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					MPEG
OVERVIEW
                    MPEG

   Moving Picture Experts Group
   Formal name: ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 29/WG 11
   Title: Coding of moving pictures and audio
   To develop International Standard for
    compression, decompression, processing,
    and coded representation of moving
    pictures, audio and their combination, in
    order to satisfy a wide variety of
    applications
             Major Achievements
   1. MPEG-1
       Standard for Video CD and MP3
   2. MPEG-2
       Standard for Digital TV set top box and DVD
   3. MPEG-4
       Multimedia for fixed and mobile web
   4. MPEG-7
       Standard for description and search of
        audio and visual content
   5. MPEG-21
       Standard for multimedia framework
              New Standard Lines
   1. MPEG-A (multimedia application format)
       Provides application-specific standards by
        integrating multiple MPEG technologies
   3. MPEG-B
       Systems specific standard
   4. MPEG-C
       Video specific standard
   5. MPEG-D
       Audio specific standard
   6. MPEG-E (multimedia middleware)
       Support download and execution of multimedia
        applications.
              Summary of MPEG-1
   ISO/IEC 11172
   Coding of moving pictures and associated audio for
    digital storage media at up to 1.5 Mbps
   Means a standard for efficient storage and retrieval of
    audio and video on compact disc

   Video CD
       Full application of MPEG-1 to encode movies on 2 CDs
       Over 60 million H/W Video CD decoders have been sold
        worldwide

   MPEG-1 Audio Layer III
       AKA MP3
       Has given rise to innovative ways of consuming music
              Summary of MPEG-1
   Part 1 (system)
       Provides multiplexing and synchronization support to
        elementary Audio and Video streams
   Part 2 (video)
       Provides efficient encoding of non-interlaced pictures with
        roughly VHS quality at 1.15 Mbps
   Part 3 (audio)
       Provides encoding of stereo audio with transparency at 384,
        256, and 192 kbps per Layer I, II, III respectively
   Part 4 (conformance testing)
       Provides methods and reference bit streams that can be
        used to access conformance of a bit stream or of decoder
   Part 5 (reference software)
       Contains the C-code implementation of a system
        multiplexer/demultiplexer and of encoders and decoders for
        Audio and Video
              Summary of MPEG-2
   ISO/IEC 13818
   Generic coding of moving pictures and associated
    audio

   Part 1, 2, and 3
       Digital television set top box over 50 million
       Digital versatile Disc (DVD) over 10 million

   Extension: DSM-CC
       Widely used in set top boxes for satellite and cable
       Basis of provision of other set top box functionalities by
        other standards bodies and industry consortia
       Over 10 million

