AGRICULTURE by dffhrtcv3



Unit 3: Subsistence Wet Rice
Distribution of WRC in
Monsoon Asia
 90% of the world’s rice is produced and
  consumed in Asia where 50% of the world’s
  population reside
 Rice is a staple food in Asia
 Wet rice or padi cultivation is commonly found in
  Monsoon Asia
 Monsoon – seasonal winds which bring rains
   In South Asia – April to October – Southwest
   November – March – Northeast Monsoon
Distribution in Monsoon
 Where are they found?
  Ganges floodplain in India and
  Chang Jiang Plain and Zhu Jiang Delta in
  Java and Bali in Indonesia
  Luzon in the Philippines
Distribution of WRC in Monsoon Asia
The Rice Plant
Factors influencing Distribution:
Physical Factors:
           Physical Conditions:

 Climate    High temperature of 21 – 27°C

            High annual rainfall of 2000mm
            to 2500mm
 Relief     Flat land

 Soil       Fertile, clayey, alluvial soils
Factors influencing Distribution:
Human Factors:
 Labour
   Requires a lot of labour
   Practised in areas where there is an abundance
    of cheap labour such as India and Indonesia
 Capital
   Poor farmers use simple tools in their farming
   Areas where labour lacking (Japan), capital is
    important to buy machines
   Capital is also required in areas not arable to
    build irrigation facilities
  Factors influencing Distribution:
  Human Factors:
 Technology
   Use of technology such as irrigation in areas with low rainfall
   Supply water all year round and allow more than one rice
    crop to be planted
 Social Conditions
   Traditional practices such as inheritance laws limits the size
    of the farm
   Small farm size = low output = low income
 Market and Transport
   Not important consideration for subsistence farmers
   For commercial farmers, close to the market help saves
    transport cost
Factors influencing Distribution:
Human Factors:
 Government
   Plays a significant role in improving practice of
    wet rice farming
   Provide funding for building irrigation
   C apital
   L abour
   T ech
   D emand/market
   G ovt
as IPO
    1       1






                             Match your descriptions to
9                            the photographs
    Wet Rice Cultivation in
    Indonesia: The Process

(wet rice field or paddy)                   The water buffalo pulls a harrow through
Using mattocks (heavy hoe-like              the flooded sawah. The harrow levels the
implements), the men break up the mostly    soil surface and makes a smooth bed for
volcanic soil into large clods which will   rice seedlings to be planted and makes
soften and dissolve in the water.           water depth the same throughout the
     The Process

                                                         PICTURE 4.
                                                         PLANTING THE
                                                         RICE SEEDLINGS

                                                        Women plant the seedlings one at a time,
                                                        spacing them a hand span apart. (A hand
                                                        span is the distance from the thumb to little
                                                        finger when the fingers are spread apart).
PICTURE 3. THE SAWAH READY FOR PLANTING                 These women worked for four days to plant
Small bundles of green seedlings, lined up along one this single sawah. A few days later, a man
edge of the sawah, are being transplanted from          will walk through the fields casting handfuls
specially fertilized beds. Notice the slight rise in    of fertilizer to cover the fields. As weeds
elevation between each sawah from foreground to         begin to grow, men will go through the
back. Looking closely, you can see water trickling from paddy pulling them up and burying them
a sawah to the one in front.                            beneath the mud, where they also act as
                                                        fertilizer as they decay.
   The Process

Shown here in terraces, the rice has grown and             A woman holds a small knife (called ani-
branched out (called tillering), developed seed heads,     ani) in her right hand, concealed so as not
and soon will be ready for harvesting. Lower on the        to frighten the rice plant. Each stalk is cut
hillside are several sawahs that are flooded and           individually and transferred to her left
waiting to be planted. In some countries, like Bali, the   hand. When enough has been cut to
rice is planted first in the highest fields. After the     make a small bundle, it is stacked for later
water is used it is allowed to flow downhill where the     threshing. Traditionally, the person doing
lower terraces then use it.                                the threshing received one stalk from
                                                           each bundle.
  The Process

                                            PICTURE 8. DRYING THE RICE
                                            Rice is spread out on canvas along a
                                            village street to evaporate remaining
                                            moisture (about 20 percent of its weight).
The rice seeds are separated from their stalks and husks (chaff) by being ground
underfoot. (Sometimes the bundles are beaten by hand). Next the rice will be
tossed in a wide, flat basket to let the wind blow away the lightweight chaff.
The Process

                                         PICTURE 10. SELLING RICE
                                         Although most rice is stored unhulled in
                                         the household or village until needed for
                                         food, some rice is sold in the open
                                         market. Baskets of rice, in various stages
                                         of hulling, are offered for sale.

