Reducing Food Waste

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					Reducing Food Waste

Tom Quested
Research Analyst
WRAP
                      Introduction


• What is WRAP?
• UK food waste:
   – Research
   – Consumer campaign
   – Engagement with supply chain
• Achievements
WRAP – Waste & Resources Action Programme


• WRAP helps individuals, businesses
  and local authorities to reduce
  waste and recycle more, making
  better use of resources and helping
  to tackle climate change
WRAP work throughout the
resource efficiency loop
          WRAP targets for 2008-2011

Target 1           Target 2           Target 3
8 million tonnes   5 million tonnes   £1.1 billion of
less waste to      of CO2 equ.        economic benefits
landfill           emissions saved
                   WRAP food waste strategy




    Minimisation
                                                        Market
   (Household and          Collections   Processing
                                                      Development
Commercial & Industrial)
   WRAP – Waste & Resources Action Programme

• Data on overall UK food-waste levels are far from
  perfect
                                                      UK Total Food Waste (ca. 20 mt)
• Current estimates (annual) are:

   –   Household                6.7 mil t                                  Household

   –   Retailer                 1.6 mil t
   –   Food manufacture         4.1 mil t
                                                             Other
   –   Agriculture              3.0 – 3.5 mil t
   –   Non-household municipal1.7 mil t
   –   Food service restaurants 3.0 mil t
        Household Food-Waste Activities
2006   Qualitative study – why people throw food away (Ipsos Mori)
       Quantitative research - why people throw food away (Exodus
                Research and Brook Lyndhurst)
       Food waste - compositional analysis, pilot (M—E—L 2006)

2007   Food waste diaries (Exodus research)
       Launch of consumer campaign Love Food Hate Waste

2008   Food waste - compositional analysis – full study in England &
                Wales (Exodus)
       Start of engagement with retailers, manufacturers, etc.

In progress
       Food waste via sewer – diary work (Exodus)
       Food waste - compositional analysis – Scotland (Exodus)
       The Food We Waste
                     research
        Combined:
        – Attitudinal Survey;
        – Kitchen diary; and
        – Waste analysis
        2,000+ consenting households
        involved
        Largest of its kind in the UK, and
        probably in the world


Published May 2008
        The Food We Waste Research
Informed consent from household
Questionnaire on attitudes, claimed behaviour
All waste on kerbside (general waste and separate food-waste)
collected by researchers instead of local authority
Food waste and any associated packaging separated, sorted,
weighed and classified:
– Food category
– Preparation stage
Detailed description of food item also recorded
Information from packaging recorded, including:
– Date (e.g. use by, best before)
– Brand
Assignment of cost to food waste
(Exodus Research \ Wasteswork 2007)
         The Food We Waste Research
Headline results from compositional research:
– 270 kg food waste produced per household per year
– Of this, 170 kg is avoidable

– The value of this avoidable food waste is £420 (~€500)

For the UK as a whole, this avoidable waste scales up to:
– £10.2 billion (~€12 billion)
– 4.1 million tonnes
      Avoidable meat thrown away each year -
             equivalent whole animals




33 million chickens   3 million pigs        350,000 sheep




                                       100,000 cows
Avoidable food waste (by weight)
          Confectionary              Desserts
              1.5%           Other
                                      1.3%
                             1.5%
               Condiments
                  3.5%
  Dried food
                    Drinks
    4.0%                                          Fresh fruit,
                    3.6%
                                                vegetables and
Processed fruit &
                                                     salad
   vegetables
                                                    34.4%
     4.2%      Dairy
               4.6%
Ready made meals
    & snacks
      5.3%
                                        B akery
                                        19.2%
    Meat & fish
      6.8%         Home made meals
                      & snacks
                       10.1%
   Types of Avoidable Food Waste
                 Avoidable food waste
                  4.1 mil t; £10.2 bil

   From Diary                 From Compositional
                                   Analysis
   Not used in time                Not used in time
 2.5 mil. t; £6.1 billion        2.6 mil. t; £6.3 billion

Cooked or prepared too         Cooked or prepared too
         much                           much
 1.6 mil. t; £4.1 billion       1.3 mil. t; £3.4 billion

                                      Unknown
                                 0.2 mil. t; £0.5 billion
 Why is Food That Could Have Been Eaten
             Thrown Away?
90
80
70
60
50                                                                    (WasteWorks 2006)

40
                                                        Not used in
30                                                      time
20                                                      Prepared or
10                                                      cooked too
                                                        much
0
     Total   Fresh    Bread   Rice   M eat &   Sauces
              fruit                   fish
                                               Single occupancy households
• More than 30% of households in the UK are single occupancy
• Those living alone waste on average 40% more (on a per person basis)

                                            mean average avoidable waste (£) per week per person
       mean average cost (£) per week




                                        5    £4.72

                                        4
                                                        £3.20   £3.27
                                        3                               £2.74                £2.55       £2.73
                                                                                  £2.30
                                        2

