoke from the Forest Fire in Canada.

   Passage 27
   A police officer who was videotaped as he slammed a handcuffed teenager onto a
car and punched him should be fired and charged with assault, the mayor of
Inglewood in California said Tuesday. “I will not under any circumstancestolerate the
type of conduct I observed in the videotape,” Mayor Roosevelt Dorn said at news
conference. Outside, dozens of protesters shouted, “ No justice, no peace.” Dorn
called for the investigation to finish within 10 days. He said he reached his
conclusions after viewing the bystander’s videotape, which has been shown
repeatedly on national television. “Based on the investigation he should be fired, no
question about it, that’s my opinion,” the mayor said.
   The tape shows Inglewood Officer Morse smashing Donovan Jackson, 16, into a
car, then striking him in the face during an arrest at a gas station Saturday. Two other
officers appear to intervene, with at least one trying to pull away the first officer’s
arm.
   The mayor said the officer’s action were criminal and that he should be charged
with assault and violating the teenager’s civil rights. “I’m sure if I looked there are
other crimes,” Dorn said.
   The Inglewood Police Department, the Los Angeles County Sheriff’s Department,
the district attorney’s office and the FBI are conducting investigations. Morse, who
has been with the department for three years, was put on leave with pay Monday. The
police Department referred requests for comment to the police union, which has not
returned messages.
   The Inglewood officers were assisting two Los Angeles County sheriff’s deputies
who stopped a car for an expired registration. The car was being driven by Jackson’s
father, Coby Chavis, 41. Police and sheriff’s officials said the teen lunged at deputies
and was combative, while the boy’s father said he cooperated and Morse attacked him
unprovoked. The family’s lawyer, Joe Hopkins, said the teen was developmentally
disabled with no arrest record. The teen was booked for investigation of assault on a
peace officer; his father was cited for driving with a suspended license.

                                                                                       45
  The video was recorded by a man who was staying at a motel across the street.
Sheriff’s Lt. Carl Deeley said investigators had collected video from gas station
surveillance cameras and were attempting to enhance it. “They are reviewing it and
hopeful that it will give us a different side of angle,” he said.
   Inglewood, a city of 115,000 in southwestern Los Angeles County, has a police
force of 211 uniformed officers.

  79. What was the Mayor’s attitude towards the police officer in the videotape?
      A. Indifferent                        B. Tolerant.
      C. Indignant                          D. Determined
  80. What did the videotape show?
          A. The officer slammed the boy into the car and kicked him.
          B. The officer dragged the teenager out of the car and slammed him on the
            face.
          C.The officer slammed the boy into the car and struck him in the face.
          D.The officer pulled away the boy’s arm as he tried to arrest the boy’s
              father.
  81. The video which has been shown repeatedly on national television was
       recorded by _____.
          A. someone at a motel opposite the street
          B. a passer-by who happened to be on the spot
          C. a tourist sightseeing in the region
          D. the gas station surveillance cameras

   Passage 28
   Until the mid-18th century nearly everything manufactured in England was made by
hand by craftsmen working in small villages. Cobblers and blacksmiths, for example,
piled their crafts in or near their own homes. However, in the latter part of the century,
mass production in factories began to compete with these village craftsmen and did so
increasingly in the 19th century. The slow methods of cottage craftsmen could not
compete with the highly organized work of the factories, especially when steam
power was available to speed the work.
   When there were canals and railways to carry the raw materials cheaply to the big
industrial towns, it became unnecessary for the manufacturing to be done in distant
scattered localities. Industry became more and more concentrated and therefore more
efficient. This change-over from hand crafts to factory production is called the
Industrial Revolution. Together with the great many enclosures that were still taking
place, this Revolution brought great misery to village people. It is true that canals and
railways, as well as roads, were providing a certain amount of employment in the
villages through which they passed. But on the whole there was less opportunity for
the country workers than formerly and less variety in the work available.
   Many of the enterprising and intelligent of the country workers moved into the
towns to become factory hands. Others emigrated to the colonies. Those that remained
in the villages sank into a state of hopeless poverty, and many of them were near

                                                                                       46
starvation. Some were forced by hunger to become poachers and thieves, and in
places the strife between poachers and gamekeepers amounted almost to civil war.
   When labor-saving machines invaded the fields and deprived the men of the
villages of such work as reaping, which had always been done by hand, they were so
desperate that they stormed farm-building and smashed the machines. This did them
no good, however, for the farmers and landowners had the forces of law firmly on
their side, and the ringleaders were severely punished and the riots quelled.
   As a result of this strife, many cottages had become so neglected that they were
very nearly uninhabitable. Although by that time many of them had three or even four
rooms, they were often damp, badly ventilated and over crowed.

  82. What, according to the write, was one disadvantage of village methods of
      production?
        A. They could only be pursued part-time.
        B. They were less efficient than factory methods.
        C. Products made by hand were inferior in quality.
        D. It was difficult to transport the finished product.
  83. Before the construction of canals, railways and better roads, goods had been
       manufactured in ____.
        A. places which were far apart             B. towns which were closed together
        C. factories which were in big towns         D. villages which were near towns
  84. How did the more adventurous people avoid the effects of the Industrial
       Revolution?
         A. They became poachers.
         B. They destroyed farm buildings
         C. They worked on the railways.
         D. They went overseas.

   Passage 29
   Water, water everywhere. It doesn’t take more than a few minutes in Stockholm to
feel the full force of this charming city’s slogan: “Beauty on water.” Built on 14
islands, 4 of which essentially constitute the city center, and shot through with a series
of canals that lead to the 24,000 islands of Sweden’s archipelago and eventually to the
Baltic Sea, Stockholm offers a fantastic variety of aquatic activity.
   In addition to providing transportation and plenty options for pleasure boating, its
waterways, which make up one-third of the city’s area, are clean enough for
swimming and fishing. Visitors accustomed to the unappealing waters that usually run
through urban settings will be delighted at the sight of amateur and professional
fishermen at work in the open expanses of the city center, where salmon and trout are
plentiful thanks to annual stocking.
   In addition to nurturing more leisurely pursuits, the canals played an important part
in Stockholm’s trade history. When the first fort for controlling commercial boat
traffic was built in the 13th century, timber arranged in fencelike structures was used



                                                                                        47
to direct the vessels, and it is believed that the name Stockholm may have derived
from this practice.
   On a summer day, the city glitters invitingly in the sun. What better way, then, to
get your bearings than with a boat trip? The main tourist office at the Sweden House
is the most convenient to the launching point for Stockholm Sightseeing’s boat tours,
which leave from in front of the Grand Hotel, on a peninsula between the two sections
of Stockholm’s downtown area. A pleasant stroll will bring you within sight of the
company’s kiosk and its fleet of low boats. Several groups offer such tours, but
Stockholm Sightseeing’s are among the most extensive, letting visitors pick the trip
best suited to their interests.
   The Royal Canal tour, which I selected one day last summer, provides an ideal
quick overview of the city. It lasts an hour, weaving among central areas of the city,
pointing out the main sites of interest in each and providing illuminating historical
and ethnographic information along the way in a variety of languages, including
English.
   If you’re looking for a different kind of thrill, take note of the rides in the
amusement park, right near the Vasamuseet, which is also visible from the boat. On a
busy day, the screams of park patrons particularly those on the Free Fall are audible
across the water. Once you’re back on land, it’s easy enough to take a ferry or a bus to
enjoy your pick of activities there.

  85. Stockholm’s slogan “Beauty on Water” can be best interpreted by the fact that
    _____.
         A. it is built on 14 islands
         B. a series of canals wind through the city
         C. the canals lead to 24,000 islands and eventually to the Baltic Sea
         D. water is the main artery of the city and it boast a fantastic variety of
           aquatic activity
  86. Stockholm had its name derived from_____.
         A. people’s practice of enjoying boating leisurely on its waterways
         B. people’s practice in the 13th century to use timber arranged in fencelike
           structures to direct the vessels
         C. the fact that it was the first fort for controlling commercial boat traffic
         D. the fact that the canals played an important part in Stockholm’s trade
               history
  87. Which of the following is true concerning the Royal Canal tour?
         A. The tour lasts for an hour.
         B. The tour is conducted only in English.
         C.You not only get to know the places of interest but also learn to
           appreciate the modern architecture during the tour.
         D. The tour brings you along the canals in and out of the central area of the
           city.

  Passage 30

                                                                                      48
   The mayor of New York Michael R. Bloomberg hinted that he might resort to
layoffs to ease what he now calls a “budget crisis,” and his administration has taken
the first step by inviting city commissioners to consider layoffs to cut the city payroll.
   Mr. Bloomberg, who had repeatedly said that the city would not need to lay off
workers this year unless something unforeseen happened, now appears to be weighing
the possibility. The mayor is looking to cut a billion dollars more from the $42.3
billion budget that took effect in July to make sure that if remains balanced, and to
save for next year, when he projects a budget gap of $3.7 billion to $6 billion. “If you
take a look at the budget crisis we have, we’re going to have to find some ways to
downsize,” Mr. Bloomberg said at a news conference.
   The mayor made the remark as his budge director, Mark Page, sent a letter to city
commissioners that opened the door to layoffs. The letter said that while early
retirement programs and severance packages were the preferred ways to cut jobs,”
you should not be constrained by achieving head count savings only through
attrition.” All city agencies are being asked to propose ways to cut their spending by
7.5%. When the mayor called on agency heads last week to develop the cost-cutting
plans, he indicated that he would be flexible in deciding which cuts they would have
to make. The letter from Mr. Page told the agency heads that “ for the purposes of
meeting your target, you should assume whatever personnel changes may be
necessary”
   It was still far from clear how seriously the administration was thinking about
layoffs. The City Council, which passed the budget after months of wrangling over
budget cuts, has played down the threat of further severe cuts recently, noting that
past mayors have also asked agencies to propose cuts as an exercise. Mayors have
often threatened layoffs in times of great fiscal uncertainty, and sometimes raised the
threat as a bargaining tool with unions and to reassure credit-rating agencies. Mayor
Rudolph W. Giuliani sought to cut thousands of jobs in the 1994 but reached
agreements with the unions on reductions that averted most layoffs. But in 1991, the
Dinkins administration laid off thousands of workers as the city grappled with a
recession.

  88. Why did mayor of New York want to lay off employees in the government?
         A. Because of the recent financial crisis in the U.S.
         B. Because something unexpected happened.
         C. Because the city intended to reduce the budget deficit.
         D. Because the city payroll was too large.
  89. How much is the budget of the city for this year?
        A. 42.3 billion. B. 41.3 billion         C. 3.7 billion        D. 6 billion
  90. According to the city council, mayors like to propose layoff in order to _____.
       A. get more fiscal income
       B. gain an advantageous position in bargains with the labor union
       C. make sure of a higher credit rating
       D. all of the above



                                                                                        49
Section B      Fast Reading

Directions: In this section there are 42 short texts for fast reading organized into 7
groups with 10 questions in each. Read the question(s) related to a text before you
skim or san the text itself to find the answer. You should finish a group of text in 5
minutes.

Group 1

  Questions 1-2 are based on Text 1
    1. What qualities have been attached great importance to in doing business in
       Brazil?
        A. Continuity and punctuality.
        B. Courtesy and straight-forwardness.
        C. Commitment and flexibility.
        D. Trust and loyalty.
    2. What languages might be used in business negotiations in Brazil?
        A. English and Spanish.
        B. English and French.
        C. English and Portuguese.
        D. Spanish and Portuguese.

   Text 1
   Brazilians are warm and friendly people and building personal relationships with
associates is an important part of the business culture. Loyalty and trust are highly
valued and you will be unlikely to commence business negotiations until continuity
has been established in your working relationship.
   As a general rule, Brazilians are relaxed about timekeeping and meetings may run
on longer than planned, so allow plenty of time between appointments. At any
get-together, shake hands with everyone in the room, both on arrival and departure.
Meetings usually start with small talk and have an informal air.
   English is widely spoken in business circles. If your Brazilian counterparts are
reluctant to conduct negotiations in English, don’t use Spanish ---- although it is the
official language of the rest of South America. Portuguese is the first language in
Brazil. Speaking in Spanish will reveal a lack of cultural awareness and may cause
offence. For this reason, business cards are seldom printed in Spanish.

  Question 3 is based on Text 2
    3. What’s the main idea of this passage?
        A. The importance of understanding a country’s culture in business
          expansion.
        B. The importance of getting the local staff with local knowledge in a
          business organization.
        C. The importance of knowing what insiders think about.

                                                                                     50
           D. The importance of innovation and idea-sharing in a business
             organization.

   Text 2
   To truly understand a country and its culture, you have to be part of it. That’s why,
at HSBC, all our offices around the world are staffed by local people. In fact you’ll
find we’ve got local people in more countries than any other bank. It’s their insight
that allows us to recognize financial opportunities invisible to outsiders. But those
opportunities don’t just benefit our customers. Innovation and ideas are shared
throughout the HSBC network, so that everyone who banks with us can benefit.
   Think of it as local knowledge that just happens to span the globe.

  Question 4 is based on Text 3
      4. What percentage of the total investment in China in the first eight months of
   this year went to commercial housing?
      A. 24.3%         B. 29%          C. 69.1%          D. 17.7%

   Text 3
   China invested 241.34 billion yuan in the development of real estate in the first
eight months of this year, rising 24.3% over the same period of last year, according to
the China National Bureau of Statistics. Of this, 166.82 billion yuan went to
residential housing, 29% more than in the same period of last year, or69.1% of the
total, up 2.5%; 16.62 billion yuan were used to build office towers, dropping 3.5% or
6.9% of the total, down 2.0%; and 25.37 billion yuan went to commercial
establishments, rising 17.1% or 10.5% of the total, down 0.6%.

  Questions 5-6 are based on Text 4
    5. The writer is trying ______.
         A. to argue for the need of exercise programs
         B. to explain how often one should go to the fitness center
         C. to recommend ways to keep oneself in shape
         D. to illustrate why one needs to have trimmer thighs
    6. If one feels dull, achy muscle pain, one ____.
         A. must stop exercising
         B. might do lower-body strength training
         C. can keep on exercising
         D. may do 3 to 5 minutes of large-muscle exercises

  Text 4
                                   Thigh Trimmers
  Fitness experts recommend these exercises for trimmer thighs in just four weeks. A
few points:
       1. Do the exercises three times a week, rather than every day. Muscles need
          time to recover.

                                                                                      51
        2. Weights. Tufts University’s Nelson recommends adjustable ankle
     weights—from 1 to 20 pounds. Dumbbells are also useful. For beginners, 2to 5
     pounds; stronger women, 5 to 8 pounds; advanced, 8 pounds and up. Begin at the
     highest weight that feels comfortable. When you can do two sets (8 to 12
     repetitions per set) of an exercise without difficulty, move to the next higher
     weight.
        3. Try aerobic exercise on days you don’t do lower-body strength training:
     walking, swimming, biking or aerobics classes.
        4. Sharp pain in or near a joint? Stop the exercise and check that you are
     doing it correctly. If it still hurts, don’t do it. (Dull, achy muscle pain is normal
     fatigue.) If you’re not used to regular exercise, consult a doctor before beginning
     this, or any exercise program.
   Warm up. Always do 3 to 5 minutes of large-muscle exercises, like walking or
stretching, before starting your program.

