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   What is the history and future of Anglo, Latin,
    and Afro America?
   What are the current effects of
    corruption in America?
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 objective – the goal or purpose

 trading route – a path used for trading by
  ship over oceans
 obtain – to acquire or get

 luxury items – things that aren’t necessary
  to live; but make it nicer
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   sophisticated – to be of a higher nature or
   convince – to have someone agree with
    you and / or your point of view
   enslave – to make a slave
   converting – to change someone to your
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   belief system – a group of ideas and beliefs;
    usually concerning religion
   spirit – in this case; your passion to live
   identity crisis – your idea of what is real is
    completely changed so that you don’t know who
    you are any more or what to believe
   majority – more than half
   exposed -
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   Immunity – when a person can hold away
   Imperialism – when a country dominates
    another country by controlling its people
    through government.
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   Christopher Columbus discovered the western hemisphere; the
    continents of North and South America with Central America
    between the two.
   Columbus’ objective was to find a trading route to China for the
    purpose of obtaining Chinese silk, spices, and other luxury items.
   Christopher sailed for Spain; but he was an Italian.
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   The history of Spain is both
    unique and similar to the rest
    of Europe.
   Originally, it was inhabited by
    Paleolithic man migrating from
    Africa several thousand years
   Then Celtic people from
    present day Hungary entered
    into the region and mixed with
    the inhabitants.
   In northwest Spain there still
    exists a culture that uses
    bagpipes and kilts regularly.
         For the next several hundred
          years many people from
          different ethnic backgrounds
          entered and mixed with Spain;
          especially the Germanic
         Each of these peoples brings a
          value and cultural personality
          with them.
         The Germans have been
          known for militaristic qualities.
         The Celts were warriors,
          hunters, and keepers of
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   The Greeks and Phoenicians inhabited the Iberian Peninsula at the
    same time as the Celts. They brought the Greek classical culture of
    art, sculpture, and metallurgy.
   The Carthaginians from Northern Africa inhabited Spain prior to the
    Romans conquering the Mediterranean region. The Romans brought
    a governmental system that they had modified from the Greeks to
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   This system is still seen in Latin American cities as the town square
    or plaza comprising the Catholic church, the city hall and
    government buildings.
   They also brought the plantation system based on slave labor.
   Another important characteristic of Roman influence was that they
    were not just living amongst the people; but settled in and enslaved
    the people intending to live there forever.
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   Most importantly, the Romans brought a legal system that is still
    seen; where a defendant is not tried by a jury, but by a judge.
   Also, it brought the Catholic church which is still a very strong
    religion of Latin America.
   All of these characteristics of conquering peoples had an influence
    on how the Spanish would treat their conquered colonies.
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    The next strong
    influence that conquered
    Spain was the Moors; the
    Islamic religion.
   In 711 A.D., the Moors
    crossed from northern
    Africa by the Strait of
    Gibraltar into Spain.
   This was the second most
    influence in Spain besides
    the Romans.
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   The Moors were in Spain
    for 800 years.
   They entered Spain at a
    time in history when
    Europe was in the Dark
   This was a time of
   Philosophy and
    knowledge was not
    allowed in Europe.
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   With the Moors came
    thousands of Jews.
   Jews were allowed to live
    peacefully within Islamic
    regions and law.
   The Moors and Jews
    brought medicine,
    teachers, and merchants.
   This revitalized and
    created a new Spanish
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   In 1469, King Ferdinand
    and Queen Isabel united
    Spain under one ruler.
   In 1492, the last Islamic
    baron and the Jews were
    expelled from Spain.
   The unification did not
    include Portugal because
    it had already freed itself
    from the Moors earlier.
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   Europeans felt that they were
    the best, most sophisticated
    culture in the world at this
    time in history.
   In order to convince
    themselves that they were
    right to enslave the North
    American Indians, they
    convinced themselves that
    they were helping them by
    teaching and converting the
    Indians to Christianity.
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   It is not that Christianity
    is wrong; but forcing
    people to change their
    whole belief system
    destroyed the spirit of
    many of the Indians.
   This led to an identity
    crisis for many and a wish
    to die rather than
    change. This still
    happens today in certain
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   The presence of Europeans killed many Indians
    through slavery.
   But the majority of Indians died through
    illnesses that the Europeans brought with them;
    such as, small pox.
   Indians had never been exposed to these
    diseases; so there was no immunity to the
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   It is widely believed that Columbus landed first on a Caribbean
    island; named Hispaniola on old maps.
   Today it is divided into two countries; Dominican Republic and Haiti.
   Columbus made a total of four separate trips to the New World.
   He discovered islands now named; Cuba, Puerto Rico, and went
    even to the eastern coast of North America.
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   The Awarak and Carib
    Indians lived in this island
   They were semi nomadic;
    living in temporary huts
    hunting and gathering.
   Some lived in dugout
    boats that were called
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   Later when the Spaniards
    traveled into Central
    America and Mexico, they
    remembered the word
    ‘barbacoas’ and applied it
    to the cooking style of
    meat they saw.
   With time this word has
    transformed into the
    word ‘barbecue’.
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   The name of the eastern
    most islands remains the
    West Indies referring to
    the idea that Columbus
    thought he had
    discovered India.
   Amerigo Vespucci, an
    Italian mapmaker, wrote
    many stories about the
    new world; thus his
    named was remembered
    for the naming of the
    new continent.
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   The Spaniards tried their
    feudalism system in the
    new world; which didn’t
   The Indians weren’t
    accustomed to the hard
    labor expected of them.
   The result was
    mistreatment and
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   The Age of Exploration
    affected the whole world;
    not just the Americas.
   Portugal began the Age
    of exploration as it traded
    with the western coast of
   This eventually, included
    the slave trade.
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   Portugal had Prince
    Henry who was very
    interested in adventure,
    navigation, and science.
   As Spain began its push
    of exploration, a rivalry
    started between Portugal
    and Spain.
   This tension resulted in
    the Line of Demarcation.
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   The Line of
    Demarcation splits the
    new world between
    Portugal and Spain.
   The land on the west
    of the line was given
    to Spain by the Pope.
   While the land to the
    east was given to
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   Portugal then sent its
    ships to the east;
    Southeast Asia.
   In this process, it took
    over the Muslims trade
   With time, the Dutch took
    over the Portuguese
   This becomes the Dutch
    East India Company.
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   By the 1800’s, the French
    and English also
    established trading
    territories in Indonesia.
   This is known as the Age
    of Imperialism.
   The United States did not
    believe in imperialism;
    but began to weaken its
    stance as all the land in
    the world was being
    taken by European

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