                                        1

                                        0
                                            one (325)    tw o   three    four   five (176)   six (70)    seven or
                                                        (733)   (372)   (400)                           more (52)
            Even households that are adamant
            they waste no food at all throw away
            nearly 90kg / year of avoidable food
            waste

“Who me?”
                  Reasons for food waste:
• Planning meals / shopping
• Portion sizes                                • Much less important
    • Home cooking                                  •Lack of storage space
    • From retail                                   •Ruining food (e.g. burning)
• Storage:
    • Not using ideal storage location
    • Unprotected food (e.g. not wrapping opened products properly)
    • Fridge temperature incorrect
    • Not using freezer
• Date labelling:
    • Confusion around ‘best before’, ‘use by’, ‘sell by’ dates
• Cooking skills and confidence:
    • Judgement of quality \ suitability
    • Meal creation
• Rejection of food
Love Food Hate Waste: Activities
     PR: positive media coverage
        (broadcast, print, online)

     Advertising: reinforcement of issue

     Website: practical, user-friendly, interactive

     Retailers & brands delivering solutions

     Local authorities investment in local campaigns
 Campaign delivery

Direct to consumers




  Local
Authorities


  Via strategic partners
                   Impact to March 2008

• Based on use of a behavioural-change metric
  and analysis of food waste generated
• Exceeded our target of a 100,000 tonnes
  reduction
• The number of UK households committed to
  reducing food waste has increased by 1.4
  million to around 3.5 million
• This has saved almost 500,000 tonnes of
  CO2 equ. and £240 million for consumers and
  Local Authorities
                         Conclusions

WRAP has employed an innovative approach to food waste:
   Development of robust evidence base
   Credibility of WRAP with private sector and Government
   – Strategic engagement with private sector
   Raised issue up the social and political agenda
   Successful targeted consumer campaign
Thank You


Tom Quested
tom.quested@wrap.org.uk
                             New research
• The Food We Waste - Scotland
  – Survey and compositional analysis of ~1500 households
  – Similar to England and Wales study, including:
    – Pack size and amount remaining if opened
    – Type of date (e.g. use by \ best before)
    – Flavour of product
    – Type of packaging
  – Aiming for publication Spring 2009
• Food and drink disposed of via the drain
  – Week long diary exercise of 321 households
  – Data to be combined with that from The Food We Waste research to give overall
    waste numbers
  – Can share some insights in to why dairy products are thrown away via the sink
      Avoidable food waste (revised categories)
By cost
                    Confectionary              Desserts
                        3.4%        Other       1.7%
                                    2.2%
           Drinks     Condim ents                      Fresh fruit,
           2.7%          5.3%                        vegetables and
                                                          salad
             Dried food                                  23.8%
               4.3%
          Processed fruit &
             vegetables
                2.8%
                     Dairy                                Bakery
                     5.5%                                 14.1%

           Ready made meals
               & snacks                           Home made m eals
                 8.0%                                & snacks
                                M eat & fish          11.8%
                                   14.4%
                                     Avoidable food waste = 4.1 million tonnes (£10.2 billion)



       P rocessed fruit &     D esserts
                                1.0%
                                          Other                           “cooked or prepared too much”
           vegetables                     2.1%
             4.2%                                                        = 1.3 million tonnes (£3.4 billion)
Fresh fruit
  6.0%                                                Home made meals
                                                         and snacks
Ready made meals                                           31.2%
   and snacks
      6.7%

   Meat and Fish                                                         Not served             Left on plate
      6.9%
                                                                           = 25%                   = 75%
        Dried food
          7.1%


                     Bakery                       Fresh vegetables and
                     10.4%                               salad
                                                         24.3%
                      Avoidable food waste = 4.1 million tonnes (£10.2 billion)



           “left & unused”
  = 2.6 million tonnes (£6.3 billion)




Unopened \ whole          Opened \ part used         Unable to determine*
= 950,000 tonnes           = 875,000 tonnes           = 790,000 tonnes
  (£2.2 billion)             (£2.0 billion)             (£2.1 billion)




                                                 * May have been bought unpackaged or as part of a pack
                    Avoidable food waste = 4.1 million tonnes (£10.2 billion)



           “left & unused”
 = 2.6 m illion tonnes (£6.3 billion)

                                                                                “The Food We Waste” reported 340,000 t
Unopened \ whole         Opened \ part used      Unable to determ ine*
                                                                                of this was “in date”
= 950,000 tonnes         = 875,000 tonnes         = 790,000 tonnes
   (£2.2 billion)           (£2.0 billion)           (£2.1 billion)
                                                                                • “in date” at time of analysis
                                                                                • Re-analysed data to account for
                                                                                “average” time since items placed in bin
                                                                                • This gives a better estimate of what was
                                                                                “in date” when thrown away:
                                                                                              “left & unused”
                    Avoidable food was te = 4.1 m illion tonnes (£10.2 billion)