  Questions 7-8 are based on Text 5
  7. Which are the two music companies that are involved in the case?
       A.AOL Time Warner and Sony.
       B. Virgin and Sony.
       C. Virgin and Vivendi Universal.
       D. Vivendi Universal and Warner Communications.
  8. What was Vivendi Universal’s reaction to the charge?
      A. It reached an agreement with the Federal Trade commission.
      B. It agreed to stop the anticompetitive practices.
      C. It denied the charge and intended to appeal.
      D. It asked the full commission to review the case.

  Text 5
  Two music companies that joined forces to sell recordings of the opera stars known
as the Three Tenors illegally fixed prices, an administrative law judge ruled. The
judge ordered subsidiaries of the French corporation Vivendi Universal to stop its
anticompetitive practices. The other company, Warner Communications, a unit of
AOL Time Warner, reached an accord with the Federal Trade Commission last year.
Judge James P. Timony’s decision, filed June 20, was announced today by the
commission. Vivendi’s Universal Music Group denied any wrongdoing and said it
would appeal the decision, which is subject to review by the full commission.
  The case involves a 1998 recording of the tenors Luciano Pavarotti, Jose Carreras
and Placido Domingo, who have performed every four years during World Cup
soccer finals. Their fourth World Cup concert, Thursday night in Japan, was billed as
their last together. No plans to issue a recording have been announced.

  Questions 9-10 are based on Text 6
  9. What does Hassan Nicholas think about school searches?
     A. Positive.   B. Valuable.      C. Meaningless.       D. Destructive.

                                                                                        52
  10. Why does Karina say school searchers are important?
        A. Because teens have rights.
        B. Because they are the best way to protest students from guns.
        C. Because they are better substitutes for mental detectors.
        D. Because gun-shooting is a big problem in high schools.

  Text 6

  What do you feel about “school searchers”?

   Hassan Nicholas, 18, a Hamilton High School graduate:
   I feel school searches are necessary up to a point. When it disrupts valuable class
time that is already disrupted, then school searches, which are meant to be positive,
end up “breaking” students’ rights. I personally don’t feel any safer with or without
school searches. Unfortunately, a small percentage of teens will go as far as to kill
someone. And if their mind is set on harming someone they will do it no matter what
barriers they have to cross.

  Karina Levitas, 17, Monroe High School:
  School searches are both important and intrusive. Despite the fact that we see
school shootings more nowadays, it’s important to take into consideration that teens
have rights, and it’s almost degrading to search people who honestly would never
harm anyone. Yet, there are people who have the mentality to harm someone.
Likewise, there should be tactics to protect the innocent ones. I feel that metal
detectors should be used at the beginning of school to protect us from guns. But metal
detectors will still not protect us from a harmful mentality.


  Group 2
  Question 11 is based on Text 1
  11. What was President Bush’s purpose to travel to the heart of Manhattan’s
      financial district?
         A. To call for ways to combat fraud and corruption in corporate America.
         B. To help to build up the image of a sensible Wall Street investor.
         C. To accelerate the economic recovery.
         D. To remind people of his own decades- old transactions as a private
           businessman.

   Text 1
   President Bush called for doubled prison terms and aggressive policing to combat
fraud and corruption in scandal-tarred corporate America, promising to do
“everything in our power to end the days of cooking the books.” Democrats faulted
his proposals as inadequate and Wall Street investors yawned. Bush, wearing a Big
Apple lapel pin, traveled to the heart of Manhattan’s financial district to respond to

                                                                                    53
the corporate accounting scandals that have shaken investor confidence, threatened an
economy struggling to recover from recession and called into question his own
decades-old transactions as a private businessman.

  Questions 12-13 are based on Text 2
  12. Of the four restaurants, which offers Mexican food?
      A. Café Pinot. B. Ciudad.             C. Cicada.    D. EI Cholo.
  13. You cannot go to _____ to have dinner on Sunday nights.
    A. Café Pinot. B. Ciudad.              C. Cicada.    D. EI Cholo.

   Text 2
   Café Pinot 700 W. 5th St. (213-239-6500). Lunch: Mon.- Fri.; Dinner: nightly. It
is situated next to the Central Library in a box of glass with a handsome skyward view.
The food is Spanish--- eccentrically delicious Provincial-California cooking.

  Cicada 617S. Oliver St.(213-488-9488). Lunch: Mon.- Fri.; Dinner: Mon.-Sat.
The room is a throwback to old-time elegance, and the food mixes traditional
preparation with contemporary finesse. Appetizers run to shallot flan and foie gras
with caramelized pineapple, and entrées include cuttlefish risotto, coffee-glazed rack
of lamb, and seared snapper with baby leeks.

   Ciudad 445 S. Figueroa St. (213-486-5171). Lunch: Mon.-Fri.; Dinner: nightly.
The tortilla soup here at Mary Sue Milliken and Susan Feniger’s downtown place is a
star. Follow with their pan-Latin cuisine: Argentine empanadas, Swiss chard with
tomatillo sauce, and Brazilian moqueca--- mussels, shrimp, and other seafood in a
coconut-lime broth over coconut rice. Shuttle service to nearby theaters is available.

  EI CHOLO 1121 S. Western Ave. (323-734-2773). Lunch and Dinner: daily.
L.A.’s oldest Mexican restaurant is famed for its margaritas, nachos, guacamole, and
green-corn tamales. It’s one of the best connections we’ve got between the old
Spanish cooking of California and authentic Mexican cuisine.

  Question 14 is based on Text 3
  14.How much value of publicly traded stocks has been trimmed during the last two
weeks?
    A. 8 trillion. B. 1.5 trillion.     C. 7.0 trillion   D. 3 trillion

  Text 3
   Another roller-coaster day on global stock markets yesterday left the Dow Jones
industrial average below the 8,000 mark and economists wondering aloud if the
plunge is share prices will bring the real economy down with it.
  After a day of heavy trading that saw the blue-chip index swing nearly 400 points
during the lunch hour alone, the Dow finished the day off another 234 points, or
nearly 3% at 7784.58. Other broad indexes fell to a similar degree, extending a

                                                                                    54
sell-off that has trimmed $1.5 trillion from the value of publicity traded stocks in just
the last two weeks, and $ 7 trillion since stock prices peaked more than two years age.

  Questions 15-16 are based on Text 4
  15. The fax number of Lydmar Hotel is _____.
      A. (46 - 8) 679 – 635 - 60                          B. (46 – 8) 556 –113 –01
      C. (46 – 8) 556-113-00                              D. (46 – 8) 505 – 630 – 00
  16. Which hotel is actually composed of two hotels?
      A. Grand Hotel                                      B. Nordic Hotel
      C. Lydmar Hotel                                     D. None of the above.

  Text 4

  Lodging

   Grand Hotel:      telephone (46 - 8) 679 – 635 – 60, fax (46 - 8) 611- 886 – 86,
www.grandhotel.se. This luxurious 310-room hotel opened in 1874. Doubles with
breakfast $185 to $251 weekends and $350 to$ 1,424weekdays.
   Lydmar Hotel:       telephone (46 - 8) 566 – 113 – 00, fax (46 - 8) 566 – 113 – 01,
www.lydmar.se. This funky, 62-room modern hotel in the heart of Stureplan presents
jazz and soul acts in its lively bars. Rooms are individually decorated; doubles with
breakfast $ 167 to $449 weekends, $241 to $542 weekdays.
   Nordic Hotel: telephone (46 - 8) 505 – 630 – 00, fax (46 - 8) 505 – 630 – 60,
www.nordichotels.se. is actually two hotels that opened in February, the Nordic Light
and Nordic Sea, across from each other on a square next to the Central Station, very
close to Gamla Stan. The 367 – room Nordic Sea has an elegant, understated maritime
theme (and a bar made of ice year-round); the 175 – room Nordic Light goes for
soothing minimalist approach. Doubles with breakfast from $137 to $ 296 weekends,
$241 to $ 373 weekdays.

  Questions 17 – 18 are based on Text 5
  17. In the resume, the job applicant should_____.
          A. talk about past working experience in detail
          B. make sure that it is without any spelling and grammatical mistakes
          C. give a summary of his strengths as well as his weaknesses
          D. not boast too much about his achievements
  18. Which of the following is NOT a “resume sin”?
          A. “Education” and “professional experience” is included.
          B. A lot of information such as age, height, photos, hobbies, and salary
            requirements is included.
          C. A 3-4-page resume is prepared.
          D. Professional experience is overstated.

  Text 5

                                                                                       55
   Resumes are more important than ever to getting job interviews and offers.
Expertly crafted resumes grab the attention of employers who invite candidates to job
interviews. However, few people really know how to effectively communicate their
qualifications to employers via a high impact resume. Many people confess their
weaknesses, include extraneous information, and fail to clearly showcase what it is
they have done, can do, and will do for the employer. In short, they commit several
resume sins of commission and omission. This should not happen to you!
      Resume Savvy--- Do’s
   Do state an employer-centered “Objective” and/ or “ Summary of Qualifications”
   Do relate all elements in your resume to your objective and summary
   Do show a continuous pattern of accomplishments related to the employer’s needs
   Do make your resume look inviting and interesting to the reader--- it must pass the
“30-Second Review Test”
   Do be sure your resume is error-free: no misspellings, grammatical errors, or wrong
information
      Resume Sins---Don’ts
   Don’t include extraneous information, such as age, height, photo, or hobbies, or
inappropriate information, such as salary requirements, references, or any negative
information
   Don’t forget to include critical information categories such as “ Education” and
“Professional Experience”
   Don’t let your resume run more than two pages
   Don’t emphasize duties, responsibilities, and dates when discussing your
“Experience”
   Don’t lie about your background or stretch the truth

  Questions 19-20 are based on Text 6
19. If you are a ten-year-old elementary schoolboy, you can choose from____ of the
     summer camps.
       A. 2               B. 3           C. 4              D. 5
  20. If you want to learn something about space flying, you should call____.
       A.562-590-3100                       B. 213-744-7440
       C. 213-626-1751                       D. 310-548-7563

   Text 6
   Adventures in Nature Summer Camp Starts June 24. Children ages 5 to 13 learn
about volcanoes, mummies, mammoths, reptiles, bears, bugs, and bid mean dinosaurs
at the La Brea Tar Pits and the Natural History Museum. Call 213-763-1640.

  Aquarium of the Pacific Summer Day Camp Starts June 24. Kids 7 to 12
maintain a daily journal while they feed sharks, care for sea lions, and study dolphin
sonar. Call for times. Registration, $100 $250. 100 Aquarium Way, Long Beach,
562-590-3100.



                                                                                    56
  Hands-on Science Camp Starts June 24. Preschoolers to high school seniors can
choose among “Chem Wizards,” “The Rockin’ Earth,” and “Blast into Space.” Call
for times and prices. California Science Center, 700 State Dr., Exposition Park,
213-744-7440.

  H.C. Westermann Robot Workshop Starts July 13. With the help of instructor
David Moen, kids 9 to14 create sculptures that mimic artificial life. 112. Registration,
$ 100 $125. MOCA at the Geffen Contemporary, 152 N. Central Ave., 213-626-1751.

  Marine SciHi July 1315. High schoolers explore coastal habitats and gather data
on a floating lab. 14. Registration, $ 77 $85. Cabrillo Marine Aquarium, 3720 Stephen
White Dr., San Pedro, 310-548-7563.


  Group 3

  Questions 21-22 are based on Text 1
  21. If you want to watch Tom’s Stoppard’s play Travesties, you should go to_____.
      A. the North Coast Repertory Theatre
      B. the Globe Theatres’ Cassius Carter Center
      C. the main stage
      D. the Lowell Davies Festival Theatre
  22. Which of the following plays is about a couple’s life together?
    A. The Importance of Being Earnest                  B. An Infinite Ache
    C. Faith Healer                                      D. Smash.

  Text 1
  The Importance of Being Earnest, Oscar Wilde’s comedy of manners, opens at the
North Coast Repertory Theatre, June 23--Sept. 8. It alternates in repertory with Tom
Stoppard’s Travesties, which draws on Wilde’s famed play. Both show from Monday
to Sunday at 8, Sunday at 2&7. Tickets: 858-481-1055; 888-776-6278. The funny,
tender An Infinite Ache projects a couple’s life together, from their faltering first date
forward, at the Globe Theatres’ Cassius Carter Center, June 23—July 18. Faith
Healer takes us traveling with an artist who might be the real thing, July 20—Aug. 25.
On the main stage, Jeffrey Hatcher’s adaptation of George Bernard Shaw’s An
Unsocial Socialist, Smash, tramples social conventions, June 16—July 25. All My
Sons, Arthur Miller’s tumultuous exploration of family obligations, unravels July
27—Aug. 31. The Summer Festival opens with The Taming of the Shrew, at the
outdoor Lowell Davies Festival Theatre June29—Aug. 4. Show time for main and
Carter stages are Tues. --- Fri. at 8, Sat. at 2&8, Sun. at 2&7; for the Davies, Tues. ---
Sun. at 8. Balboa Park. Tickets: 619-239-2255.

  Questions 23-24 are based on Text 2
  23. What does the committee of the Faculty of Arts and Science conclude?
        A. Grade Inflation does not exist at Harvard.
        B. Too many students are receiving B-plus at Harvard.
        C. Very few students are allowed to graduate with honors at Harvard.
        D. At Harvard, it’s very difficult to tell whether a student is really excellent

                                                                                       57
       just from his scores.
  24. Harvard used to ______.
          A. have a 15-ponit grading scale
          B. consider 4.0 as an A
          C. blur the difference between an A-minus and B-plus
          D. have 60% of the students graduate with honors


   Text 2
   After a yearlong debate over whether grade inflation exists at Harvard, and whether
it blurs the distinction between truly excellent students and those who are merely
good, a committee of the Faculty of Arts and Science came back with a cautious
answer of yes to both questions. At a closed meeting, the faculty voted in favor of two
sweeping changes. First, Harvard will switch from an idiosyncratic 15-point grading
scale to the more conventional scale in which a 4.0 is an A and a zero is an F. The
change will narrow the difference between an A-minus and a B-plus, which the
faculty hopes will make a B more palatable. Second, Harvard will limit the number of
students allowed to graduate with honors to 60 percent of a class. Nearly 90 percent of
the students in Harvard’s class of 2001 graduated with some form of honors.