   Extension: AAC
       Adopted by Japan for a national digital television standard
        and by several manufacturers of secure digital music
             Summary of MPEG-2
   Part 1: system
       Transport Stream version supports for efficient
        transmission over error-prone delivery systems
       Program Stream version, similar to MPEG-1
        systems, is more useful for digital storage media
   Part 2: video
       Provides support for efficient encoding of
        interlaced pictures and different spatial resolution
   Part 3: audio
       Provides support for encoding multi-channel audio
   Part 4: conformance testing
   Part 5: simulation software
             Summary of MPEG-2
   Part 6: system extensions – DSM-CC
      Digital Storage Media Command and Control (DSM-CC)
       provides protocols for session set up across different
       networks and for remote control of server containing MPEG-
       2 content
   Part 7: audio extensions – NBC mode
      Advanced Audio Coding (AAC) provides a new multi-channel
       audio coding that is not backward compatible with MPEG-1
       Audio
   Part 8: VOID – (withdrawn)
      Intended to support video coding when samples are
       represented with an accuracy of more than 8 bits, but was
       discontinued
   Part 9: system extension - RTI
      Real Time Interface (RTI) provides a standard interface
       between an MPEG-2 Transport Stream and a decoder
   Part 10: Conformance extension –DSM-CC
   Part 11: IPMP on MPEG-2 systems
          Summary of MPEG-4
   Coding of audio-visual objects
   Enables the coding of individual objects
     Means that the video information
      needs not be of rectangular shape as
      MPEG-1 and MPEG-2 video assume
     Provides all tools to encode speech
      and audio with different rates and
      with different functionalities, including
      an extension of AAC
            Summary of MPEG-4
   Part 1: system
       Contains the composition function in
        addition to the traditional parts of MPEG-1
        and MPEG-2 systems
       Contains standard technology to represent
        time-varying synthetic 3D information
   Part   2:   visual
   Part   3:   audio
   Part   4:   conformance testing
   Part   5:   reference software
              Summary of MPEG-4
   Part   6: delivery multimedia integration framework
   Part   7: optimized software for MPEG-4 tools
   Part   8: 4 on IP framework
   Part   9: reference hardware description
   Part   10: advanced video coding
   Part   11: scene description and application engine
   Part   12: ISO base media file format
   Part   13: IPMP extensions
       Intellectual Property Management and Protection
   Part 14: MP4 file format
   Part 15: AVC file format
   Part 16: Animation Framework eXtension (AFX)
          Summary of MPEG-7
   Multimedia Content Description
    Interface
   Audio-visual information representation
    that is different from the previous MPEG
    standards in the sense that what is
    represented is not the information itself
    but the information about information
              Summary of MPEG-7
   Part 1: systems
       Provides the architectural framework of the standard, the
        carriage of MPEG-7 content and the binarisation of MPEG-7
        content
   Part 2: description definition language
       Allows to create descriptors and description schemes
   Part 3: visual
       Provides standard descriptors and description schemes that
        are purely visual
   Part 4: audio
       Provides standard descriptors and description schemes that
        are purely audio
   Part 5: multimedia description schemes
       Provides standard descriptors and description schemes that
        are neither visual nor audio
          Summary of MPEG-7
   Part 6: reference software
      Has same normative value as the MPEG-4
       reference software and may be used for
       products at the same conditions
   Part 7: conformance
      Is the means to test an implementation or
       data for conformity
   Part 8: extraction and use of MPEG-7
    descriptions
      Describes how feature extraction can be
       implemented
         Summary of MPEG-21
   Multimedia Framework
   Seeks to describe a multimedia
    framework and sets out a vision for the
    future of an environment where delivery
    and use of all content types by different
    categories of users in multiple
    application domains will be possible
   Assumes that there are Users and
    Digital Items on which users execute
    Actions that generate other digital Items
    that can become object of Transactions
            Summary of MPEG-7
   Technology to be needed
       Digital Item Declaration
       Digital Item Identification and Description
       Intellectual Property Management and
        Protection
       Terminals and Networks
       Digital Item Management and Usage
       Digital Item Representation
       Event Reporting
              Summary of MPEG-7
   Part   1: vision, technologies and strategy
   Part   2: digital item declaration
   Part   3: digital item identification and description
   Part   4: IPMP
   Part   5: rights expression language
   Part   6: rights data dictionary
   Part   7: digital item adaptation
   Part   8: reference software
   Part   9: file format
   Part   10: digital item processing
   Part   11: evaluation tools for persistent association
   Part   12: test bed for MPEG-21 resource delivery
              Area of Interest (1)

   1.   Media coding
   2.   Composition coding
   3.   Description coding
   4.   System support
   5.   IPMP
   6.   Digital item.
   7.   Transport and File Format
           Area of Interest (2)

   8. Multimedia architecture
   9. Application formats
   10. Generic media technologies
   11. Reference Implementations
   12. Conformance
   13. Maintenance
                Media coding
   1.   2D Video coding
   2.   3D Video coding
   3.   Audio coding
   4.   2D Graphic coding
   5.   3D Graphic coding
   6.   Synthetic audio coding
   7.   Text coding
   8.   Font coding
                Media coding
   1.   2D Video coding
   2.   3D Video coding
   3.   Audio coding
   4.   2D Graphic coding
   5.   3D Graphic coding
   6.   Synthetic audio coding
   7.   Text coding
   8.   Font coding
              2D Video coding
   1.   MPEG-1 Video
   2.   MPEG-2 Video
   3.   MPEG-4 Visual
   4.   Shape coding
   5.   Advanced video coding
   6.   Scalable video coding
   7.   Wavelet coding
                2D Video coding
   MPEG-1 Video
       To code non-interlaced video
       Good for up to SIF resolution video
       ISO/IEC 11172-2

