Pennsylvania Child Welfare Training

					Charting the Course towards Permanency
 for Children in Pennsylvania
Module 9:
  Out of Home Placement and
  Permanency Planning
       Agenda
       • Day One

               – Introduction

               – The Importance of Permanency Planning

               – Supporting Children, Parents, and Substitute Caregivers
                 throughout the Placement Process

               – Permanency Goals Overview

               – Concurrent Planning



The Pennsylvania Child Welfare Training Program   Module 9: Out of Home Placement and Permanency Planning
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       Agenda, (cont’d)
       • Day Two

               – Permanency Services

               – Developing Child Permanency Plans

       • Day Three

               – Working the Plan and Finalizing Permanency Goals

               – Beyond Permanency

               – Course Summary and Evaluations

The Pennsylvania Child Welfare Training Program   Module 9: Out of Home Placement and Permanency Planning
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       Learning Objectives
      • Participants will be able to:
              – Day One
                     • Identify the impact that separation has on children in out
                       of home placement;

                     • Recognize the five permanency options and their casework
                       tasks for children who come into agency care as outlined
                       in ASFA;

                     • Describe the casework tasks involved in concurrent
                       planning;




The Pennsylvania Child Welfare Training Program         Module 9: Out of Home Placement and Permanency Planning
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       Learning Objectives, (cont’d)
               – Day Two
                      • Recognize the permanency services available through
                        private providers, SWAN or their agency to aid in
                        permanency planning;
                      • Recognize the components of a quality Child Permanency
                        Plan;
                      • Identify appropriate interventions to manage the
                        Visitation Plan;
               – Day Three
                      • Describe how permanency needs of a child/youth changes
                        as the child matures; and
                      • Review how casework tasks throughout the life of the case
                        impact permanency outcomes for children.
The Pennsylvania Child Welfare Training Program         Module 9: Out of Home Placement and Permanency Planning
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       What is Permanency Planning?
       • Permanency planning is, first and foremost, planning.

       • Process directed toward the goal of a permanent,
         stable home for a child.

       • Begins at intake, and focuses Child Welfare services on
         the child's need for a stable, permanent home during
         all phases of practice.




The Pennsylvania Child Welfare Training Program   Module 9: Out of Home Placement and Permanency Planning
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       What is Permanency Planning?, (cont’d)
       • Step-by-step process of assessment, identification of
         goals and objectives, formulation of activities, and
         reassessment of the outcomes of services.

       • Reminds us - All case planning activities MUST be
         directed toward assuring that every child in our care
         has a permanent family.




The Pennsylvania Child Welfare Training Program   Module 9: Out of Home Placement and Permanency Planning
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       Basic Permanency Assumptions
       • Children have a right and need to live and develop
         within safe, secure, and permanent families.

       • Children have a right to live with parents/caregivers
         whom they can love, trust, and depend upon.

       • Separation for extended periods of time may result in
         tremendous psychological and developmental
         disruption.

       • A child's perception and experience of time are
         determined by his level of cognitive developmental
         maturity.
The Pennsylvania Child Welfare Training Program   Module 9: Out of Home Placement and Permanency Planning
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       Aging Out of Care Statistics
       • Up to 22% become homeless from the day they leave
         care. (AFCARS Data and Courtney, Wulczyn, Hislop,
         and Casey).
       • 37% do not finish high school, nor obtain a GED
         (Courtney).
       • Obtain a GED at 6 times the rate of the general
         population (Casey Family Program).
       • Experience an average of 7 or more school changes.
         (Pecora et al. 2003).
       • Only 1.8% obtain a bachelors degree. (Pecora et al.
         2003).
The Pennsylvania Child Welfare Training Program   Module 9: Out of Home Placement and Permanency Planning
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       Advice on Placement
       • What could I have done to better help you leave your
         family the first time?

       • What did you want from me to help you to prepare to
         leave your new family?

       • Would you still want to see the family you left behind?

       • What help did you need to make this return
         successful?


The Pennsylvania Child Welfare Training Program   Module 9: Out of Home Placement and Permanency Planning
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       Residential Environment of the Child
       • Drug and Alcohol Treatment Facility
       • Non-Custodial Parent
       • Residential Treatment Facility (RTF)
       • Group Home
       • Foster Care
       • Supervised Independent Living
       • Family of Origin
       • Psychiatric Hospital
       • Kinship Foster Care
The Pennsylvania Child Welfare Training Program   Module 9: Out of Home Placement and Permanency Planning
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       Restrictiveness of Living Environment Quiz
       Answers
       • Directions: Rate the following living environments in terms of
         how restrictive it is for a child. Rank order using a 1 to 9 point
         scale, with 1.0 = LEAST restrictive and 9.0 = MOST restrictive.
               – Your Rating                      Residential Environment of the Child
                 1                                Family of Origin
                 2                                Non-Custodial Parent
                 3                                Kinship Foster Care
                 4                                Supervised Independent Living
                 5                                Foster Care
                 6                                Group Home
                 7                                Residential Treatment Facility (RTF)
                 8                                Drug and Alcohol Treatment Facility
                 9                                Psychiatric Hospital
The Pennsylvania Child Welfare Training Program                      Module 9: Out of Home Placement and Permanency Planning
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       For Children who Enter the Child Welfare
       System
       • Forty percent are born premature and/or with low
         birth weight.
       • Experience developmental delays 4 to 5 times the rate
         of the general population.
       • Have substantially lower grades and test scores, more
         absences and grade repetitions.
       • Have increased risk of special needs.
                      • (Center for the Study of Social Policy, 2004)