A woman pounds the unhulled, dried rice with a log from a palm tree (as a pestle) in
a stone bowl (mortar). This wears off the brown hull so the rice may be cooked and
eaten. If pounded more, rice flour is produced. Sometimes several women pound
rice in a log trough side by side.
    1       2           3

4       5           6        7

    8           9
     Rice Growing in California

                                                        PICTURE 2. LEVELING THE RICE CHECK
PICTURE 1. PREPARING THE CHECK (rice field)             Tractors and dirt loader are used to level the
A tractor pulls a moldboard plow (its shape turns       surface of the rice check so the water will
the soil over) to turn under a crop of vetch, a crop    cover the surface to the same depth over all.
planted after the last rice crop. It will compost and   The tractors are controlled by a separated
act as fertilizer, adding nitrogen to the soil. The     machine which uses a laser to find high and
rice field is called a "check" and can be either        low spots. Each check is tilted slightly so
rectangular or follow the contour of the land. Rice     water will flow continuously through the field,
grows best in clay soil, which softens under water      assuring that oxygen is present is the water
but doesn't let more water drain through once it is     around the plants. Although this machinery is
saturated. This keeps water on the surface for the      very expensive, the job needs to be done only
rice plant to grow in.                                  about every five years.
Rice seed are soaked in large bins so they will
sprout soon after planting. Sometime the seeds
are coated with fungicides (to prevent the        PICTURES 4. SOWING THE RICE
growth of fungus) or coated with elements to      The rice checks have been flooded through a
improve the acid level of the soil. In the        system of canals which bring water from a
background are white tanks holding fuel to run    nearby river. The rice is seeded from an
the machines used in rice growing.                airplane, which sows a thirty-foot wide swath
                                                  before returning for reloading from a funnel
                                                  moved into position by a truck. Two planes
                                                  alternate in the landing-refilling-taking off
                                                  process, which takes three minutes.
The growing rice is treated periodically      A harvester (or combine) both cuts and
with pesticides and herbicides to kill        threshes the rice. It cuts a 20-foot wide swath
insects and weeds. The rice is kept           of rice, then separates the rice kernels from the
flooded with 6-8 inches of water until just   stems (straw), and the husks from the kernels
before harvest, when the clay soil of the     (chaff). The combine feeds the rice into a
check dries very quickly.                     tractor pulled carrier, which will take to rice to a
                                              truck on a nearby roadway. The combine also
                                              chops up the rice straw and deposits it onto the
                                              field behind it. Later the straw will either be
                                              burned off or ploughed under before the next
                                         PICTURE 8. RICE STORAGE
PICTURE 7. DRYING THE RICE               After being dried, the rice is loaded into
Rice is put into wide, shallow bins,     bins on a truck to be moved into the tall
which move up, over, and down a          silos of a warehouse. In the warehouse
height of three stories as hot air is    it will be kept at a controlled
blown over them. When harvested,         temperature to maintain its quality.
rice contains 18-26 percent moisture.
It is dried to about 14 percent
moisture, to help it keep for storage.
The rice is milled in a storage           About 55 percent of California rice is
warehouse and rice mill, where            sold in the U.S. and its territories,
machinery controlled by computers         where it is mostly used for food. The
removes the brown hulls from the rice.    remainder is sold on the world
The large building shown in the picture   market. Short grain rice, preferred in
is owned by a cooperative of rice         Asian markets, grows well in
farmers who share the cost of operating   California. The ship is loading rice at
it.                                       the Port of Sacramento into a Korean
                                          merchant ship.
Process for Subsistence WRC
   Preparing the field and nursery…repairing bunds to create a flooded
   Sowing the seeds in the nursery

           ARRIVAL OF RAIN
            Ploughing by buffaloes
            Transplanting of rice saplings to flooded fields
            Or some practise direct seeding
            Patching is carried out
            Feritilising and weeding