   MPEG-2 Video
       To code both interlaced and non-
        interlaced video
       Good for high quality up to HD video,
        particularly suitable for TV broadcast and
        DVD storage
       ISO/IEC 13818-2
                  2D Video coding
   MPEG-4 Visual (rectangular)
       To code both video over a broad range of bit rates
        and resolutions
       Internet and mobile video (Simple Profile), VOD
        (Advanced Simple Profile), and Studio applications
        (Studio Profile)
       ISO/IEC 14496-2

   Shape coding (non-rectangular)
       To encode visual content for interactive multimedia,
        supporting non-rectangular video objects, mesh-based
        deformations and sprites, face and body animation
       Web and 3D navigation applications
       ISO/IEC 14496-2
                 2D Video coding
   Advanced video coding
       To code both video over a broad range of bit rates
        and resolutions with a coding efficiency
        approximately double compared to MPEG-2 and
        MPEG-4 visual
       Practically all non-scalable digital video
        applications
       ISO/IEC 14496-10ISO/IEC 14496-2
                    2D Video coding
   Scalable video coding
       Provides a scalable video stream with a compression efficiency
        comparable to state-of-art non-scalable codecs over large range
        of data rates. Supports various combinations of spatial, temporal
        and SNR scalability, base layer compatibility with AVC.
       Internet video, wireless LAN video, mobile wireless video for
        conversational VOD, and live broadcasting, multi-channel content
        production and distribution, surveillance-and-storage applications,
        and layered contents protection
       ISO/IEC 14496-10

   Wavelet coding
       Exploration activity designed to collect evidence on the
        potential advantages offered by wavelet transforms for future
        video coding standards
       Same applications as scalable video
       TBD
                Media coding
   1.   2D Video coding
   2.   3D Video coding
   3.   Audio coding
   4.   2D Graphic coding
   5.   3D Graphic coding
   6.   Synthetic audio coding
   7.   Text coding
   8.   Font coding
                 3D Video coding

   Multiview video coding
       Provides efficient representation of the signals of
        an array of video camera shooting the same scene
       Internet video, i.e. when the user can navigate
        within real world audio-visual scenes and freely
        choose a view point and/or view direction
       3D video and free viewpoint TV where the user
        gets a depth impression of the scene because
        each eye gets separate views, changing with view
        angle
       TBD
                Media coding
   1.   2D Video coding
   2.   3D Video coding
   3.   Audio coding
   4.   2D Graphic coding
   5.   3D Graphic coding
   6.   Synthetic audio coding
   7.   Text coding
   8.   Font coding
               Audio coding
   1. MPEG-1 Audio
   2. MPEG-2 Audio
   3. Advanced audio coding
   4. Parametric audio coding
   5. Spectral band replication
   6. Lossless coding
   7. Scalable lossless coding
   8. 1-bit lossless coding
   9. MPEG surround
   10. Scalable audio
                   Audio coding
   MPEG-1 Audio
       To represent stereo sound in a quality
        scalable manner
          Layer 1: Transparency at 384 Kbps
          Layer 2: Transparency at 256 Kbps
          Layer 3: Transparency at 192 Kbps


       Potentially all digital sound and television
        applications can be covered

       ISO/IEC 11172-3
                  Audio coding
   MPEG-2 Audio
       To represent
         Multichannel audio that is backward compatible
          with MPEG-1 audio
         A lower sampling rate extension of MPEG-1
          audio