  Questions 25-26 are based on Text 3
  25. Described in detail was experience of a plane from_____.
       A. American Airlines                         B. Canadair
       C. Northwest Airlines                         D. United Airlines
  26. Te plane at last took off at______.
      A. 12:25 p.m.                                 B. 4:20 p.m.
       C. 2:30 p.m.                                 D. 4:39 p.m.

   Text 3
   A line of thunderstorm from Ottawa to New Orleans snagged air traffic around the
country today, closing off air route and then briefly, tantalizingly, opening them again,
leaving passengers on east-west flights in limbo, sometimes for hours.
   “It’s a crazy weather day,” said Todd Burke, a spokesman for American Airlines.
“Everything’s being affected. For pure frustration, the title might be taken by a
Northwest Airlines commuter flight that was scheduled to leave Burlington, Vt., at
12:25 p.m. for Detroit, for a trip of an hour and 20 minutes.
   The plane, a 50-seat regional jet operated by Northwest Airlines, pushed back from
the gate at 12: 24, a minute early, expecting a delay until 12: 30. At 12:30, the delay
was extended until 1:30, said a spokesman for Northwest. At 1:30, it was extended to
2:30, but at 1:45, the hold was canceled. Air traffic controllers promised flight a quick
departure, only to delay it again.
   The plane got departure clearance at one point, but it was for a route via Kentucky,
and the Canadair did not have enough fuel for the extra 400 miles, so it taxied back to
the gate for more. But by the time the plane was ready to go, air traffic control had
issued a new delay. The plane pushed back from the gate for the third and last time at
4:20, just short of four hours late, and was flying at 4:39.

  Questions 27-28 are based on Text 4
  27. From the example and the reasoning, the writher seems to suggest that_____.
         A. it isn’t necessary to save endangered species

                                                                                       58
         B. the public have no idea of the value of the endangered species
         C. it’s the endangered species that lead to social advance
         D. rubber-producing plants are extinguishing from the earth
  28. The author’s point is made chiefly by _____.
         A. appealing to emotions of the audience
         B. suggesting a useful perspective for viewing the question
         C. trying to refute the view of an opponent
         D. generalizing from similar to dissimilar cases

  Text 4
  Why save endangered species? For the general public, endangered species appears
to be little more than biological oddities. A very different perception is gained from
considering the issue of extinction in a wider context. The important point is that
many major social advances have been made on the basis of life forms whose worth
would never have been perceived in advance. Consider the impact of
rubber-producing plants on contemporary life and industry: approximately two-thirds
of the world’s rubber supply comes from rubber-producing plants and is made into
objects as diverse as rubber washers and robber boots.

  Question 29 is based on Text 5
  29. What are the two proposals about?
      A. Extending the medical benefit to young kids.
      B. Reducing the cost of Medicare.
      C. Expanding Medicare assistance to the elderly.
      D. Private insurance companies playing a big role in devising and delivering
         drug benefits.

   Text 5
   Senators said today that they were already developing hybrid versions of the two
major proposals for Medicare drug benefits, with the expectation that both would fail
when the Senate votes on Tuesday. Both proposals would expand Medicare to provide
assistance to the elderly in buying prescription drugs. The Democratic proposal offers
more extensive benefits, at a higher cost to the government that is estimated at $594
billion from 2005 to 2012. Many Republicans support an alternative that, like the
Democratic plan, would offer drug coverage to all 40 million Medicare beneficiaries.
The Republican proposal would have a lower cost, $370 billion from 2005 to 2012,
and it envisions a larger role for private insurance companies in devising and
delivering drug benefits.

  Question 30 is based on Text 6
30. What was the commissioner of the State Department of Education concerned
    about?
       A. The percentage if middle-school students passing the test dropped
            seriously this year.
       B. Young people were more and more reluctant to read and write.
       C. There were likely to be more and more dropouts is high school.
       D. More and more students might have difficulty graduating from middle
          school.

  Text 6

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   The proportion of New York Sate middle-school students passing the state’s reading
and writing test dropped strikingly this year, falling well below the levels of four
years age, except in the most affluent suburban school districts. Commissioner
Richard P. Mills of the State Department of Education, who announced the test results
yesterday, said that the decline was a serious cause for concern and that it suggested
that the middle school students might have difficulty meeting the state’s new tougher
standards for graduation. Low scores on the eighth-grade test, he said, are strong
predictors of poor performance and dropouts in high school.


  Group 4
  Question 31 is based on Text 1
  31. The price of New Zealand wool _____.
         A. fell sharply to $1.37 in 1966
         B. reached a peak in 1973
         C. had a low of $2.7 from 1974 to 1978
         D. climbed again to $ 3.60 in 1983

   Text 1
   In 1965, the price of New Zealand wool stood at $ 1.98 per kilo. It then rose
slightly by 20cents in 1966 before falling sharply to $1.37 in 1971. There was a
dramatic increase over the next two years, with the price of wool reaching a peak of
$5.13 in 1973. From 1974 to 1978 the price fluctuated between a high of $3.20 and a
low of $ 2.75, before climbing to $ 4.60 in 1980. After falling again to $3.60 in 1983,
the price leveled off at $3.55 in 1985.

  Question 32 is based in Text 2
  32. Which of the following is NOT true according to the passage?
       A. A big part of an adult human body is water.
       B. More than half of our planet is covered by water.
       C. A very small part of the fresh water on earth is accessible for direct
            human use.
       D. About 70% of the water on earth is frozen in the polar icecaps.

   Text 2
   Water is essential to life. The adult human body is about 75% water, with up to 85%
of brain cells liquid; even teeth are 10% moisture. The body needs a constant supply
of clean water to remain healthy. Around 71% of the planet is covered in H2O, but
97.5% of it is salt water and of the remaining 2.5% some 70% is frozen in the polar
icecaps. With around 30% of the remaining fresh water present as soil moisture or in
underground aquifers, less than 1% is accessible for direct human use. As the world
marked International Water Day, expert meeting at the World Water Forum in the
Hague estimated that one billion people worldwide lack clean drinking water and
around three billion do not have adequate sanitation.

  Questions 33-34 are based on Text 3
33. The cost of living in Moscow is among the highest in Europe mainly
    because____.
    A. Moscow is the third most expensive city in the world.

                                                                                     60
           A.    Moscow’s exchange rate has become weaker
           B.    Russia has a much higher inflation rate than many European
        countries
           C.    There are a lot of advantages living there
  34. Of the four cities listed below, _____ is the cheapest.
      A. Hong Kong B. Moscow                  C. Oslo         D. London

   Text 3
   A survey has come up with interesting information about the cost of living in our
major cities.
   Tokyo is still the most expensive city in the world. Osaka is second and Moscow
third, on a par with Hong Kong. Many European cities have gone down the rankings
because their exchange rates have become weaker against the US dollar. Moscow’s
exchange rate has also become weaker, but Russia has a much higher inflation rate
than many European countries. So prices in Moscow are among the highest in Europe.
But there is one advantage of living in Moscow. The underground is excellent— very
cheap and much more comfortable than the one in London.
   New York is the most expensive US city. This is because the US dollar is stronger
than many other currencies. Some European countries that used to be far more
expensive than New York are now much cheaper. London is the 10th most expensive
cit in the world, according to the survey. A year ago, London was 5%--10% cheaper
than many French and German cities. This is no longer so. Now London is 15%
dearer than the German and French cities mentioned in the survey. However, London
is a good city to live in. Business people said that London was the most exciting of all
the major cities in the world. Londoners also claim that it is cleaner than it used to be,
and safer than many other European cities. If you’re hard up, don’t go to Oslo—it’s
European most expensive city. Meals at restaurants cost a fortune and drinks are very
pricey.

Questions 35-36 are based on Text 4
35. Which of the following is NOT true of the ancient Olympic athletic festival?
         A. It had strong religious associations.
         B. It was held every four years.
         C. It was a national event.
         D. No one knows exactly when it began.
36. We can conclude from the passage that ____ was the first big success of the
     modern Olympic Games.
         A. the 1896 Athens Olympics
         B. the 1908 London Olympics
         C. the 1972 Munich Olympics
         D. the 1908 Athens Olympics

  Text 4
  In ancient Greece athletic festivals were very important and had strong religious
associations. The Olympian athletic festival, held every four years in honor of Zeus,
eventually lost its local character, because first a national event, and then, after the
rules against foreign competitors had been waived international. No one knows
exactly how far back the Olympic Games go, but some official records date from 776
B.C.
  After an uninterrupted history of almost 1,200 years, the Games were abolished in

                                                                                        61
A.D. 394, the Christian era, because of their pagan origin. It was over 1,500 years
before there was another such international athletics gathering. The Greek institution
was revived in 1896 and the first small meeting took place in Athens. After the 1908
London Olympics, success was re-established and nations sent their best
representatives. In times of peace, the Games have taken place ever since at
four-yearly intervals. In Munich in 1972, competitors from more than 120 countries
were watched by huge crowds.

  Questions 37-38 are based on Text 5
  37. Which of the following would be a suitable title for the passage?
         A. 3M—A Successful Company.
         B. Constant Innovation—3M’s Winning Strategy
         C. The Exchange of Ideas and Information—The Key to Success
         D. Post-it Note—the Most Famous 3M Invention
  38. According to the passage, _____ contributed to the invention of the Post-it note.
         A. the huge investment on innovation
         B. the structure which allows employees to change jobs
         C. the exchange of ideas and information
         D. the policy which encourages staff to spend some of their time on
       personal projects

  Text 5
  Since the beginning of the century, 3M has know that it must continually innovate
in order to survive. Indeed, the company has been responsible for the launch of
60,000 products, each of which is protected by a patent.
  The successful performance of 3M over the years is due to several factors. Firstly,
the company spends a large part of its annual budget on the creation, improvement
and testing of products. The company also has a flexible structure which allows
employees to change jobs frequently, from research to manufacturing, or from
manufacturing to marketing. The exchange of ideas and information is also a key
aspect of 3M’s strategy of constant innovation. Top technical people attend an annual
meeting at the headquarters in St. Paul where many 3M laboratories show their latest
products. Another interesting fact about 3M is that it encourages staff to spend 15% of
their time on personal projects. It was this unusual policy that enabled 3M employee
Arthur Fry to come up with one of the most famous 3M inventions—the Post-it note.

Questions 39-40 are based on Text 6
39. Suppose you plan to take flight AF111 to go to Paris on a Tuesday, and you want
     to book a flight back to Shanghai for the following day, you would take_____.
  A. AF112              B. AF115          C. AF114             D. AF113
40. Suppose you plan to take flight AF185 on a Monday, you may arrive back in Hong
     Kong____.
     A. on AF185 the following day               B. on AF188 the same day
     C. on AF188 on Tuesday                     D. on AF on Wednesday

Text 6
                                 Flight Schedule
Air France…………. Tel: (010) 6588 1388        Fax: (010) 658801389
                     (021) 6360 6688             (021) 63606655
                     (852) 2524 8145             (852) 25210542

                                                                                     62
  Day           From       To        Flight                Departure         Arrival
  1-7           Beijing   Paris     AF129                 09:45            14:20
  1-7           Paris      Beijing  AF128                 15:55            07:45+1*
  1,2,4,5,7    Shanghai   Paris     AF111                 11:10            17:05
  3,6          Shanghai    Paris    AF115                  10:30            16:30
  1,3,4,6,7    Paris      Shanghai   AF112                 16:00            09:00+1*
  2,5           Paris     Shanghai   AF 114                18:15            12:20+1*
  1-7           Hong Kong Paris       AF185                 23:35            06:30+1*
  1-7           Paris      Hong Kong AF188                  23:15            17:05+1*
  *+1: The following day.

  Group 5
  Questions 41-42 are based on Text 1
  41. The first printed advertisement_____.
    A. offered a reward for a runaway slave
    B. notified people of services available
    C. announced a prayer book sale
    D. was a newspaper advertisement
  42. The first paid advertisement appeared in _____.
  A. Thebes      B. London       C. Britain     D. the United States

   Text 1
   Advertisement is a way of informing people of something. This can range from
telling them of a product for sale, or urging them to do something, or even to bring
one’s name before the public. So advertising came out quite naturally and took many
forms from the very beginning. For example, there is a papyrus discovered at Thebes
offering a reward for a runaway slave. It is three thousand years old—and it’s really
an advertisement! Signboards that notified people of services available were placed
outside doors in Greece and Egypt around 1500 B.C.—a form of advertising. With the
invention of printing, advertising began to take on new forms. About 1477, in London,
the first printed advertisement in English announced a prayer book sale. The first
newspaper advertisement appeared on the back page of a London newspaper in 1625.
It was not until 1704 that paid advertisement were printed in the United States. By
1771 there were 31 newspapers in the Colonies, and all of them carried advertising.
Today, of course, we know that advertising is done not only in newspapers, but also in
magazines, on the radio, and on television. The first “commercials” appeared on radio
about 1920. Commercials on television developed mostly after World War II. The idea
spread very quickly and today the advertising that is done on TV is so familiar to all
of us that many people can remember the commercials even better than the shows
they see!

  Question 43 is based on Text 2
  43.The author is arguing that _____.
    A. life is fair, so people should try their best to improve their lives
    B. life isn’t fair, and admitting that will urge us to take action instead of feeling
      pity

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     C. life is fair, and that this will help us improve the world
     D. life isn’t fair, so we tend to feel pity for others and for ourselves

  Text 2
  The fact that life isn’t fair doesn’t mean we shouldn’t do everything in our power to
improve our own lives or the world as a whole. On the contrary, it suggests that we
should. When we don’t recognize or admit that life isn’t fair, we tend to feel pity for
others and for ourselves. Pity, or course, is a self-defeating emotion that does nothing
for anyone, except to make everyone feel worse than they already do. When we do
recognize that life isn’t fair, however, we feel compassion for others and for ourselves.
And compassion is a heartfelt emotion that delivers loving-kindness to everyone it
touches. The next time you find yourself thinking about the injustices of the world, try
reminding yourself of this very basic fact. You may be surprised that it can nudge you
out of self-pity and into helpful action.

  Questions 44-45 are based on Text 3
  44.The author told the story about the member of the Government to show_____.
    A. some British officials cared nothing for the program of welfare reform
    B. some British officials neglected the duty for their own interest
    C. Spice Girls’ high popularity if Britain nowadays
    D. Mel B is the most popular one of the five girls
  45.From the passage we can conclude that the author’s daughter is_____.
    A. crazy about Spice Girls                B. extravagant
    C. an inconsiderate girl                   D. quite boresome

   Text 3
   The Spice Girls’ first album sold 10 million copies, and the single “Wannabe”
topped the charts in 31 countries. There were five of them, named Victoria, Emma,
Mel B, Mel C and Geri, and their rise was an epic in the recent history of popular
music.
   Over lunch on the day of the Queen’s Speech for the opening of Parliament in
London, a member of the Government ignored the program of reform in the welfare
state, because he wanted to know which of the five Spice Girls I fancied. He
volunteered that he himself liked Mel B, otherwise known as Scary Spice.
   At home that evening, my eight-year-old daughter badgered me for money. All her
friends at school, she said, were collecting Spice Girls pictures. They cost 99p for a
set of eight from newsagents and there were 120 in total. That is £15 for the lot, I
calculated. “Well, you won’t let me join the fan club,” my daughter said, explaining
her extravagant request. “ that only cost £10.”