                                                                                                - key factors
           “left & unus ed”
 = 2.6 million tonnes (£6.3 billion)




Unopened \ whole
= 950,000 tonnes
                         Opened \ part used
                         = 875,000 tonnes                  • Planning \ shopping
   (£2.2 billion)          (£2.0 billion)
                                                                    •   27% never plan meals
                                                                    •   37% don’t check stocks
                                                                    •   “only” 58% always or mostly use a list
                                                                    •   61% “tempted” by BOGOFs \ similar promotions
                                                           • Portion sizes
  “A lot of chicken portions and                                    • 30% have “an issue” with portion sizes:
  things come in a pack of four
                                                                             •    35%   for   sliced ham
  and I should split them but I
  don’t, I just shove it straight                                            •    34%   for   bagged salads
  in the freezer and then two                                                •    30%   for   pasta sauce
  get thro wn away and two get
  used”                                                                      •    28%   for   bread
  “If I buy a bag of potatoes, it
                                                                    • Overall for the above 9 in 10 say size is too big
  doesn’t run out in a week,                                                 • “I can’t eat it all”
  and they start gro wing”
                                                                             • “I don’t like wasting food”
                                                                             • “It loses it’s freshness before I can eat it”
            % of respondents




0%
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          10%
                  15%
                             20%
                                       25%
                                                      30%
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                                                                                    Which products do consumers struggle to find in
                                                                                     “left & unused”
                    Avoidable food was te = 4.1 m illion tonnes (£10.2 billion)




                                                                                       - key factors
           “left & unus ed”
 = 2.6 million tonnes (£6.3 billion)


                                                       • Storage
Unopened \ whole         Opened \ part used
= 950,000 tonnes         = 875,000 tonnes
   (£2.2 billion)          (£2.0 billion)
                                                                • “less than ideal” location
                                                                         • bread in the fridge (11%)
                                                                         • bananas in the fridge (6%)
                                                                         • carrots and apples outside the fridge (20%; 74%)
                                                                • “Unprotected”
                                                                         • sliced meats unsealed after opening (13%)
  “So you sort of get it thinking,                                       • dried foods unsealed after opening (11%)
  “I’ll put it in the freezer,” but
                                                                         • cheese unsealed after opening (7%)
  you don’t and it sort of hides
  at the back of the fridge and                                          • 23% would remove packaging from fresh fruit & vegetables to
  then it ends up going in the                                           extend shelf-life
  bin”
                                                                • Incorrect fridge temperature
                                                                         • 60% don’t know what it should be
                                                                         • average is 6.6°C vs target of <5°C
                                                                • Lack of knowledge about what can be frozen
                                                                • Not making sufficient use of the freezer
                                                                                      “left & unused”
                    Avoidable food was te = 4.1 m illion tonnes (£10.2 billion)




                                                                                        - key factors
           “left & unus ed”
 = 2.6 million tonnes (£6.3 billion)




Unopened \ whole         Opened \ part used            • Date labelling
= 950,000 tonnes         = 875,000 tonnes
   (£2.2 billion)          (£2.0 billion)


                                                                • Food “gone past its date” is the main reason given for
                                                                throwing away food

                                                                • Almost 50% do not understand the meaning of date labels
                                                                (FSA, 2008)
                                                                         • 36% treat “best before” as a “use-by” (FSA, 2008)
                                                                         • 53% never eat past the date for fruit & veg
                                                                         • 56% never eat past the date for bread & cakes

                                                                • Confidence
                                                                         • “use by” = use by end of that date
                                                                         • Almost 10% leave a days “buffer”
                                                                         • 21% will not “take a risk” with a product close to its date,
                                                                         even if it appears fine
                    Avoidable food was te = 4.1 m illion tonnes (£10.2 billion)



           “left & unus ed”
                                                                                     “left & unused”
 = 2.6 million tonnes (£6.3 billion)
                                                                                  - key reasons given
Unopened \ whole         Opened \ part used
= 950,000 tonnes         = 875,000 tonnes
   (£2.2 billion)          (£2.0 billion)
                                                                                                            % of total "left
                                                             Reason for bein g ‘left and
                                                                                           Weight (t pa)    & u nused" (by Cost (£m pa)
                                                                     unused’
                                                                                                               w eight)

                                                         Out of date                               820000             32%       £2,240.00
                                                         Looked bad                                470000             18%        £920.00
                                                         Mouldy                                    470000             18%        £960.00
                                                         Smelt / tasted bad                        290000             11%        £840.00
                                                         In fridge / cupboard too long             150000              6%        £290.00
                                                         Freezer burn                               50000              2%         £80.00
                                                         Other                                     350000             14%        £890.00
                                                         Total                                   2590000             100%      £6,220.00
    Courtauld Commitment
The signatories commit to supporting WRAP in the achievement of its objectives:
To design out packaging waste growth by 2008

To deliver absolute reductions in packaging waste by 2010

Reduce the amount of food wasted in UK homes by 155,000 t by March 2010

				
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