The Pennsylvania Child Welfare Training Program          Module 9: Out of Home Placement and Permanency Planning
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       Benefits of Involving Parents in Placement
       Process
       • They remain involved in a parenting role with the
         child.
       • They are not deprived of their responsibility.
       • It is reassuring to the child.
       • It reinforces parents’ belief that child welfare
         professionals view parents as important to them and
         the children.
       • It enhances parent/child welfare professional
         relationship.
       • It empowers parents.
The Pennsylvania Child Welfare Training Program   Module 9: Out of Home Placement and Permanency Planning
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       Supporting Parents After Placement
       • Increase contact with parents.
       • Secure placements in the family’s neighborhood.
       • Encourage parents’ involvement with substitute
         caregiver.
       • Encourage substitute caregivers to contact parents
         directly.
       • Provide parent/child visit within 48 hours of
         placement.
       • Encourage discussion of their feelings and preparation
         for visit.
       • Provide parents transportation to visits.
The Pennsylvania Child Welfare Training Program   Module 9: Out of Home Placement and Permanency Planning
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       Supporting Parents After Placement, (cont’d)
       • Accompany them to the first few visits.
       • Involve parents in making routine and major decisions
         about their child.
       • Develop with parents reasonable case plans ASAP.
       • Develop services that support case plan goals.
       • Provide appropriate services.
       • Document services provided.
       • Reinforce parenting responsibilities.
       • Let them be responsible participants.

The Pennsylvania Child Welfare Training Program   Module 9: Out of Home Placement and Permanency Planning
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       Permanency Options (In Order of
       Preference)
       • Return to Parent

                      • Parent(s) resume all legal rights and responsibilities.

                      • Court may close case or maintain adjudication of
                        dependency.

                      • Agency may provide follow up service or close case.




The Pennsylvania Child Welfare Training Program           Module 9: Out of Home Placement and Permanency Planning
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       Permanency Options (In Order of
       Preference), (cont’d)
       • Adoption
               – Parental rights are terminated either involuntarily or
                 through relinquishment.
               – Adoptive parent(s) are granted permanently all legal
                 rights they would have had they been the biological
                 parents.
               – Child is issued a new birth certificate.
               – Adoptive parent(s) could receive adoption subsidy.
               – Parent(s) are no longer responsible to pay child support.
               – Agency and court will close case.

The Pennsylvania Child Welfare Training Program      Module 9: Out of Home Placement and Permanency Planning
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       Permanency Options (In Order of
       Preference), (cont’d)
       • Permanent Legal Custodianship
               – No TPR is required.
               – The custodian is granted legal custody of the child.
               – The parent(s) typically retain visitation rights.
               – Can be financially subsidized (SPLC).
               – Parent(s) remain responsible to pay child support.
               – Typically, no further agency or court involvement.
               – Parent(s) may petition the court to be reconsidered as a
                 placement option in the future.


The Pennsylvania Child Welfare Training Program     Module 9: Out of Home Placement and Permanency Planning
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       Permanency Options (In Order of
       Preference), (cont’d)
       • Permanent Placement (with a fit and willing relative)
               – Agency maintains legal custody and is responsible for
                 placement.
               – Parent(s) maintain right to participate in case planning
                 and visitation.
               – Parent(s) have the right to ask the court to reconsider
                 them as placement option at any time.
               – Parent(s) responsible for child support.
               – Relative would be eligible for public assistance or foster
                 home maintenance payment.
               – Agency and court will keep the case open until child is
                 discharged from care.
The Pennsylvania Child Welfare Training Program    Module 9: Out of Home Placement and Permanency Planning
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       Permanency Options (In Order of
       Preference), (cont’d)
       • Another Planned Permanent Living Arrangement-
         APPLA (requires compelling reason and court
         approval)
               – Agency maintains legal custody and is responsible for
                 placement.
               – Parent(s) maintain right to participate in case planning
                 and visitation.
               – Parent(s) have the right to ask the court to reconsider
                 them as placement option at any time.
               – Parent(s) responsible for child support.
               – Agency and court keep the case open until child is
                 discharged from care.
The Pennsylvania Child Welfare Training Program   Module 9: Out of Home Placement and Permanency Planning
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       Concurrent Planning
       • Concurrent Planning is a process of working towards
         family reunification while, at the same time,
         developing an alternative permanent plan. Planning
         occurs concurrently rather than sequentially.
       • In addition to the development of the plan itself,
         concurrent planning requires that caseworkers work
         toward reunification of a child with his or her own
         family while, at the same time, work on the tasks
         identified in the alternate plan that has been developed
         to help the child achieve permanency.