  Question 46 is based on Text 4
  46.Which of the following is true about University of Chicago?
    A. It’s located in a small city.
    B.6% of its undergraduates are international students.

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    C. In addition to SAT I or ACT, the applicant has to submit a personal essay.
    D.34% of its students graduated within 6 years.

  Text 4
                                         University of Chicago
  Facts:
   Private university
   Residential campus in very large city
   3, 801 undergraduates: 48% women, 4% African, 23% Asian-American, 6% Hispanic-American,
 5% International
   8,331 graduate students
   61% of applicants admitted
   SAT I or ACT, personal essay required
   Application deadline: 1/1

   84% graduate within 6 years, 34% of these enter graduate study
   $34,287 total student cost in state
   $ 20,993 average need based financial aid package


  Questions 47-48 are based on Text 5
  47.The passage altogether mentioned _____ names of Hawaii.
    A. 3           B.4          C.5            D. 6
  48.The official popular name of Hawaii is ___.
  A. Hawaii                         B. the Aloha State
  C. the Paradise State             D. the Pineapple State

   Text 5
   The name Hawaii itself is said to have come from the traditional discoverer of the
islands, Hawaii Loa. Another explanation is that Hawaii means a small or new
homeland. “ Hawa” means a traditional homeland, and “-ii” means both small and
violent. The latter meaning may refer to Hawaii’s volcanoes. The state of Hawaii
recognized the Aloha State as its official popular name in a 1959 legislative act.
Hawaii is also known unofficially as the Pineapple State for its extensive pineapple
industry, the Paradise of the Pacific for its natural beauty, and the Youngest State
because it is the last state to join the Union.

  Questions 49-50 are based on Text 6
  49.The speaker is most probably a former _______ of IBM.
  A. CEO                             B. marketing manager
  C. engineering manager              D. senior employee

                                                                                    65
  50.“Pitfall” in the context most probably means_____.
   A. a hidden hazard                  B. a possible advantage
    C. a big benefit                   D. a potential gain

   Text 6
   My most important contribution to IBM was my ability to pick strong and
intelligent men and then hold them together by persuasion, by apologies, by financial
incentives, by speeches, by chatting with their wives, by thoughtfulness when they
were sick or involved in accidents, and using every tool at my command to make that
team think I was a decent guy. I knew I couldn’t match all of them intellectually, but I
thought that, if I used fully every capability I had, I could stay even with them.
   I never hesitated to promote someone I didn’t like. The comfortable assistant, the
nice guy you like to go on fishing trips with, is a great pitfall. Instead I looked for
those sharp, harsh, almost unpleasant guys who see and tell you about things as they
really are. If you can get enough of them around you and have patience enough to
hear them out, there is no limit to where you can go.

GROUP 6

Question 51 is based on Text 1
1. The passage’s main theme is that___ .
   A. a picture is more vivid than any other things
   B. words can inspire the imagination and produce pictures far more vivid than
       any other things
   C. the main function of any artist is to help people to see more things
   D. there is more to life than meets the eye

Text 1
Some say that nothing is more vivid or memorable than a picture. We disagree. No
visual image is as vivid as the image created by the mind in response to words. The
main function of the poet or the artist, in fact, is to enable people to see more deeply
into things than they can with the unaided eye. There is more to life than meets the
eye, and this is what good prose or poetry or painting is all about.
   It is not true that one picture is worth a thousand words. It takes only a few
words---if they are the right words---to inspire the imagination and produce pictures
far more colorful than anything within the range of electronic communications.

Question 52 is based on Text 2
2. Which of the following is NOT a requirement for Marketing Manager candidates?
   A. The successful candidate will be in charge of overall marketing strategy.
   B. The successful candidate will be responsible for small profit center.
   C. 5+ years’ sales/marketing experience in the relevant market is a must.
   D. The successful candidate must be very familiar with children’s market.



                                                                                      66
Text 2
                                          SWATCH
                       Be an important part of our winning team!
          We are presently seeking experienced sales professionals who are
  Dedicated
  Dynamic
  Professional
  Energetic
      Marketing manager
   Successful candidate will develop and execute overall marketing strategy, work
 with key accounts and take hands-on responsibility for small profit center.
     Qualified candidates must have 5+ years’ sales/marketing experience dealing
         with this kind of market. BA degree in marketing and familiarity with
         children’s market a plus.
            We offer competitive benefits package.
      For consideration, please send confidential resume with sales history to Ms.
        Clarke, Human Resources
                       SMH(US) Inc.
           35 East 21st St. New York, N.Y. 10010

 Questions 53-54 are based on Text 3
3. In 1929, the market took off again after a break in the rising prices because___ .
    A. the Federal Reserve Bank said it might raise interest rates
    B. the National City Bank said it would continue to lend money investors at
       affordable rates
    C. people could buy stock for 10% of its value and borrow the remaining 90%
    D. investors were optimistic
4. The highest lending rate in the boom was___ .
   A. 10%                B.7%                  C. 12%                D. 9%

Text 3
The stock market crash in the United States in 1929 was huge and it led to a severe
and lasting economic crisis in the world. Many bankers and industrialists lost their
money and reputations. Some went to prison and others committed suicide.
   Share prices on the New York stock exchange had begun rising in 1924, and in
1928 and 1929 they rocketed to unbelievable levels. In spring 1929 there was a break
in the rising prices when the Federal Reserve Bank said it might raise interest rates to
slow down the boom. However, a major bank, the National City Bank, assured
investors that it would continue to lend money to them at affordable rates.
   Soon the market took off again. People could buy stock for 10% of its value and
borrow the remaining 90%. The lending rate varied from 7% to 12%. Almost
everyone was optimistic. One economist, at the peak of the boom, said that people
generally agreed “stocks are not at present overvalued”.
   It all ended on 21 October, 1929. The market opened badly and there was heavy

                                                                                      67
selling. Confidence in the market disappeared. There was a rumor that the big bankers
were getting out of the market. Share prices fell dramatically and kept on falling. The
boom was over. But its consequences would last for years to come.

Questions 55-56 are based on Text 4
5. Of the following four Oscars awards, Life is Beautiful didn’t win___ .
  A. the Best Actress                       B. the Best Actor
  C. Best Foreign Film                       D. Best Original Dramatic Score
6. After its release in December 1997, Life is Beautiful altogether won___
   international prizes.
   A. 28              B. 29         C. 30             D. 31

Text 4
Life is Beautiful is a concentration-camp tale which is a touching and poignant movie.
Of the film Life is Beautiful, its director, writer and leading actor Roberto Benigni
says, “ Everything good I have, I put in this movie.” He also referred to the
movie---which won three 1999 Oscars---as a risk he wanted to take. “ Doing this was
a risk,” he says, “but my duty is to make something I love. And I love this.” So did the
audiences and the voters at the American Academy Awards, giving Benigni the Best
Actor Oscar, and Life is Beautiful the award for Best Foreign Film and an Oscar for
Best Original Dramatic Score for its music.
   Life is Beautiful is the sixth film Benigni has directed, and his greatest success,
taking 28 international prizes since its release in December 1997 in addition to the
Grand Jury Prize at Cannes. Benigni has shared the limelight with his wife of 18 years,
Nicoletta BraSchi, who plays his wife in Life is Beautiful.

Questions 57-58 are based on Text 5
7. Of the four countries below, ___ has the fewest daily newspaper.
   A. Japan           B. Argentina           C. Britain         D. America
8. Which statement is true about The Washington Post according to the passage?
   A. The Washington Post has a high quality.
   B. The Washington Post caters to all tastes.
   C. The Washington Post appeals to readers of all political persuasions.
   D. The Washington Post appeals to moderate Americans.

Text 5
No country in the world has more daily newspapers than the USA. There are almost
2,000 of them, as compared with 180 in Japan, 164 in Argentina, and 111 in Britain.
The quality of some American papers is extremely high and their views are quoted
around the world. Distinguished dailies like The Washington Post or The New York
Times exert a powerful influence all over the country. American newspapers cater to
all tastes. Some newspapers try to appeal to readers of all political persuasions, other
newspapers support groups on the far right and on the far left, but most daily
newspapers attempt to attract middle-of-the-road Americans who are essentially

                                                                                      68
moderate. Each American city has its own daily newspaper. The best of these present
detailed accounts of national and international news, but many tend to limit
themselves to state or city news.

Questions 59-60 are based on Text 6
9. The author’s tone is___ .
    A. positive         B. neutral   C. indifferent          D. factual
10. Woodstock is most probably___ .
    A. an ordinary American         B. a funny character in “Peanuts”
    C. an innocent boy              D. a loyal character in “Peanuts”

Text 6
“Peanuts” creator Charles Schulz was remembered as a genius who touched the lives
of millions of Americans. The 77-year-old cartoonist died in his sleep on February 12
at his California home.
   Life won’t be the same without Charles Schulz. His lifetime of work has linked
generations of Americans and has become a part of the fabric of American culture.
The Americans let “Peanuts” into their lives on a daily basis.
   For 50 years, “Peanuts” has tickled America’s funny bone. But more than that,
Charles Schulz’s characters mirrored people’s lives and taught them timeless lessons
about faith, hope and love. Americans will never forget Snoopy’s imagination, Lucy’s
cynicism, Linus’ innocence, Woodstock’s loyalty or Charlie Brown’s vulnerabilities,
hopes and dreams.

GROUP 7

Questions 61-62 are based on Text 1
61. It can be inferred from the passage that scurvy was caused by a lack of___ .
    A. vegetable leaves                         B. fresh fruit
    C. fresh vegetables                           D. Vitamin C
62. The word “susceptibility” in the context is closest in meaning to___ .
    A. ability           B. weakness          C. resistance        D. protection

Text 1
In the early days of sea travel, seamen on long voyages lived exclusively on salted
meat and biscuits. Many of them died of scurvy, a disease of the blood which causes
swollen gums, livid white spots on the flesh and general exhaustion. On one occasion,
in 1535, an English ship arrived in Newfoundland with its crew desperately ill. The
men’s lives were saved by Iroquois Indians who gave them vegetable leaves to eat.
Gradually it came to be realized that scurvy was caused by some lack in the sailors’
diet and Captain Cook, on his long voyages of discovery to Australia and New
Zealand, established the fact that scurvy could be warded off by the provision of fresh
fruit for the sailors.
   Nowadays it is understood that a diet which contains nothing harmful may yet

                                                                                     69
result in serious disease if certain important elements are missing. These elements are
called “vitamins”. Quite a number of such substances are known and they are given
letters to identify them, A, B, C, D, and so on. Different diseases are associated with
deficiencies of particular vitamins. Even a slight lack of Vitamin C, for example, the
vitamin most plentiful in fresh fruit and vegetables, is thought to increase significantly
our susceptibility to colds and flu.

Question 63 is based on Text 2
63. If one manages to stop breathing, it may be more difficult for the mosquito to
  attack at___ .
  A. stage one    B. stage four         C. stage three  D. stage two

Text 2
Scientists at Sussex University appear to be on the way to discovering how the
mosquito homes in on its target. The problem is that they have found that the best way
to avoid being bitten is: stop breathing, stop sweating, and keep down the temperature
of your immediate surroundings. Unfortunately the first suggestion is impossible and
the others very difficult.
   Scientists have found that there are three distinct stages in a mosquito’s assault.
Stage one is at fifty feet away, when the insect first smells a man or animal to bite.
Stage two is thought to come into operation about twenty-five feet from the target,
when the insect becomes guided by the carbon dioxide breathed out by the intended
victim. Stage three is when the mosquito is only a matter of inches from its prey and
the warmth and moisture given off by the victim is the final clue.

Questions 64-65 are based on Text 3
64. If you are showing physical symptom of overstress, you should___ .
    A. take some caffeine or alcohol
    B. make up your mind to change your living environment
    C. avoid too much exercise
    D. eat some raw vegetables
65. If you are showing physical symptoms of overstress, you should NOT___ .
    A. postpone doing anything on the list
    B. choose this time to renovate your house
    C. say no to others
    D. eat rice or bread

Text 3
If you are showing physical symptoms of overstress, it’s time to take action:
 Don’t rely on quick pick-me-ups like caffeine and alcohol. These may make you
     feel better temporarily but won’t get to the root of the problem.
 Give yourself a break. Every morning make a list of the things you would like to
     get done during the day, then cut off the bottom half of the list. You’ll get those
     things done tomorrow, next week or even next month. Feel relaxed about

                                                                                        70
    organizing yourself.
   Don’t choose this time to make a big change to your living environment.
    Postpone shifting house or renovating until you’re feeling better.
   Don’t say yes to every request for your time and energy. Learn to say no when it’s
    necessary.
   Keep your blood sugar steady by eating small, frequent meals instead of a few
    large ones. Eat complex carbohydrates like cereals, rice, pasta, bread and potatoes.
    Eat raw vegetables, as in salad.
   Don’t postpone exercising. Even if it’s just moving around your living room to
    music that you love, getting your body active will help the healing process.

Question 66 is based on Text 4
66. From the application, we can get to know all the following information about the
  applicant EXCEPT (that)___ .
  A. his nationality
  B. he doesn’t have a permanent address
  C. he is quite well-off
  D. his driving records are unfavorable

Text 4
                             Application for motor insurance
Full name:                                        Zaniewski Jules
Address:                                          c/o Clarendon Hotel
                                                  Beechwood Road, London
Date of birth:                                    22/10/1950
Occupation:                                       Art Dealer
Date UK/EU driving test passed:                   1981 (USA)
Vehicle make and model:                           BMW 520i
Engine size:                                      2494
Year of manufacture:                              2000
Present value:                                    £77,000
Who will be the principal user?                   J. Zaniewski
Where is the vehicle garaged?                     Clarendon Hotel
Have you or any person who will drive the car:
a. been involved in a motor accident in the last
   three year?                                    Yes
b. been convicted of any motoring offences in
   past five years?                               Yes
c. ever suffered from any physical or mental
   infirmity                                      Yes
d. ever been refused insurance?                   No
* If you have answered yes to any of these a) collided with motorcycle in Dec. ,
questions please give full details in the space      2000
provided:                                        b) driving without due care and

                                                                                     71
                                                    attention (2000). Fined £200.