       Multichannel audio applications

       ISO/IEC 13818-3
                  Audio coding
   Advanced audio coding
       To represent stereo and multichannel
        sound with transparency achieved at 138
        Kbps (stereo) and 320 Kbps (5.1
        multichannel).
       AAC comes in two versions: MPEG-2 and
        MPEG-4, the latter being an extension of
        the technology with more coding tools
       Potentially all digital sound and television
        applications
       ISO/IEC 13818-3 and ISO/IEC 14496-3
                      Audio coding
   Parametric audio coding
       Represent an audio and speech signal by means
        of 4 objects (sinusoid, noise, transients and stereo
        image) that are parameterized and subsequently
        efficiently coded into a bit stream format
       Low bit-rate audio and speech applications demanding
        medium to good quality. The parametric coding scheme
        inherently provides for high quality tempo and pitch
        scalability for no additional complexity in the decoder. The
        parametric stereo object can also be combined with HE-
        AAC providing a significant advantage in complexity. This
        particular combination is referred to as the HE-AAC v2
        profile and has been enabling technology for music
        download services.
                  Audio coding
   Spectral band replication
       To create high frequencies that have been
        discarded in the encoding process by the
        underlying audio coder it is used in
        combination with.
       Provides full audio bandwidth for all bit
        rates
       All applications in the bit rate range where
        the full bandwidth cannot be sufficiently
        well coded by the underlying audio coder
       ISO/IEC 13818-3 and ISO/IEC 14496-3
                  Audio coding
   Loss coding
       Provides lossless compression of audio
        waveforms.
       Supports both consumer (e.g. 48 KHz/16
        bit) and professional (e.g. 192 KHz/24 bit)
        formats
       A significant application is archiving of
        professional studio recording
       ISO/IEC 14496-3
                  Audio coding
   Scalable lossless coding
       Provides fine-grain scalable compression
        of audio waveforms. The architecture
        consists of a core lossy audio codec plus
        an enhancement quantizer. Scalability is
        from the rate of the core lossy codec
        through a rate that achieves lossless
        reconstruction.
       ISO/IEC 14496-3
                  Audio coding
   1-bit lossless coding
       Provides lossless compression of 1-bit,
        highly oversampled audio representations
       Archiving of high quality professional
        studio recording in a 1-bit oversampled
        audio format. This includes the Direct
        Stream Digital (DSD) format as applied on
        the widely used Super Audio CD (SACD)
        medium.
       ISO/IEC 14496-3
                   Audio coding
   MPEG surround
       Provides a multi-channel signal which
        approximates the original multi-channel material
        as closely as possible in a perceptual sense, and
        which exploits the human perception of a sound
        stage. Coding consists of e.g. 2 audio channels
        encoded with e.g. an MPEG audio codec plus
        “spatial cue” side information
       Facilities transmission of 5.1 channels of
        compressed audio over channels that currently
        support only 2 channels of compressed audio,
        such as satellite or terrestrial DAB transmission
        channels.
       ISO/IEC 14496-3
                         Audio coding
   Scalable audio
       An exploration activity designed to seek tech. that
        has
            A scalable bitstream representation
            A single, unified coder with a preformance that
             approaches
                 That of speech coders for speech signals
                 That of music coders for music signals
       This is expected to have two broad application
        areas: Applications in which transmission is a mix
        of sppech and speech plus music or only music.
        Applications in which network-based scalability is
        required, for example audio streaming over a local
        or wide0area network
       TBD
                Media coding
   1.   2D Video coding
   2.   3D Video coding
   3.   Audio coding
   4.   2D Graphic coding
   5.   3D Graphic coding
   6.   Synthetic audio coding
   7.   Text coding
   8.   Font coding
             2D Graphic coding
   Texture coding
       What it does:
       What it is for:
       ISO/IEC 14496-2

   2D Mesh coding
       Provides coded representation of 2D
        meshes with implicit structure
       What it is for:
       Where:
                Media coding
   1.   2D Video coding
   2.   3D Video coding
   3.   Audio coding
   4.   2D Graphic coding
   5.   3D Graphic coding
   6.   Synthetic audio coding
   7.   Text coding
   8.   Font coding
                   3D Graphic coding
   Face and body animation
       Provides coded representation of parameters that
        can define, calibrate and animate synthetic faces
        and bodies
       Avatar animation for low bit rate communication
       ISO/IEC 14496-2

   3D Mesh coding
       Provides 40-50:1 compression for 3D mesh
        (IndexedFaceSet) with the following functionalities:
            Incremental transmission and rendering
            Non-mainfold model support by stitching
            Error resilience support
            Progressive coding via hierarchical representation
       3D applications requiring compression of 3D mesh model
        that can be represented by IndexedFacedSet
       ISO/IEC 14496-2
               3D Graphic coding
   AFX
       Provides technologies for
          Geometric representation: subdivision surface,
           high degree patches, implicit surfaces
          Texture representation: depth image-based
           (point-based) representation, view-dependent
           multi-texturing
          Animation representation: skeleton systems,
           morphing
          Compression schemes for geometry, texture,
           and animation
       3D applications requiring content
        compression and low bit rate
        communication
       ISO/IEC 14496-16

				
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