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					Manufacturing
       What is manufacturing?
• Dictionary.com defines it as:
  – the making of goods or wares by manual labor or by
    machinery, especially on a large scale
    Characteristics of Mass Production
•    Precision measurement
•    Standardization
•    Interchangeability
•    Synchronization
•    Continuity
Characteristics in choosing they type
         of manufacturing
•   Volume to be produced
•   Availability of necessary inputs
•   Types of products to be made
•   Life cycle or durability of a product
•   Production philosophy of the organization
        Types of manufacturing
1.   Continuous Manufacturing
2.   Intermittent (batch) manufacturing
3.   Custom manufacturing
4.   Just-in-time (JIT) (kanban) manufacturing
    Continuous Manufacturing
–   Produces a large # of identical products.
–   Narrow production line (company makes only one
    product)
–   Examples: TVs, radios, refrigerators, food, and
    utensils.
–   Requires workers to be specialized at their jobs
Intermittent (batch) manufacturing
 –   Company has a large inventory
 –   Chosen for medium length production runs of a
     wide variety of products.
 –   Set-up and tooling are changed often because of
     modifications
 –   Advantage: same production line may be used for
     different products
 –   Examples: holiday candy, musical instruments, and
     house paint.
      Custom manufacturing
–   Produces one or just a few products at a time
–   Each product is unique
–   Problem solving and trouble shooting are
    necessary skills
–   Prices of final product is quite high
–   Examples: large yachts, airplanes, custom tools,
    jewelry, pottery, custom furniture and signs.
    Just-in-time (JIT) (kanban)
             manufacturing
–   Can be applied to the different types of
    manufacturing
–   Key goals: reduce the inactive inventory and cut lot
    sizes
       Departments in Industry
1.   Management
2.   Engineering
3.   Production
4.   Marketing
5.   Finances
6.   Human resources
                  Management
–       Makes sure all the departments work together
–       Make company policies and then makes sure the
        other departments follow them
–       Ranked in a hierarchical order
–       Duties include:
    •     Planning
    •     Organizing
    •     Directing
    •     Controlling
    •     Evaluating
                   Engineering
–       Designs, produces, and tests the first model of a
        new product (prototypes).
–       They conduct tests and experiments
–       Most departments have a research and
        development team
–       Types of engineers include:
    •     Manufacturing
    •     Quality control
    •     Design
    •     Methods
                Production
–   Sets up and uses the tools and machine to make
    the product.
–   Management worker, the supervisor, is in charge
–   Divided into skilled, semi-skilled, and unskilled
    labor
                Marketing
–   Conducts market research and advertises, packages,
    sells, and distributes the product
–   Department includes: statisticians, advertisers,
    package designers, salespeople, and shipping
    workers.
                   Finances
–   Keeps track of all income and expenditures.
–   Expenditures include: payroll, material costs, utility
    costs, and buying and maintaining tools,
    equipment, and machines.
–   Department includes: accountants, bookkeepers,
    and other record keepers.
              Human Resources
–       Responsible for:
    •     Recruiting
    •     Negotiating
    •     Training
    •     Health and Safety
          –   Maintains safe environment by the Occupational Safety and
              Health administration (OSHA)
    •     Public Relations.
         Material Processing
•   Primary Manufacturing Processes
•   Secondary Manufacturing Processes
•   Finished produc
Primary Manufacturing processes
•       all materials must change from their raw state
        to a more useful form for secondary
        manufacturing.
    –        Obtaining raw materials
    –        Refining materials- separates the useful part from
             the unwanted and less useful materials
         •     Mechanical refining
         •     Chemical refining
         •     Thermal refining
    –        Manufacturing standard materials
    Secondary Manufacturing processes
•   Separating tools
•   Forming tools
•   Combining tools
•   Other tools
•   Computers
                Separating tools
•   remove part of the original material and leave
    the required size and shape
     •   Chip removal
         –   Drills and bits
         –   Saw blades
         –   Cutters
         –   Files, grinders, and abrasive papers.
     •   Shearing tools (shears, chisels, and punches)
           Forming tools
•   Casting tools
•   Compressing and stretching tools
•   Conditioning tools
         Combining tools
•   Coating tools
•   Bonding tools
•   Mechanical fastening tools
               Other tools
•   Measuring
•   Holding-Clamps and pliers
•   Positioning-Jigs and fixtures
•   Transporting machines

				
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posted:7/29/2012
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