Questions 67-68 are based on Text 5
67. CK Life Sciences___ that trading day.
  A. was down HK$2.00                    B. closed at HK$2.15
  C. closed higher                      D. performed better than expected
68. The Hang Seng index reached a high of___ that trading day.
  A.10,421.49         B. 10,573.07         C. 10,399.67         D. 2,183.83

Text 5
HongKong
   Shares Lower on US volatility
   Share prices closed lower following Wall Street volatility fueled by worries about
corporate scandals and the US dollar’s persistent weakness. New-listing CK Life
Sciences closed at HK$2.15 against its initial public offering price of HK$2.00. The
trade debut was weaker than expected due to strong selling by retail subscribers.
   The Hang Seng index closed down 160.17 points or 1.51 per cent at 10,421.49---off
a low of 10,399.67 and a high of 10,573.07---on turnover of HK$6.443 billion
(US$827 million).
   The China Enterprises index was down 9.66 points to 2,183.83 and the CAC index
fell 18.19 points to 1,177.35. The GEM index was down 3.67 points to 172.10.

Questions 69-70 are based on Text 6
69. The marketing effort of the new Beetle lays the emphasis on its___ .
  A. fashion           B. solid spirit       C. fun           D. reliability
70. All of the following might mean the same thing EXCEPT___ .
  A. Beetle             B. Volkswagen       C. People’s car D. Model T Ford

Text 6
It’s here---the new Beetle, as Germany’s famous Volkswagen (VW) car is known. One
or two models have been on show for a while at art galleries, showrooms and car
shows. It has been in the fashion and lifestyle sections of newspapers all over the
world. It has been parked on city streets and the old and the young alike have kneeled
before it. The new model inherits the solid spirit of the old one, but marketing
message goes even further with its emphasis on Serious Fun.
   The “People’s car” (“Volkswagen” in German) was the idea of car manufacturer
Ferdinand Porsche. He signed an agreement with the German motor industry
association in 1934 to produce a proper small, reliable car that ordinary people could
afford, as opposed to the luxury motor cars which German companies preferred.
Porsche had obviously looked over the sea at what Henry Ford had been able to
achieve with the all-round, popular Model T Ford. The first model in its final form
was completed in 1938. In 1961, production reached a million VW cars a year.




                                                                                    72
IV . Cloze
Directions: In this section there are 10 passages with 15blanks in each. Decide which
of the choices given would correctly complete the passage if inserted in the
corresponding blanks.
Passage 1
If you think you’re too young to be worrying about osteoporosis, a disease which
causes the bone to weaken and become easily breakable, think again. While bones
become fragile (1) ______ age, structural weakening begins much earlier – and is
invisible. One in two women over fifty will have an osteoporosis related (2) _____ in
her lifetime, and some women in (3) _____ twenties and thirties get it.
   When you’re in your mid-20s to mid-30s, you build bone as fast as you lose it. But
(4) _____ you’re about 35, you start to lose more bone than you gain, meaning that
your skeletal framework slowly erodes.
   Osteoporosis is the (5) ______ of almost all hip fractures in women over 50, and
complications from those fractures (6) _____ in death for at least 20 percent of them.
This brittle bone (7 ) _____ steals more lives than breast cancer.
   (8) ______ if your doctor isn’t talking about osteoporosis, that doesn’t mean it’s not
happening to you. (9) ______ about bone disease—whether on your doctor’s part or
yours—is an unrecognized risk factor.
   Many men think osteoporosis is women’s disease. Not (10) ______. More than two
million American men suffer from osteoporosis, and three million (11) ______ are at
an increased risk of developing it. Though loss of bone mass is lower in men, they are
still (12) ______ to back pain and fractures, mostly in the spine, hip and wrist.
   Men ages 25 to 65 should (13) ______ at least one gram of calcium a day; men
over 65, 1.5 a day. Exercising is also important, with emphasis (14) ______ weight
–bearing activities like walking, jogging and racket sports. Lifting weights and
working out on resistance machines can also (15) ______ preserve bone density.
1. A. of          B. with                  C. about                     D. after
2. A. break       B. attack                C. fractures                  D. weakness
3. A. her         B. its                   C. the                       D. their
4. A once          B. although             C. since                      D. because
5. A. reason      B. root                  C. case                       D. cause
6. A. result       B. cause                 C. lead                       D. form
7. A. decease      B. decrease              C. decay                     D. disease
8. A. Even         B. Only                  C. What                       D. However
9. A. Knowledge        B. Education            C. Ignorance              D. Information
10. A. that         B. right                 C. so                          D. correct
11. A. else         B. more                  C. people                      D. alike
12. A. vulnerable B. fragile                  C. likely                      D. possible
13. A. assume         B. need                C. consume                     D. resume
14. A. in            B. on                   C. with                         D. like
15.A. help            B. make               C. lead                         D. get



                                                                                       73
Passage 2
Growing up with two brothers in Hong Kong and then Weston, Conn., Erik knew
almost as soon as he could speak that he would lose his vision in his early teens.
When he (1) ______ lost his sight, Erik at first refused (2) ______ a cane or learn
Braille, a system of printing for blind people, insisting that he (3) ______ somehow
muddle on as normal. He was afraid of (4) ______ “like a freak.” But after a few
stumbles—he couldn’t even find the school restrooms anymore—he (5) ______ he
needed help.
   For Erik, the key was acceptance—not to fight his (6) ______ but to learn to work
within it; not to transcend it but to understand (7) ______ he was capable of achieving
within it; not to pretend he had sight but to build systems that allowed him to (8)
______ without it.
   A gifted athlete, Erik knew he would never play basketball or catch a football again.
But then he discovered wrestling, a (9) ______ where feel and touch mattered more
than sight. As a high school senior, he went all (10) ______ to the Junior National
Freestyle Wrestling Championships in Iowa.
   Wrestling also gave him the (11) ______ to re-enter the teenage social activities.
Eric and his friends (12) ______ a secret handshake to let him know whether a girl
was attractive.
   When he tried rock climbing at 16, Erik became immediately interested. Erik
scrambled up rock faces like a spider (13) ______ up a wall. Acting as antennae, his
hands gathered information as they surveyed the rock (14) ______, cracks and knobs.
He eventually became quite skilled and even led teams up sections of Yosemite’s
peaks.
   By 1997, Erik had graduated from Boston College and become a schoolteacher in
Arizona, (15) ______ he met Ellie Reeve, who also loved mountaineering. They got
married on a 12,000-foot plateau on Mount Kilimanjaro in Africa.
   1. A. lastly            B. actually              C. factually          D. only
   2. A. using           B. to use                 C. use                D. and used
   3. A. should          B. could                   C. needed             D. will
   4. A. becoming         B. being regarded         C. seeming            D. turning
   5. A. admitted        B. spoke                 C. argued             D. recognized
   6. A capability          B. difficulty         C. war                 D. disability
   7. A. what             B. how                   C. why                D. that
   8. A. excel           B. make                   C. learn              D. see
   9. A. hobby          B. recreation               C. habit             D. sport
   10. A. ways          B. the way                   C. the ways          D. a way
   11. A. belief        B. faith                   C. confidence         D. feeling
   12. A. devised        B. made                   C. pretended           D. gave
   13. A. going away B. making its way                  C. jumping       D. searching
   14. A. borders        B. marks                  C. edges               D. sides
   15. A. there          B. also                   C. but                 D. where




                                                                                     74
Passage 3
Communicating – getting our message across – is the concern not only of second
language teachers but of us all in our daily lives in whatever language we happen to
use. Learning how to be better (1) ______ is important to all of us in both our private
and public lives. Better communication means better understanding of (2) ______ and
others; less isolation (3) ______ those around us; and more productive happy lives.
   We begin communicating (4) ______ birth by interacting with those around us to
keep warm, dry, and (5) ______. We soon learn that the success of a particular
communication strategy depends (6) ______ the willingness of others to understand
and on the interpretation they (7) ______ to our meaning.
   As we grow up our needs grow (8) ______ complex and, along with them, so (9)
______ our communication efforts. Different words, we discover, are appropriate in
different (10) ______. The expressions we hear on the playground or through the
bedroom door may or may not be (11) ______ at the supper table. Along with words
we learn to use intonation, (12) _______, facial expression, and many other features
of communication to convey our meaning.
   Formal training in the classroom affords systematic practice in an even wider (13)
______ of communicative activities. A concern for communication extends (14)
______ school years and into adult life. Assertiveness training, the development of
strategies for conquering stage (15) ______ , and an awareness of body language are
among the many avenues to improved adult communication.
1. A. communication             B. communicators       C. speakers      D. writers
2. A. ourselves                 B. us                   C. it           D. itself
3. A. of                        B. off                 C. in            D. from
4. A. with                      B. on                   C. at            D. when
5. A. fed                       B. feed                  C. be fed       D. feeding
6. A. for                       B. on                    C. from         D. in
7. A. take                      B. want                  C. give          D. do
8. A. much                      B. increasing           C. increasingly D. less
9. A. grow                     B. do                     C. have          D. did
10. A. occasions               B. positions              C. settings      D. texts
11. A. wonderful             B. receivable             C. meaningful D. acceptable
12. A. hands                 B. voice                  C. gestures       D. meaning
13. A. kind                   B. range                   C. arrange       D. type
14. A. out of                  B. to                     C. beyond        D. with
15. A. fear                    B. performance            C. dread          D. fright

Passage 4
Neurobiology is the study of the neural basis of behavior, which comes down to the
study of the brain and how it functions to control behavior. The human brain is the
most complex structure in the (1) ______ universe. An average human brain has on
the order of 12 (2) ______ nerve cells, and the possible number of interconnections
and pathways among them in a single brain (3) ______ greater than the total number

                                                                                     75
of atomic particle making (4) ______ the universe. The physical basis of everything
that we are and do (5) ______ in the brain. All our (6) ______ and behavioral patterns,
everything that we have learned and experienced throughout our entire lifetimes, are
in some (7) ______ coded in the brain. Indeed, our actions and subjective experiences
are but (8) ______ reflections of the patterns of physical activity in the brain. If we
could understand the brain we (9) ______ understand the reason for all aspects of
human behavior.
   Although the human brain is a(n) (10) _______ complex mechanism, there are
certain principles of organization, in (11) ______ of both its structure and its functions,
which permit us (12) ______ a relatively simple overview of what the brain is and
how it actually works. The entire field of neurobiology (13) ______ a major
revolution – a knowledge “explosion” – in the past few years, and in the process (14)
______ fundamental and extremely important discoveries have been made about the
brain. We are rapidly approaching a level of knowledge and understanding of the
brain that will permit us for the first time to determine more about what a person is
experiencing by recording the activity from his brain than he is able to describe to us
(15)______.
1. A. known               B. unknown           C. knowing                D. know
2. A. billions            B. billions of        C. billion               D. billion of
3. A. is                   B. seem              C. are                    D. much
4. A. of                  B. up                 C. out of                D. use of
5. A. is to find           B. is to be found     C. can find              D. found
6. A. respond              B. responds           C. response             D. corresponds
7. A. how                  B. day                C. time                  D. way
8. A. also                 B. only                C. outward               D. inner
9. A. would                 B. can                C. will be able to        D. will
10. A. incredible           B. even               C. enormously             D. greatly
11. A. ways                 B. facts              C. terms                  D. conditions
12. A. gain                B. to gain          C. gained                 D. to be gained
13. A. would undergo        B. will undergo      C. undergoes          D. has undergone
14. A. a great deal of      B. a great many      C. a great number D. a great sum
15. A. himself              B. him                C. by himself           D. for himself

Passage 5
A health profile is a portrait of all the factors that influence your health. To chart your
health profile, you will (1) ______ what diseases run in your family, what health
hazards you may be exposed (2) ______ at work, how your daily (3) ______
compares to the recommended standards, how much time per week you (4) ______
exercising and what type of exercise you engage in, how (5) ______ your work and
family environments are, what kinds of illnesses you get regularly, and (6) ______ or
not you have any one of a number of addictions – to cigarettes, alcohol, caffeine, or
recreational drugs. To complete this portrait, you should have a checkup to determine
how your blood, heart, and lungs are functioning. (7) ______ checkup will serve as a
baseline, to which you can then compare (8) ______ tests.

                                                                                         76
   (9) ______ this profile is thoroughly drawn, you can begin to think about setting
health priorities based on your particular portrait. For example, if you drink two
martinis every evening, have a high-stress job, are (10) ______, smoke a pack of
cigarettes a day, and use marijuana occasionally on weekends, you will discover, that
(11) ______ normal circumstances, you should quit smoking first, followed by losing
the excess weight, (12) _______ the stress of your job, curtailing your marijuana habit,
and then finally giving some (13) _______ to those martinis if you want to prevent
first cancer, and then heart disease. Even for the youthful working person who has
never been sick a day in his life, who is in excellent health and physical (14) ______,
a good, hard look at all health habits and at work and home environments may suggest
changes that will (15) _______ benefits years hence.
1. A. need know            B. need to know        C. have known        D. know
2. A. to                   B. for                  C. in                D. with
3. A. meal                 B. breakfast            C. dinner           D. diet
4. A. spend                B. use                  C. devote            D. save
5. A. entertaining          B. depressed            C. remarkable       D. stressful
6. A. if                    B. when                 C. whether          D. likely
7. A. So                    B. This                 C. A                D. And
8. A. later                 B. latter               C. such              D. the
9. A. Although              B. Once                 C. Immediate         D. With
10. A. overweight            B. weighty              C. outweigh         D. weighted
11. A. with                   B. on                  C. for              D. under
12. A. controlling           B. decreasing           C. lessening        D. reducing
13. A. idea                   B. points               C. thought          D. talk
14. A. health                 B. shape                C. order             D. type
15. A. reap                   B. engage               C. lead               D. insure

Passage 6
     Take nothing for granted. If you have the slightest doubt about a spelling, look it
up. Get a small three-by-five dictionary. You will want it (1) ______ for quick
reference. Each (2) _______ you use it, put a check in the margin next (3) ______ the
word. You can take spelling courses and learn rules, but this method is all you really
need. Good spelling comes from careful proofreading and close attention to the (4)
______ of each word.
     When you find the word, take a good look at it syllable (5) ______ syllable. Is
there a way to remember the spelling, any (6) _______ device you can use? Write it
out slowly and carefully, noticing silent letters, double consonants, and so (7) ______.
(8) ______if you are pronouncing it properly (perform, not preform; tragedy, not
tradegy). Is there a problem with the vowel or a consonant? Do you confuse words
that sound a bit (9) _______ (affect or effect)? Look carefully at the difference;
examine the examples. Separate (10) ______ and roots to see how they are formed.
That will help you to (11) _______ using too few or too many letters (mis spell ,
public ly) . When you add a suffix, check to see if the final consonant of the root must
be (12)_______ or not (plan, planning; plane, planing).