         After 150 days
         Harvesting using sickles
         Threshing – separate rice grain from stalk
         Winnowing – remove unwanted stalk & husks
    Rainfed Vs Irrigated Fields
RAINFED                  IRRIGATED
 Dependent on            With irrigation
  the monsoon              facilities,
  rains                    farmers able to
 Too                      grow 2 – 3 rice
  early/late,              crops per year
   little/ heavy,
 Grow 1 rice
  crop per year
Characteristics of WRC Rainfed
vs Irrigated Fields:
Purpose of farming

         Rainfed                 Irrigated
  Farmers are             Farmers practised
   subsistence and          commercial farming
   mainly grow rice for    Eg. Japan
   their own
  Egs. China, India,
Size of farms
           Rainfed                      Irrigated
  Usually small               large
  Half a hectare to two
  Some countries – small
   and fragmented due to
   the practice of dividing
   the land equally among
Level of technology
             Rainfed                    Irrigated
    Subsistence farmers use  Commercial farmers use
     simple technology         a higher level of
    Use traditional ways of   technology
     cultivation              Rely on modern
    Depend on manual          irrigation methods and
     labour and buffaloes to   machines
     do the work              apply chemical
    animal manures to         fertilisers to increase
     enrich the soil           their yields
Amount of inputs
           Rainfed                    Irrigated
  lower inputs as           Higher inputs compared
   compared to irrigated      to rainfed
   fields                    Capital is needed to
  Work in smaller fields     build irrigation facilities,
   and use simple             buy high yielding seeds,
   technology and animals     chemical fertilisers and
                             Able to practise double
Amount of outputs & Variety
           Rainfed                    Irrigated
  lower outputs as           Commercial farmers
   compared to irrigated       produce a higher outputs
   fields                      than subsistence
  Produce 1 crop of rice      farmers
   per year                   With the use of HYVs
  Due to small farms,         and technology, able to
   traditional methods and     harvest 2 to 3 crops of
   tools                       rice per year

  Grow variety of crops      Grow 1 type of crop -
   such as vegetables and      monoculture
 Characteristics of WRC
                     Rainfed             Irrigated
Purpose of           Subsistence         Commercial
Size of farms        Small, fragmented   large

Level of             Simple technology   higher level of
Technology                               technology
Amount of inputs     Low                 High

