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Modern Biology

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					   Organic compounds
    › compounds of living organisms
    › All contain Carbon atoms
       Has 4 available electrons
           Allows for great variety of compounds
           Rings
           Chains
           branches
 Forms strong covalent bonds
  Single
  Double
  triple
   A cluster of atoms that influence or control
    the molecule they are a part of and who
    they react with
    › Hydroxyl (OH) – part of all alcohols
      (carbohydrates) and lipids
    › Carboxyl (COOH) – part of amino acids which
      are part of proteins, also part of lipids
    › Amine (NH2) – part of amino acids which are
      part of proteins
    › Phosphates – (PO4) – found in nucleic acids, and
      sugars (carbohydrates)
   Monomer – small simple
    molecules
   Polymers - repeated
    monomers
› Condensation reactions: at H on one
  monomer and OH on another monomer
› Hydrolysis – breaks monomers apart
 Carbohydrates – acquire energy
  from the sun
 Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) – the
  energy that most organisms use that
  comes from carbohydrates
    › Becomes ADP when energy is released
     to the cell
 Carbohydrates
 Proteins
 Lipids
 Nucleic Acids
   Organic molecules
   Made of CHO
   Source of immediate energy
   Sugars and starches
   Found in pasta, breads, rice,
    wheat, potatoes, corn, etc.
   Monosaccharide has 1:2:1 ratio
    of C:H:O
   Glucose is the simplest sugar- that provides energy for
    cells
   Most common: glucose, fructose (fruit sugar), galactose
    › Isomers – same formula but different shape
        Glucose
        fructose
   Disaccharides
    › 2 sugars bonded together
       Sucrose (table sugar)=
        fructose +glucose
       Lactose (milk sugar)
        =glucose + galactose
   Polysaccharide
    › Chains of sugars bonded together (aka
      complex carbohydrate) – up to 1000’s of
      monomers
    › .
› Glycogen – stored polysaccharides in the liver
› Starch – stored polysaccharides in plants
› Cellulose – polysaccharide also made by plants
  –makes up 50% of wood. We can’t digest it, but
  some bacteria can
 Organic compound
 Made of CHON
 Monomer is called an amino acid
 Polymer is amino acids bonded to each
  other
    › Peptide bonds created by condensation
   .
   Amino acid composed of
    › Amine
    › Carboxyl group
    › R group (unique to each
      amino acid)
    › H atom
   Proteins are polypeptides
   20 naturally occurring
    amino acids
   Functions
    › Movement – muscle compounds are protein
    › Structure – forms connective fibers
› Functions, con’t
   Transport – hemoglobin transports oxygen
   Storage – casein in milk stores amino acids for babies
› Functions, con’t
   Regulation – some hormones – insulin
   Functions, con’t
       Defense – antibodies are proteins
 Functions, con’t
   Biochemical control – enzymes
    Proteins that speed up reactions
    Substrate – what the enzyme is acting upon- substance being
     changed
    Active site – where the enzyme binds and where change takes place
   Nonpolar organic molecule
   Composed of CHO – no ratio, some P
   Store lots of energy
   Types
     › Fatty Acids- most abundant
        Hydrophilic end (water loving)
        Hydrophobic end (water hating)
 Can be saturated –
  all C-C single bonds
  holds all the H possible
  Not healthy
 Unsaturated
  some C=C double bonds
  More H could be added
  More healthy fat
› Triglycerides
   3 fatty acids attached to glycerol
   Saturated : butter and animal fat, solid at room temp
   Unsaturated: plant seeds, soft and liquid at room temp
› Phospholipids
   Found in cell membranes (lipid bi-layer)
   2 fatty acids attached to glycerol
› Waxes
   Long fatty acid attached to long alcohol
   Waterproof plants, and protects surfaces of
    living organisms
› Steroids
   4 fused carbon rings
   Many hormones
     Testosterone
     cholesterol
 VERY large molecules
 Two kinds
    › DNA – deoxyribonucleic
     acid
       Contain hereditary
        information
    › RNA- ribonucleic acid
       Transfers DNA
        information to make
        proteins
       Some act as enzymes
   Complex molecule containing nucleotides
    › Sugars
       DNA – deoxy-ribose sugar (5 carbon)
       RNA – ribose sugar (5 carbon)
    › Phosphates
    › Nitrogen bases
       DNA
           Adenine
           Thymine
           Cytosine
           Guanine
       RNA
           Cytosine
           Guanine
           Adenine
           Urasil

				
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posted:7/28/2012
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