                                                                                      77
   It (13) _______ down to seeing, hearing and writing the word carefully and
accurately.
   Don’t expect (14) _______. At first you will have to use your dictionary heavily,
but if you do pay attention you will gradually form a habit of spelling most words you
use correctly. Maintain a healthy (15) _______. To double check, have someone else
proofread after you finish.
1. A. so small         B. too small          C. small enough         D. extremely small
2. A. time             B. place              C. whenever            D. way
3. A. to               B. of                 C. with                 D. by
4. A. characters        B. characteristics    C. qualities          D. qualifications
5. A. with             B. and                 C. on                 D. by
6. A. remember        B. reference            C. language             D. memory
7.A. forth             B. like                C. etc.                 D. similarly
8. A. See              B. Look                C. Watch               D. Find
9. A. same            B. alike                C. difficult          D. confusing
10. A. suffixes       B. affixes              C. prefixes           D. syllables
11. A. avoid from      B. not                  C. keep from         D. try
12. A. added           B. spelt                C. doubled          D. inserted
13. A. follows         B. comes                C. goes               D. boils
14. A. anyway           B. progress           C. achievements D. miracles
15. A. diet            B. distrust              C. confidence        D. mentality

 Passage 7
Most of us have more things than we need and use. At (1) ______ they pile up in
corners and closets or accumulate in the recesses of attics, (2) ______ or garages. But
we sort through our clutter periodically and clean it (3) ______, saving only what we
really need and giving (4) ______ or throwing out the excess. This isn’t the (5)
______, unfortunately, with people we call “pack rats ” – (6) ______ who collect,
save or hoard insatiably, often with only the vague rationale (7) ______ the items may
someday be useful. And because they (8) ______ winnow what they save, it grows
and grows.
   While some pack rats specialize in what they collect, others seem to save (9)
______. And what they keep, such as junk mails, supermarket (10) ______,
newspapers, business memos, empty cans, clothes or old Christmas and birthday cards,
often seem to be worthless. Even when items have some (11) ______, they tend (12)
_______ in huge quantities that no one could use in a lifetime.
   (13) ______ pack rats collect, they are different from collectors, who save in a
systematic way. Collectors usually specialize in one of a few classes of (14) ______,
which they organize, display and catalogue. But pack rats tend to stockpile their
possessions (15) _______ and seldom use them.
1. A. occasions            B. times           C intervals         D. ease
2. A. living rooms          B. bedrooms       C. basements         D. kitchens
3. A. away                  B. out             C. off              D. up
4. A. away                  B. out             C. off              D. up

                                                                                     78
5. A. case                  B. matter          C. fact             D. truth
6. A. he                   B. those            C. men              D. women
7. A. when                  B. what            C. however           D. that
8. A. often                B. always           C. occasionally      D. rarely
9. A. carefully          B. on purpose          C. indiscriminately         D. wisely
10. A. receipts             B. notes            C. statements         D. papers
11. A. cost                  B. value             C. worth              D. usage
12. A. to keep              B. to be kept        C. not keep           D. not to be kept
13. A. When                 B. Although           C. Since             D. If
14. A. objects              B. objectives         C. objections         D. objectivities
15. A. disorderly            B. haphazardly        C. unreasonably      D. unwisely

Passage 8
   Spinning fibers to produce yarn and then weaving it into cloth or carpets are basic
processes that have been practiced since the very earliest times. There does not seem
to have been any particular pattern in the development of the equipment (1) ______ in
this craft. Availability of materials, population growth and the resulting increase in (2)
_______, many different climates, and all the other (3) ______ that control the
development of civilizations played (4) ______ part.
   Spinning is the process of drawing out and then (5) ______ or twisting the textile
fibers into a continuous thread. (6) ______ types of handheld spindles for doing this
were developed among ancient civilizations. However, the spinning wheel came (7)
______ use as a development of the hand-spindle and represents a great (8) ______
forward in textile manufacture. It provides a good example of the movement of textile
technology from East to West. It probably had its (9) ______ in China and derived
from the machinery used for processing silk fibers. A single continuous (10) ______
of silk runs for several hundred feet, and the silk-weaving industry in china obviously
needed a machine that could deal with these extremely (11) ______ fibers.
   The silk industry was operating in China from at least the 14th century B.C.,
although it was probably many centuries after that date (12) ______ the spinning
wheel was developed. It is possible that spinning wheels were introduced to Europe
by Italian merchants and missionaries who traveled to China during the rule of the
Mongol Yuan (13) ______ (A.D. 1280-1368). The earliest picture of a spinning wheel
in Europe appears in the Luttrell Psalter in England, dating to 1338. But the spinning
wheel may have been introduced (14) ______ earlier to Europe by the Arabs during
their period in Sicily and Spain. They (15) ______ it along with their knowledge of
silk manufacture.
1. A. to use                B. using              C. uses              D. used
2. A. demand            B. command              C. productivity    D. practice
3. A. factors            B. facts               C. developments      D. changes
4. A. its                B. it’s                C. their            D. the
5. A. wounding           B. weaving             C. winding           D. wedging
6. A. Such               B. Various              C. Old               D. Those
7. A. with               B. onto                 C. into             D. from

                                                                                        79
8. A. gap             B. step                 C. difference      D. point
9. A. roots           B. sources              C. foundation      D. origins
10. A. strand         B. stream               C. stand           D. stretch
11. A. slippery        B. complicated         C. long            D. difficult
12. A. when           B. that                 C. before          D. on which
13. A. time          B. period                 C. dynasty         D. kingdom
14. A. much            B. a great deal of      C. a lot of          D. little
15. A. could take   B. might take         C. should have taken   D. may have taken

Passage 9
These days, “what do you want to do when you grow up?” is the wrong question to
ask children in the USA. The (1) ______ should be: “what job are you doing now?”
American companies are employing more and young people as consultants to (2)
______ products for child consumers. The 12-to-19 (3) ______ group spends more
than a $100 billion a year in the USA. Specialist agencies have been created to help
manufacturers ask kids about all the latest (4) _______ in clothes, food and other
markets. One (5) ______, Teenage Research Unlimited, has panels of teenagers who
give their verdict on products (6) ______ jeans. Another company, Doyle Research
Associated, holds two-hour (7) ______ in a room called the “imaginarium”. Children
are encouraged to play games to get (8) ______ a creative mood. They have to write
down any ideas that (9) ______ into their heads.
   Some manufacturers prefer to do their own (10) ______ research. The software
company Microsoft runs a weekly “Kid’s Council” at its (11) ______ in Seattle,
where a panel of schoolchildren give their verdict on the (12) ______ products and
suggest new ones. One 11-year-old, Andrew Cooledge , told them they should make
more computer games which appeal equally (13) _______ boys and girls. Payments
for the work are increasingly attractive. Andrew Cooledge was paid $250 and given
some software. However, even if their ideas are valuable, the children will never (14)
______ a fortune. They cannot have the (15) ______ to their ideas. These are
precarious jobs, too. By their mid-teens they can be told that they are too old.
1. A. answer            B. question           C. alteration          D. word
2.A. evaluate            B. regard            C. view                 D. decide
3. A. year               B. age               C. time                  D. child
4. A. thoughts          B. trends             C. ideas                 D. interests
5. A. manufacturer        B. firm              C. agent                D. institute
6. A. as                  B. of                C. like                 D. with
7. A. interviews           B. classes           C. sessions            D. sections
8. A. out of               B. onto             C. along with            D. into
9. A. come                 B. occur             C. happen               D. drop
10. A. science             B. creation           C. market              D. production
11. A. centers             B. offices             C. headquarters        D. factories
12. A. latest               B. traditional         C. imaginary          D. food
13. A. with                 B. to                 C. at                  D. for
14. A. make                  B. take               C. get                 D. win

                                                                                    80
15. A. control              B. access                C. claim               D. copyright


Passage 10
   Some people are tremendously curious. The world is of (1) ______ to them, and
they observe what others (2) ______ not. Nobel Prize – wining physician Albert Szent
– Gyorgyi (3) ______ it well when he said, “Discovery consists of looking at the same
thing as (4) ______ and thinking something different.” With this (5) ______ comes an
“investigative spirit ”; the learning is not (6) _____ the acquisition of information as it
is an investigation – a questioning, a turning over of the object of study to see all sides
and (7) ______. It is not knowing in the sense of having a rigid opinion, but the ability
to look again at another time, in a different (8) ______, and to form a new
understanding (9) ______ on that observation.
   One way to develop curiosity is to cultivate “disbelief.” By disbelieving what we
often take (10) ______, we begin to investigate and explore on our own. In the (11)
______, we stop mindlessly parroting our teachers and begin to find (12) ______ their
understanding works in our own experience. Disbelief can be a major step towards
creative exploration. In my own classes I encourage students to investigate, to (13)
______ my instructions in their own practice. “How does this movement affect my
body? What happens if I do it another way? How am I reacting (14) _____ this
posture?” The (15) ______ act of saying “What if …?” opens a completely new
dimension of thought. This kind of questioning has led to some of the most exciting
inventions of our time.
1. A. significance           B. interest          C. value          D. consequence
2. A. observe                 B. often             C. do            D. perhaps
3. A. said                    B. spoke              C. wrote        D. put
4. A. everyone else            B. everyone          C. anyone        D. such
5. A. feeling                 B. curiosity        C. observation D. remark
6. A. as                      B. so                C. as much        D. so much
7. A. relatives               B. facets            C. questions      D. principles
8. A. side                     B. light             C. style          D. taste
9. A. relied                   B. depends            C. based          D. also
10. away with                   B. as true           C. for granted D. advantage of
11. A. process                  B. progress           C. meanwhile D. sense
12. A. where                    B. how                 C. that          D. out
13. A. suspect                  B. encounter            C. question     D. think
14. A. with                      B. to                 C. as             D .for
15. A. same                       B. only               C. mere         D. repeating


V TRANSLATION
Directions: Translate the following 50 sentences into English, using the words or
phrases provided in the parentheses.



                                                                                         81
1.你说他会及时赶来搭救我们的, 我看你是太想当然了。(take… for granted)




2.星期三, 卡尔扎伊 (Karzai) 宣誓就任总统, 这是阿富汗 (Afghanistan) 历史性的一天。
(swear in)




3.尽管已经与世界杯无缘,韩国人仍有理由为他们的足球队感到自豪。(out of reach)




4.不论阶级、种族、性别,人人都可以进这所学校学习。(without respect to)




5.巴勒斯坦人 (Palestinian) 的自杀性炸弹炸死一辆校车内 20 多人以后,以色列 (Israel)
发誓将加大打击力度。(step up one’s offensive)




6.他的生意在很大程度上靠天吃饭, 所以他鼓励十多岁的儿子以后从事一个有稳定收入的
行业。(get into)




7.火势基本得到控制,人们被允许返回家园。(hold… in check)




8.她以 60 万美元被保释,条件是不得靠近他的房子。(on bail)




9.最近,印度和巴基斯坦使世界上很多人惊恐地认为两国间可能爆发全面战争,并动用核武
器。(scare… into)




10.医生认为,出生婴儿体重增加与成年人和儿童中越来越流行的肥胖病 (obesity epidemic)
有一定联系。(related to)




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11.许多大学教师长期以来设法劝阻学生不要只为了考 TOEFL 而学习英语,他们认为考试培
训课程对提高英语能力没有帮助。(dissuade… from)




12.这项考试仅用来为教育规划服务,不论学生是否通过考试都不会有什么影响。(affect)




13 巴勒斯坦领导人阿拉法特 (Arafat) 和以色列总理 (Sharon) 面对的不仅仅是由近期发
生的暴力事件所引发的仇恨,而且还有长长的一段民族对抗历史。(deal with)




14.要是你把所有的钱都投资在一个宾馆里, 你就是孤注一掷。 (all your eggs in one
basket)




15.我们的公司顺利开张需要大约 2 万美元。(to get off the ground)




16.你是否曾经想过,那些总是要什么就可以得到什么的人也会觉得无聊至极? (occur; lay
hands on)




17.上海民政局 (Civil Affairs Bureau) 的统计数字表明,目前上海人第一次结婚时的平均
年龄已达到了创记录的 27 岁。(at a record-high)




18.学生讨厌写作文,因为往往只有按照固定模式写就的作文才能得高分,而试图要发挥想
象力的则有可能被看做离题。(off the point)




19.玉米主要生长在中国的北部、东北部和西南部的省份,占国内粮食产量的四分之一。
(account for)




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20.面试的时候,他们问了我许多令人恼火的问题。这些问题过多涉及个人事情了。 (get on
my nerves)




21.女孩子通常在注重相互感受的基础上谋求一致,而男孩子则喜欢协商。 (while)




22.当我们的汽车慢慢向前蠕动时,沿路站着手握木棍长矛的男人,他们的眼睛充满仇恨,
嘴里高喊着愤怒的口号。 (armed with)




23.突然间我们大家明白了,任凭所有的人怎样努力,她还是要死了,而且死得比我们想象
的要快。 (despite)




24.查尔斯王子小的时候,他所交的朋友都是精心筛选过的。相比之下,威廉王子却一直被
鼓励去寻找自己的社会圈子。 (by contrast)




25.作为欧盟成员,英国遇到很多困难,其根源在于,它的经济和政治倾向于和美国而不是
和欧盟其他国家保持一致。 (in line with)




26.一项调查发现,在美国 55 所最好的大学里,五个四年级学生中有四个学生在历史问题测
试中得 D 或 F,而这些历史问题都选自高中基础课程。 (reveal)




27.企业对安全条例和管理程序置若罔闻,这就是最近山西煤矿事故灾难的主要原因。 (turn
a deaf ear to)




28.我们和该地区的领导人有着共同的信念,那就是只有政治解决才能带来持久的安全及和
平。 (share with)




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29.在中国,高等教育是根据学生的全国统一高考成绩录取学生的,这项制度始于上世纪 50
年代。 (on the basis of)




30.根据《新闻周刊》(Newsweek) 最近一项民意测验显示,84%的成年美国人说他们相信
上帝能创造奇迹,另有 48%的人说他们经历或目睹过奇迹。 (miracle)




31.台湾问题是中国和巴拿马双边关系正常化的唯一障碍。(barrier)




32.联合国艾滋病署上星期发出警告,艾滋病的流行仍处于初级阶段,在未来的 20 年里,它
将夺去 7,000 万人的生命。(in its infancy)




33.更重要的是,随着国家日益开放并开始接受许多国际通用的规则,中国急需全面发展的
人才。 (in great need of)




34.据报道,一些从美国进口的产品将被征收百分之二十四的关税。 (be subject to)




35.政府已经承诺对外国投资开放诸如通讯、零售、银行等重要市场。 (open up)




36.中国有 6,594 万公顷湿地,位居亚洲第一,世界第三。 (rank)




37.阻碍工业发展的主要原因之一是制造者不拥有他们产品的知识产权。 (hinder)




38.来自不同国家和地区、从事不同职业的妇女朋友为了同一个目标相聚在这里,那就是从
女性的角度来讨论全球化、讨论经济、讨论政治。 (from… perspective)




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39.有关税务部门的统计表明,目前中国的逃税率为 50%。 (tax evasion)




40.如何解释这种所谓的现代书法并不重要,重要的是这一特定的艺术形式对中国文化能有
什么贡献。 (contribute)




41.分析家认为,该项合作对中国和外国公司来说是双赢策略。 (win-win)




42.据报道,在一座小城市里有 2 人被上涨的大水冲走。这样,在韩国由于台风而造成的死
亡人数已达 4 人。 (death toll)




43.这位官员说,新西兰的窃贼正瞄准着亚洲游客,尤其是中国游客,他们认为这些游客身
边总带着现金。 (target)




44.中国红十字会昨天宣布,到上星期五为止,国内外对中国洪涝灾区的捐赠已经达到 3,200
万元。 (from home and abroad)




45.许多用人单位缺乏科学的和理性的人员评估体系,而单纯地把名牌大学的文凭作为选人
的严格标准。 (yardstick)




46.暑假终于来临,全国的旅行社都忙着促销为学生度身定制的旅游代办项目。 (tailor)




47.这次研讨会由文化部发起,吸引了来自 12 个国家和地区的 300 多位专家来共同讨论信息
技术的机遇和挑战。 (sponsor)




48.6 月 8 日午夜,在中国西北的陕西省,一场突如其来的暴雨引发了肆虐的洪水,威胁着


                                                86
34 个县的五百多万人的生命。 (trigger)




49.中美两国发展健康和稳定的关系符合两国人民的根本利益,也有利于世界和平、稳定和
发展。 (conducive to)




50.空中客车 (Airbus) 将扩大与中国飞机制造公司的合作,并打算在未来的 7 年到 10 年里,
把机翼生产和组装基地转移到中国来。 (transfer)




VI. WRITING
Section A    Note-writing

Directions: Write a note of about 50-60words based on each of the following 10
situations.