Amount of outputs Low                    High

Variety of outputs   Grow other crops    Monoculture
Problems facing subsistence farmers
Size of farms
 Land fragmentation reduces size of farm
 Scattered plots
 Difficult for govt to plan for irrigation and drainage projects
Shortage of labour
 Especially able-bodied young men due to R-U migration
 Farmers are less inclined to increase yields as large
    proportion of harvest goes to landlords
 An obstacle to invest to increase yields
 Resistant to new farming methods such as using HYVs
Natural hazards
 Unreliable rainfall/ floods and droughts/ attacks by rodents
   Rain-fed Vs Irrigated Fields
Rain-fed fields                 Irrigated Fields
 Occupy 25% of world’s rice     Occupy 55% of world’s rice
  area                            area
 Produce 17% of world’s rice    Produce 75% of world’s rice
  output                          output
 Farmers are poor and           Farmers enjoy govt support
  practises monoculture           and multiple harvest
 Crop yield is unstable         Crop yield is stable
 Traditional rice varieties     Use modern rice varieties
  which do not respond to         which have a shorter growth
  fertilisers are grown           period and respond well to
                                  fertilizers & resistant to pests
                                  and diseases
Climatic Graph of Alor Star
             What is the climatic pattern of
              Alor Star, Kedah?
             How would the climatic pattern
              help farmers in the North
              Kedah plain to make decisions
              that are related to the farming
              activities of the year?
             If farmers organise their
              farming activities based on the
              graph, how many crops can
              they grow?
Green Revolution
 The period of change of wet rice cultivation
  brought about by modern varieties of seeds/
  HYVs, technology, irrigation facilities and
  use of fertilisers, pesticides and
 Refers to a complex change of technology
  which includes both improved seeds and a
  wide range of new management practices
 Modern varieties (MV) or high yielding
  varieties (HYVs)
Higher rice output
 Use of HYVs has increased rice production
 Countries spend less on rice imports and earn more money
  from rice exports
 Adoption of double cropping or triple cropping creates more
  jobs in rural areas
Higher standard of living
 Farmers who produce more rice sell their surplus and
  receive a source of income
 Income earned can be used to purchase and invest in more
  farm outputs
 Break out of the poverty cycle
 Improve living conditions and lifestyle
Higher cost of production
 HYVs, fertilizers, pesticides, irrigation facilities cost money
 Use of cultivated land throughout the year depletes soil
  nutrients – purchase expensive chemical fertilisers
 Increased fuel cost for tractors and combined harvesters
 Poor farmers unable to afford these new technology
Widening income gap
 Rich farmers – afford the use of technology – increase yield
  – increase income
 Poor farmers – cannot afford – yields remain low or
Over irrigation
 By careless farmers results in waterlogging
  and salinity which destroy crops
 Large quantities of fertilizers and pesticides
  contaminate the soil
 Wash by rain into groundwater, rivers and
  other water bodies, polluting the water and
  endangering aquatic life
Spread of diseases and pests
 In areas where HYVs seeds are used, one or two
  varieties are planted
 Widespread destruction if diseases or pests occur
 Traditional farmers select their own varieties of rice
  seeds to plant resulting in different varieties in
  adjoining farms
Prices affected by demand
 Price of rice falls when yields are high/ surplus
 Sell surplus rice at a reduced price
Loss of work
 Mechanization of farm activities has put some
  workers out of jobs and R-U migration may intensify
Spreading Benefits of GR
 Continual research on the development of HYVs
   For different growing environment,
   To produce high yields in rainfed or flood prone areas to
    benefit those farmers who have no access to irrigation
    facilities or subject to floods
 Set up banks and co-operatives
   for providing loans at low interest rates to farmers
   Poor farmers able to get loan to buy better inputs
 Provision of storage and marking facilities
 Promotion of the use of more biological control
  methods and natural predators to fight pests
   Less dependence on chemical fertilizers and less
Impact of GR on Rice
Cultivation in Asia
Positive                 Negative
 Bumper harvests         Shorter height –
 Shorter growing          submerged in water
  seasons (100 vs 180      during heavy rains
  days)                   Growing of one HYV
 More tolerant to         make spread of new
  unfavourable climate     pests & diseases a
                           potential danger
 Respond well to
  fertilisers             Heavy applications of
                           pesticides and fungicides
Impact of GR on Rice
Communities in Asia
 Rich farmers get             To bridge the gap:
  richer, poor farmers          Govt to provide costly
  get poorer                     infrastructure
 Large capital needed          Extend credits and loans
      Chemical fertilisers     Subsidies to purchase
      Insecticides              HYVs
      Irrigation + drainage
                                Formation of collectives to
      Mechanisation
                                 share cost of setting up
 Rich farmers double
  their yields & sell the
Impact of GR on
  Use of HYVs requires heavy use of
   fertilisers, pesticides and herbicides
   which severely affect the ecosystem
   within the rice fields and cause pollution
   of groundwater, rivers, lakes and seas.
  P roduction
  T olerant
  S horter growg pd
  D oubled
  M ore income
  C reated new ind and jobs
 Assess/Evaluate the impact of improvement of
   technology on the rice community in Monsoon
   Asia. [8]

    H igh cost
    O utbreak of p/d
    W eeding
    P ollution
    U nemplpymt
    I ncome inequality
Case Study of Impact of
the GR on WRC in India
 Reasons for the need to increase food
   Large population – many suffer from malnutrition
   Famine and hunger widespread
   Reduce reliance to purchase food from other
   Alleviate poor farmers from poverty by increasing farm
    outputs – income – improve standard of living
   Move away from subsistence farming
   Help solve unemployment which indirectly reduce
    rural urban migration
Economic impact
 Growth of local manufacturing sector (fertilisers,
   pesticides, machines etc) which created jobs
   and contributed to GDP
 Irrigation leads to building of dams which were
   also used to generate hydroelectric power –
   create jobs, improve quality of life
 Indian govt able to furnish loans from world bank
   for the purpose of GR
 Sharing of experienced rice farmers to other
   countries generated income for the country
(read up on social impact)

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