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Richard M. Nixon

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					Richard M. Nixon

     Foreign Policy: 1968-
             1974
     “I’ve always thought this
      country could run itself
      domestically without a
             President.”
                                Henry Kissinger
• Nixon’s National
  Security Advisor (1969-
  1973) Secretary of State
  in 1973
• Nixon’s closest and
  most trusted advisor
• Believed in ‘realpolitik’ -
  practical politics
   – Decisions based on
      maintaining
      strength, not moral
      principles
   – Détente - a relaxing
      of tensions between
      two nations.
Nixon and China   • Nixon and Kissinger
                    took different approach
                    to dealing with
                    Communist China.
                  • US began series of
                    moves to improve
                    relations with China.
                  • “Ping-pong diplomacy”
                  • Nixon traveled to China
                    in Feb. of 1972
                  • Met with Chairman Mao
                    and Premier Zhou Enlai
                    (to Nixon’s right).
                  • Nixon politically popular
                    as a result.
  The Soviet Union and China
• Soviet Union (Russia or
  USSR) communist but
  enemies of China.
• Nixon exploited this
  difference.
• Vietnam received
  majority of aid from
  Russia.
• Better relations with
  China could be a
  bargaining chip to end
  Vietnam War.
   Strategic Arms
  Limitations Talks
      (SALT I)
• Nixon visited Soviet Union in
  1972.
• First US President inside the
  Kremlin
• SALT I Treaty signed in
  1972 by US and USSR
   – Wanted to limit the
     proliferation (expansion) of
     offensive nuclear weapons.
   – Froze the number of ICBMs
     and SLBMs at 1972 levels.
   – Restricted the development
     of antiballistic missile
     systems.
            Missiles…
  ICBMs (Intercontinental Ballistic)
SLBMs (Submarine Launched Ballistic)
   Personal Diplomacy
    begins to pay off
• Paris Peace talks stalled since
  1968. Renewed periodically.
• China relations, USSR visit
  created a bargaining ploy to
  end the war in Vietnam
• National Security Advisor Henry
  Kissinger claimed ”peace is at
  hand” - just before 1972
  election.
• December 1972, new round of
  bombing - “Christmas
  bombings” (Nixon - a “mad
  bomber”)
• Bombed Hanoi, North Vietnam,
  mined the harbor
• Vietnam resumes negotiations
  with US
1973 - Paris Peace Accords
             • The United States would
               withdraw all its forces from
               South Vietnam within 60 days.
             • All prisoners of war would be
               released.
             • All parties to the agreement
               would end military activities in
               Laos and Cambodia.
             • The 17th parallel would continue
               to divide North and South
               Vietnam until the country could
               be reunited.
 Nixon’s Foreign Policy Legacy
• Nixon’s focus and most
  intense interest was
  always foreign policy
• His achievements are
  often overshadowed by
  the Watergate scandal.
• Nixon effectively ended
  the war in Vietnam
• Nixon ushered in a
  period of détente with
  former US enemies

				
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posted:7/29/2012
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