Situation 1
Wang Haitao, an English major, is preparing his BA thesis. He wants to discuss his
outline with his tutor Prof. Kevin Kelly sometime this week, so he needs a note to
make an appointment. Can you write a note for him?




Situation 2
Wang Guowei has planned to meet his friend Liu Renjie at 10 o’clock, but now he
cannot make it because his grandmother had a stroke last night and he has to stay in
the hospital for a few days. He wants to apologize for this, and suggests meeting him
sometime next week. Now write a note of about50-60words for Wang Guowei, paying
special attention to your style.




Situation 3
Wang Guowei has planned to meet his professor Li Yangrui at 10 o’clock, but now he
cannot make it because his grandmother had a stroke last night and he has to stay in
the hospital for a few days. He wants to apologize for this, and suggests meeting him

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sometime next week. Now write a note of about50-60words for Wang Guowei, paying
special attention to your style.




Situation 4
You’re John Lawrence. Next Friday, July 26th, will be your birthday. You want to invite
some of your friends to a party at your home from 7:30 to 9:30 that night. As Jimmy
Davis has not got a telephone, you’ll have to write a note of invitation. Please
produce an invitation of about 50-60 words, clearly telling him the time and place.




Situation 5
You are Sylvia Rabiner. It is 9 o’clock in the morning. A Mr. Buscemi rings for Robert,
your colleague, but he is out. The caller says he is Robert’s brother-in-law, and he
wants to tell Robert that his mother-in-law has come to visit him. He also says that
her train will arrive at 7:20 this evening, and that she will wait for Robert on the
platform.




Situation 6
You are Tom Robinson. You have booked two seats for the music show Les Miserables
for this Sunday night at the Grand Theatre for you and your girl friend, Carol. But she
will have to be away for an unexpected conference that day. Now write a note of about
50 words to somebody else, offering to go with him/her.




Situation 7
When Zhang Yazhe wrote his paper on financial security, Professor Alex Langan not
only gave him many valuable suggestions, but also lent him several books. His paper
has been published in the journal The World Financial Studies. Now he is going to
return the books to him, and he also wants to tell him the good news, and thank him
for his help. Can you prepare a thank-you note of about 50 words for Zhang Yazhe?




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Situation 8
Prof. Zheng Yalin will not be able to come to his lectures on English writing tomorrow
because he has suddenly fallen ill. He is not sure when he will be able to recover. He
plans to write a note to the secretary of the department office, Ms. Qin, asking her to
inform his students of this change.




Situation 9
Prof. Lin Haiying has arranged for his student He Lu to translate an article for him.
He Lu would send him the translation via e-mail. But Prof. Lin’s account suddenly
stopped running properly yesterday, and he is not sure if he can get the translation
safely. Therefore, he writes a note to He Lu, asking her to copy the translation to a
floppy disk and leave the disk in his mailbox (No. 32 in the office building). Now write
the note of about 50 words for Prof. Lin.




Situation 10
The chair of the English Department is planning to hold a meeting with the monitor of
every class in order to discuss the preparation for the coming speech contest. Can you
prepare a notice of about 50 words for the secretary of the department office?




Section B Composition Writing
Directions: Write a composition of 150-200 words in about 30 minutes on each of the
following 10 topics. Follow the instructions closely.


Topic 1
Instructions: More and more high school graduates are interested in studying abroad.
Both their parents and they themselves believe that this can not only evade the heated
competition in the entrance examination in China, but also guarantee a well-paid job
in the future. What do you think of it?


Topic 2
Instructions: There has been some heated discussion over Internet cafes, or net bars.
Although many people believe that they bring more problems than convenience, and

                                                                                      89
therefore should be restricted, net bars are mushrooming around us. Can you, as a
college student, tell us your opinion on net bars?


Topic 3
Instructions: Now many universities have set up their Internet colleges under the
approval of the Ministry of Education. Many students hold that this is bliss from
information technology, and that it will benefit millions of people. Other people,
however, are rather doubtful. If you were offered the choice between a normal
university education and an Internet education, which one would you prefer?

 Topic 4
Instructions: Although there have been laws and regulations against pirated
publications, we can still find them easily around us. People can purchase pirated CDs,
softwares, books and magazines at much lower prices. Can you tell us your opinion
on this phenomenon?

 Topic 5
Instructions: Faced with the competition after China’s accession to WTO, domestic
carmakers are lowering car prices. Both the government and the media encourage
people to buy cars. Therefore, more and more families are considering buying a car.
Write a letter to an American friend and tell him/her if you believe it is a good idea for
Chinese families to buy cars now? Explain your reasons.

  Topic 6
Instructions: Now many college students are preparing for exams like TOEFL and
GRE. This trend has upset many teachers of English, who believe that this kind of
exams will have some negative influence on their teaching. Write an article to your
teacher and explain your attitude toward this trend.

  Topic 7
Instructions: For a long time, traffic jams have been troubling people living in big
cities. Different proposals have been made to solve this problem, and developing track
public transportation, such as subway and elevated railway, is attracting more and
more attention. Suppose there is a discussion over whether we should give priority to
track public transportation or non-track transportation in your local newspaper, write
an article to voice your opinion.

 Topic 8
Instructions: Usually your university offers you a lot of courses. Some of the courses
are well received, but some seem unattractive to you. Can you write a letter to the
school authority to name one course you dislike the most, and explain your reasons?




                                                                                        90
  Topic 9
Instructions: Though technology makes it easier for people to communicate, we find
it harder to find somebody we can really talk to and trust nowadays. It’s more and
more difficult to find a real friend. Can you write an article of about 150 words,
explaining what a real friend should be like?

 Topic 10
Instructions: Are you the only child of your family? Or do you know anybody who
comes from a single-child family? Children from those families are often accused of
being self-centered, mentally fragile, etc., as people believe that they are spoilt by
their parents. Do you agree to these accusations? Why and why not?


Cloze
Directions: In this section there are 10 passages with 15blanks in each. Decide which
of the choices given would correctly complete the passage if inserted in the
corresponding blanks.
Passage 1
If you think you’re too young to be worrying about osteoporosis, a disease which
causes the bone to weaken and become easily breakable, think again. While bones
become fragile (1) ______ age, structural weakening begins much earlier – and is
invisible. One in two women over fifty will have an osteoporosis related (2) _____ in
her lifetime, and some women in (3) _____ twenties and thirties get it.
   When you’re in your mid-20s to mid-30s, you build bone as fast as you lose it. But
(4) _____ you’re about 35, you start to lose more bone than you gain, meaning that
your skeletal framework slowly erodes.
   Osteoporosis is the (5) ______ of almost all hip fractures in women over 50, and
complications from those fractures (6) _____ in death for at least 20 percent of them.
This brittle bone (7 ) _____ steals more lives than breast cancer.
   (8) ______ if your doctor isn’t talking about osteoporosis, that doesn’t mean it’s not
happening to you. (9) ______ about bone disease—whether on your doctor’s part or
yours—is an unrecognized risk factor.
   Many men think osteoporosis is women’s disease. Not (10) ______. More than two
million American men suffer from osteoporosis, and three million (11) ______ are at
an increased risk of developing it. Though loss of bone mass is lower in men, they are
still (12) ______ to back pain and fractures, mostly in the spine, hip and wrist.
   Men ages 25 to 65 should (13) ______ at least one gram of calcium a day; men
over 65, 1.5 a day. Exercising is also important, with emphasis (14) ______ weight
–bearing activities like walking, jogging and racket sports. Lifting weights and
working out on resistance machines can also (15) ______ preserve bone density.
1. A. of          B. with                  C. about                     D. after
2. A. break       B. attack                C. fractures                  D. weakness
3. A. her         B. its                   C. the                       D. their
4. A once          B. although             C. since                      D. because

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5. A. reason     B. root                  C. case                      D. cause
6. A. result      B. cause                C. lead                       D. form
7. A. decease     B. decrease             C. decay                     D. disease
8. A. Even        B. Only                 C. What                       D. However
9. A. Knowledge B. education              C. ignorance                 D. information
10. A. that        B. right                C. so                         D. correct
11. A. else        B. more                  C. people                    D. alike
12. A. vulnerable B. fragile                 C. likely                     D. possible
13. A. assume        B. need               C. consume                     D. resume
14. A. in           B. on                  C. with                         D. like
15.A. help           B. make               C. lead                        D. get

Passage 2
Growing up with two brothers Hong Kong and then Weston, Conn., Erik knew almost
as soon as he could speak that he would lose his vision in his early teens. When he (1)
______ lost his sight, Erik at first refused (2) ______ a cane or learn Braille, a system
of printing blind people, insisting that he (3) ______ somehow muddle on as normal.
He was afraid of (4) ______ “like a freak.” But after a few stumbles—he couldn’t
even find the school restrooms anyone—he (5) ______ he needed help.
   For Erik, the key was acceptance—not to fight his (6) ______ but to learn to work
within it; not to transcend it but to understand (7) ______ he was capable of achieving
within it; not to pretend he had sight but to build systems that allowed him to (8)
______ without it.
   A gifted athlete, Erik knew he would never play basketball or catch a football again.
But then he discovered wrestling, a (9) ______ where feel and touch mattered more
than sight. As a high school senior, he went all (10) ______ to the Junior National
Freestyle Wrestling Championships in Iowa.
   Wrestling also gave him the (11) ______ to re-enter the teenage social activities.
Eric and his friends (12) ______ a secret handshake to let him know whether a girl
was attractive.
   When he tried rock climbing at 16, Erik became immediately interested. Erik
scrambled up rock faces like a spider (13) ______ up a wall. Acting as antennae, his
hands gathered information as they surveyed the rock (14) ______, cracks and knobs.
He eventually became quite skilled and even led teams up sections of Yosemite’s
peaks.
   By 1997, Erik had graduated from Boston College and become a schoolteacher in
Arizona, (15) ______ he met Ellie Reeve, who also loved mountaineering. They got
married on a 12,000-foot plateau on Mount Kilimanjaro in Africa.
   1. A. lastly           B. actually               C. factually           D. only
   2. A. using           B. to use                 C. use                 D. and used
   3. A. should          B. could                   C. needed              D. will
   4. A. becoming         B. being regarded         C. seeming             D. turning
   5. A. admitted        B. spoke                  C. argued             D. recognized
   6. A capability          B. difficulty          C. war                 D. disability

                                                                                      92
  7. A. what            B. how                  C. why                  D. that
  8. A. excel          B. make                  C. learn                D. see
  9. A. hobby         B. recreation              C. habit               D. sport
  10. A. ways         B. the way                 C. the ways             D. a way
  11. A. belief       B. faith                  C. confidence           D. feeling
  12. A. devised       B. made                  C. pretended             D. gave
  13. A. going away      B. making its way          C. jumping          D. searching
  14. A. borders       B. marks                 C. edges                 D. sides
  15. A. there         B. also                  C. but                   D. where


  Passage 3
Communicating – getting our massage across – is the concern not only of second
language teachers but of us all in our daily lives in whatever language we happen to
use. Learning how to be better (1) ______ is important to all of us in both our private
and public lives. Better communication means better understanding of (2) ______ and
others; less isolation (3) ______ those around us; and more productive happy lives.
   We begin communicating (4) ______ birth by interacting with those around us to
keep warm, dry, and (5) ______. We soon learn that the success of a particular
communication strategy depends (6) ______ the willingness of others to understand
and on the interpretation they (7) ______ to our meaning.
   As we grow up our needs grow (8) ______ complex and, along with them, so (9)
______ our communication efforts. Different words, we discover, are appropriate in
different (10) ______. The expressions we hear on the playground or through the
bedroom door may or may not be (11) ______ at the supper table. Along with words
we learn to use intonation, (12) _______, facial expression, and many other features
of communication to convey our meaning.
   Formal training in the classroom affords systematic practices in an even wider (13)
______ of communicative activities. A concern for communication extends (14)
______ school years and adult life. Assertiveness training, the development of
strategies for conquering stage (15) ______ , and an awareness of body language are
among the many avenues to improved adult communication.
1. A. communication             B. communicators       C. speakers      D. writers
2. A. ourselves                 B. us                   C. it           D. itself
3. A. of                        B. off                 C. in            D. from
4. A. with                      B. on                   C. at            D. when
5. A. fed                       B. feed                  C. be fed       D. feeding
6. A. for                       B. on                    C. from         D. in
7. A. take                      B. want                  C. give          D. do
8. A. much                      B. increasing           C. increasingly D. less
9. A. grow                     B. do                     C. have          D. did
10. A. occasions               B. positions              C. settings      D. texts
11. A. wonderful             B. receivable             C. meaningful D. acceptable
12. A. hands                 B. voice                  C. gestures       D. meaning

                                                                                     93
13. A. kind                  B. range                     C. arrange        D. type
14. A. out of                B. to                        C. beyond         D. with
15. A. fear                  B. performance               C. dread          D. fright

Passage 4
Neurobiology is the study of the neural basis of behavior, which comes down to the
brain and how it functions to control behavior. The human brain is the most complex
structure in the (1) ______ universe. An average human brain has on the order of 12
(2) ______ nerve cells, and the possible number of interconnections and pathways
among them in a single brain (3) ______ greater than the total number of atomic
particle making (4) ______ the universe. The physical basis of everything that we are
and do (5) ______ in the brain. All our (6) ______ and behavioral patterns, everything
that we have learned and experienced throughout our entire lifetimes, are in some (7)
______ coded in the brain. Indeed, our actions and subjective experiences are but (8)
______ reflections of the patterns of physical activity in the brain. If we could
understand the brain we (9) ______ understand the reason for all aspects human
behavior.
   Although the human brain is a(n) (10) _______ complex mechanism, there are
certain principles of organization, in (11) ______ of both its structure and its functions,
which permit us (12) ______ a relatively simple overview of what the brain is and
how it actually works. The entire field of neurobiology (13) ______ a major
revolution – a knowledge “expression” – in the past few years, and in the process (14)
______ fundamental and extremely important discoveries have been made about the
brain. We are rapidly approaching a level of knowledge and understanding of the
brain that will permit us for the first time to determine more about what a person is
experiencing by recording the activity from his brain than he is able to describe to us
(15)______.
1. A. known               B. unknown           C. knowing                D. know
2. A. billions            B. billions of        C. billion               D. billion of
3. A. is                   B. seem              C. are                    D. much
4. A. of                  B. up                 C. out of                D. use of
5. A. is to find           B. is to be found     C. can find              D. found
6. A. respond              B. responds           C. response             D. corresponds
7. A. how                  B. day                C. time                  D. way
8. A. also                 B. only                C. outward               D. inner
9. A. would                 B. can                C. will be able to        D. will
10. A. incredible           B. even               C. enormously             D. greatly
11. A. ways                 B. facts              C. terms                  D. conditions
12. A. gain                B. to gain          C. gained                 D. to be gained
13. A. would undergo        B. will undergo      C. undergoes          D. has undergone
14. A. a great deal of      B. a great many      C. a great number D. a great sum
15. A. himself              B. him                C. by himself           D. for himself

Passage 5

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A health profile is a portrait of all the factors that influence your health. To chart your
health profile, you will (1) ______ what diseases run in your family, what health
hazards you may be exposed (2) ______ at work, how your daily (3) ______
compares to the recommended standards, how much time per week you (4) ______
exercising and what type of exercise you engage in, how (5) ______ your work an
family environments are, what kinds of illnesses you get regularly, and (6) ______ or
not you have any one of a number of addictions – to cigarettes, alcohol, caffeine, or
recreational drugs. To complete this portrait, you should have a checkup to determine
how your blood, heart, and lungs are functioning. (7) ______ checkup will serve as a
baseline, to which you can then compare (8) ______ tests.
   (9) ______ this profile is thoroughly drawn, you can begin to think about setting
health priorities based on your particular portrait. For example, if you drink two
martinis every evening, have a high-stress job, are (10) ______, smoke a pack of
cigarettes a day, and use marijuana occasionally on weekends, you will discover, that
(11) ______ normal circumstances, you should quit smoking first, followed by losing
the excess weight, (12) _______ the stress of your job, curtailing your marijuana habit,
and then finally giving some (13) _______ to those martinis if you want to prevent
first cancer, and then heart disease. Even for the youthful working person who has
never been sick a day in his life, who is in excellent health and physical (14) ______,
a good, hard look at all health habits and at work and home environments may suggest
changes that will (15) _______ benefits years hence.
1. A. need know             B. need to know          C. have known         D. know
2. A. to                    B. for                    C. in                D. with
3. A. meal                  B. breakfast              C. dinner            D. diet
4. A. spend                 B. use                     C. devote           D. save
5. A. entertaining           B. depressed              C. remarkable       D. stressful
6. A. if                    B. when                    C. whether           D. likely
7. A. So                    B. This                    C. A                 D. And
8. A. later                  B. latter                 C. such              D. the
9. A. Although               B. Once                   C. Immediate         D. With
10. A. overweight             B. weighty                C. outweigh          D. weighted
11. A. with                    B. on                    C. for               D. under
12. A. controlling            B. decreasing             C. lessening         D. reducing
13. A. idea                   B. points                  C. thought           D. talk
14. A. health                  B. shape                   C. order            D. type
15. A. reap                    B. engage                 C. lead               D. insure

Passage 6
Take nothing for granted. If you have the slightest doubt about a spelling, look it up.
Get a small three-by-five dictionary. You will want it (1) ______ for quick reference.
Each (2) _______ you use it, put a check in the margin next (3) ______ the word. You
can take spelling courses and learn rules, but this method is all you really need. Good
spelling comes from careful proofreading and close attention to the (4) ______ of
each word.

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When you find the word, take a good look at it syllable (5) ______ syllable. Is there a
way to remember the spelling, any (6) _______ device you can use? Write it out
slowly and so (7) ______. (8) ______if you are pronouncing it properly (perform, not
preform; tragedy, not tradegy). Is there a problem with the vowel or a consonant? Do
you confuse words that sound a bit (9) _______ (affect or effect)? Look carefully at
the difference; examine the examples. Separate (10) ______ and roots to se how they
are formed. That will help you to (11) _______ using too few or too many letters (mis
spell , public ly) . When you add a suffix, check to see if the final consonant of the
root must be (12)_______ or not (plan, planning; plane, planing).
   It (13) _______ down to seeing, hearing and writing the word carefully and
accurately.
   Don’t expect (14) _______. At first you will have to use your dictionary heavily,
but if you do pay attention you will gradually form a habit of spelling most words you
use correctly. Maintain a healthy (15) _______. To doubt check, have someone else
proofread after you finish.
1. A. so small         B. too small          C. small enough         D. extremely small
2. A. time             B. place              C. whenever            D. way
3. A. to               B. of                 C. with                 D. by
4. A. characters        B. characteristics    C. qualities          D. qualifications
5. A. with             B. and                 C. on                 D. by
6. A. remember        B. reference            C. language             D. memory
7.A. forth             B. like                C. etc.                D. similarly
8. A. See              B. Look                C. Watch               D. Find
9. A. same            B. alike                C. difficult          D. confusing
10. A. suffixes       B. affixes              C. prefixes           D. syllables
11. A. avoid from      B. not                  C. keep from         D. try
12. A. added           B. spelt                C. doubled          D. inserted
13. A. follows         B. comes                C. goes               D. boils
14. A. anyhow           B. progress            C. achievements D. miracles
15. A. diet            B. distrust              C. confidence       D. mentality

 Passage 7
Most of us have more things than we need and use. At (1) ______ they pile up in
corners and closets or accumulate in the recesses of attics, (2) ______ or garages. But
we sort through our clutter periodically and clean it (3) ______, saving only what we
really need and giving (4) ______ or throwing out the excess. This isn’t the (5)
______, unfortunately, with people we call “pack rats ” – (6) ______ who collect,
save or hoard insatiably, often with only the vague rationale (7) ______ the items may
someday be useful. And because they (8) ______ winnow what they save, it grows
and grows.
   While some pack rats specialize in what they collect, others seem to save (9)
______. And what they keep, such as junk mails, supermarket (10) ______,
newspapers, business memos, empty cans, clothes or old Christmas and birthday cards,
often seem to be worthless. Even when items have some (11) ______, they tend (12)

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_______ in huge quantities that no one could use in a lifetime.
   (13) ______ pack rats collect, they are different from collectors, who save in a
systematic way. Collectors usually specialize in one of a few classes of (14) ______,
which they organize, display and catalogue. But pack rats tend to stockpile their
possessions (15) _______ and seldom use them.
1. A. occasions          B. times           C intervals         D. ease
2. A. living rooms        B. bedrooms       C. basements         D. kitchens
3. A. away                B. out             C. off              D. up
4. A. away                B. out             C. off              D. up
5. A. case                B. matter           C. fact             D. truth
6. A. he                 B. those            C. men               D. women
7. A. when                B. what            C. however            D. that
8. A. often               B. always           C. occasionally      D. rarely
9. A. carefully        B. on purpose           C. indiscriminately         D. wisely
10. A. receipts           B. notes             C. statements         D. papers
11. A. cost                B. value              C. worth              D. usage
12. A. to keep             B. to be kept        C. not keep           D. not to be kept
13. A. When                B. Although          C. Since              D. If
14. A. objects             B. objectives         C. objections         D. objectivities
15. A. disorderly          B. haphazardly        C. unreasonably       D. unwisely

Passage 8
Spinning fibers to produce yarn and then weaving it into cloth carpets are basic
process that have been practiced since the very earliest times. There does not seem to
have been any particular pattern in the development of the equipment (1) ______ in
this craft. Availability of materials, population growth and the resulting increase in (2)
_______, many different climates, and all the other (3) ______ that control the
development of civilizations played (4) ______ part.
   Spinning is the process of drawing out and then (5) ______ or twisting the fibers
into a continuous thread. (6) ______ types of handheld spindles for doing this were
developed among ancient civilizations. However, the spinning wheel came (7) ______
use as a development of the hand-spindle and represents a great (8) ______ forward in
textile manufacture. it provides a good example of the movement of textile
technology from East to West. It probably had its (9) ______ in China and derived
from the machinery used for processing silk fibers. A single continuous (10) ______
of silk runs for several hundred feet, and the silk-weaving industry in china obviously
needed a machine that could deal with these extremely (11) ______ fibers.
   The silk industry was operating in China from at least the 14th century B.C.,
although it was probably many centuries after that date (12) ______ the spinning
wheel was developed. It is possible that spinning wheels were introduced to Europe
by Italian merchants and missionaries who traveled to China during the rule of the
Mongol Yuan (13) ______ (A.D. 1280-1368). The earliest picture of a spinning wheel
in Europe appears in the Luttrell Psalter in England, dating to 1338. But the spinning
wheel may have been introduced (14) ______ earlier to Europe by the Arabs during

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their period in Sicily and Spain. They (15) ______ it along with their knowledge of
silk manufacture.
1. A. use              B. using                C. uses           D. used
2. A. demand           B. command              C. productivity   D. practice
3. A. factors          B. facts                C. development    D. changes
4. A. its               B. it’s                C. their           D. the
5. A. wounding          B. weaving              C. winding        D. wedging
6. A. Such              B. Various              C. Old             D. Those
7. A. with             B. onto                  C. into           D. from
8. A. gap               B. step                 C. difference     D. point
9. A. roots             B. sources              C. foundation     D. origins
10. A. strand           B. stream               C. stand          D. stretch
11. A. slippery          B. complicated         C. long           D. difficult
12. A. when             B. that                 C. before         D. which
13. A. time            B. period                 C. dynasty         D. kingdom
14. A. much              B. a great deal of      C. a lot of         D. little
15. A. could take     B. might take         C. should have taken D. may have taken

Passage 9
These days, “what do you want to do when you grow up?” is the wrong question to
ask children in the USA. The (1) ______ should be: “what job are you doing now?”
American companies are employing more and young people as consultants to (2)
______ products for child consumers. The 12-to-19 (3) ______ group spends more
than a $100 billion a year in the USA. Specialist agencies have been created to help
manufactures ask kids about all the latest (4) _______ in clothes, food and other
markets. One (5) ______, Teenage Research Unlimited, has panels of teenagers who
give their verdict on products (6) ______ jeans. Another company, Doyle Research
Associated, holds two-hour (7) ______ in a room called the “imaginarium”. Children
are encouraged to play games to get (8) ______ a creative mood. They have to write
down any ideas that (9) ______ into their heads.
   Some manufactures prefer to do their own (10) ______ research. The software
company Microsoft runs a weekly “Kid’s Council” at its (11) ______ in Seattle,
where a panel of schoolchildren give their verdict on the (12) ______ products and
suggest new ones. One 11-year-old, Andrew Cooledge , told them should make more
computer games which appeal equally (13) _______ boys and girls. Payments for the
work are increasingly attractive. Andrew Cooledge was paid $250 and given some
software. However, even if their ideas are valuable, the children will never (14)
______ a fortune. They cannot have the (15) ______ to their ideas. These are
precarious jobs, too. By their mid-teens they can be told that they are too old.
1. A. answer            B. question           C. alteration          D. word
2.A. evaluate            B. regard            C. view                 D. decide
3. A. year               B. age               C. time                 D. child
4. A. thoughts          B. trends             C. ideas                 D. interests
5. A. manufacturer        B. firm              C. agent                D. institute

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6. A. as                 B. of                 C. like                D. with
7. A. interviews          B. classes           C. sessions            D. sections
8. A. out of              B. onto              C. along with          D. into
9. A. come                B. occur             C. happen              D. drop
10. A. science            B. creation           C. market             D. production
11. A. centers            B. offices             C. headquarters       D. factories
12. A. latest              B. traditional         C. imaginary         D. food
13. A. with                B. to                 C. at                 D. for
14. A. make                 B. take               C. get                D. win
15. A. control             B. access                C. claim             D. copyright


Passage 10
Some people are tremendously curious. The world is of (1) ______ to them, and they
observe what others (2) ______ not. Nobel Prize – wining physician Albert Szent –
Gyorgyi (3) ______ it well when he said, “discovery consists of looking at the same
thing as (4) ______ and thinking something different.” With this (5) ______ comes an
“investigative spirit ”; the learning is not (6) _____ the acquisition as it is an
investigation – a questioning, a turning over of the object of study to see all sides and
(7) ______. It is not knowing in the sense of having a rigid opinion, but the ability to
look again at another time, in a different (8) ______, and to form a new understanding
(9) ______ on that observation.
   One way to develop curiosity is to cultivate “disbelief.” By disbelieving what we
often take (10) ______, we begin to investigate and explore on our own. In the (11)
______, we stop mindlessly parroting our teachers and begin to find (12) ______ their
understanding works in our own experience. Disbelief can be a major step towards
creative exploration. In my own classes I encourage students to investigate, to (13)
______ my instructions in their own practice. “How does this movement affect my
body? What happens if I do it another way? How am I reacting (14) _____ this
posture?” The (15) ______ act of saying “what if …?” opens a completely new
dimension of thought. This kind of questioning has led to some of the most exacting
inventions of our time.
1. A. significance         B. interest           C. value         D. consequence
2. A. observe              B. often               C. do           D. perhaps
3. A. said                 B. spoke               C. wrote        D. put
4. A. everyone else          B. everyone           C. anyone       D. such
5. A. feeling               B. curiosity         C. observation D. remark
6. A. as                    B. so                 C. as much       D. so much
7. A. relatives             B. facets             C. questions     D. principles
8. A. side                   B. light             C. style          D. taste
9. A. relied                 B. depends             C. based         D. also
10. away with                 B. as true            C. for granted D. advantage of
11. A. process                B. progress            C. meanwhile D. sense
12. A. where                  B. how                  C. that         D. out

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13. A. suspect   B. encounter    C. question   D. think
14. A. with       B. to         C. as          D .for
15. A. same       B. only       C. mere        D. repeating




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