The Pennsylvania Child Welfare Training Program   Module 9: Out of Home Placement and Permanency Planning
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       The Purpose of Concurrent Planning
       • Achieve early permanency for children;
       • Decrease children’s length of stay in out of home care;
       • Reduce the number of moves and disruptions of
         relationships;
       • Put the risk of loss on the adults instead of the child;
         and
       • Maintain continuity in family and sibling
         relationships.


The Pennsylvania Child Welfare Training Program   Module 9: Out of Home Placement and Permanency Planning
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       Agenda
       • Day One

               – Introduction

               – The Importance of Permanency Planning

               – Supporting Children, Parents, and Substitute Caregivers
                 throughout the Placement Process

               – Permanency Goals Overview

               – Concurrent Planning



The Pennsylvania Child Welfare Training Program   Module 9: Out of Home Placement and Permanency Planning
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       Agenda, (cont’d)
       • Day Two

               – Permanency Services

               – Developing Child Permanency Plans

       • Day Three

               – Working the Plan and Finalizing Permanency Goals

               – Beyond Permanency

               – Course Summary and Evaluations

The Pennsylvania Child Welfare Training Program   Module 9: Out of Home Placement and Permanency Planning
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       Visitation Practices
       • Who is responsible for planning visitation in your
         agency?

       • Do parents receive transportation support for visits?

       • Where are visits held?

       • Are visits supervised? By whom?

       • What resources are available to support visitation?

       • Does the worker discuss parenting skills/knowledge
         with the parent after visits?
The Pennsylvania Child Welfare Training Program   Module 9: Out of Home Placement and Permanency Planning
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       Visitation
       • Is the single most important factor in maintaining the
         relationship between the child and the parents;

       • Enhances the child’s emotional well-being;

       • Improves parent’s positive feelings about the
         placement;

       • Decreases parents’ worries about their children; and

       • Is associated with achieving permanency and
         decreasing time in care.

The Pennsylvania Child Welfare Training Program   Module 9: Out of Home Placement and Permanency Planning
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       Visitation Guidelines
       • Child Safety MUST be assured;
       • Visitation MUST occur frequently;
       • Visits MUST be held in the least restrictive
         environment;
       • If safety can be assured, visits should be unsupervised;
       • Visits MUST occur between siblings not placed
         together in substitute care at least twice per month;
         and
       • Children should be allowed regular opportunities to
         telephone significant people in their lives.
The Pennsylvania Child Welfare Training Program   Module 9: Out of Home Placement and Permanency Planning
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       The Purpose of the Pennsylvania
       Independent Living Program
       • The purpose of the Pennsylvania Independent Living
         Program is to make every effort possible to reduce or
         eliminate the instances of homelessness, poverty,
         delinquent or criminal behavior, and non-marital
         childbirth and to increase employability, high school
         graduation rates, enrollment in post-secondary or
         vocational institutions and successful transition to
         adulthood.




The Pennsylvania Child Welfare Training Program   Module 9: Out of Home Placement and Permanency Planning
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       The Vision of the Pennsylvania Independent
       Living Program

       • A system of services and supports that empowers
         youth and young adults to reach their fullest potential.




The Pennsylvania Child Welfare Training Program   Module 9: Out of Home Placement and Permanency Planning
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       Six Service Areas of
       Pennsylvania Independent Living
       • Education

       • Employment

       • Housing

       • Life Skills

       • Prevention

       • Support


The Pennsylvania Child Welfare Training Program   Module 9: Out of Home Placement and Permanency Planning
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       Effective Visitation Requirements
       • Careful safety assessments

       • Attention to the CPP objectives

       • Attention to both permanency plans

       • Creativity




The Pennsylvania Child Welfare Training Program   Module 9: Out of Home Placement and Permanency Planning
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       Agenda
       • Day One

               – Introduction

               – The Importance of Permanency Planning

               – Supporting Children, Parents, and Substitute Caregivers
                 throughout the Placement Process

               – Permanency Goals Overview

               – Concurrent Planning

The Pennsylvania Child Welfare Training Program   Module 9: Out of Home Placement and Permanency Planning
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       Agenda, (cont’d)
       • Day Two

               – Permanency Services

               – Developing Child Permanency Plans

       • Day Three

               – Working the Plan and Finalizing Permanency Goals

               – Beyond Permanency

               – Course Summary and Evaluations
The Pennsylvania Child Welfare Training Program   Module 9: Out of Home Placement and Permanency Planning
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       Reunification Principles
       • Reunification is best.

       • Regular and frequent contact is critical between child
         and parents and child and siblings (when not placed
         together).

       • Extended family and community support are
         important.

       • Early identification of barriers is imperative.



The Pennsylvania Child Welfare Training Program   Module 9: Out of Home Placement and Permanency Planning
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       Reunification Principles, (cont’d)
       • Respect the uniqueness of every family.

       • Individual child rearing methods that represent
         human diversity MUST be accepted as long as they
         promote the child’s health and safety.

       • Teamwork is essential.




The Pennsylvania Child Welfare Training Program   Module 9: Out of Home Placement and Permanency Planning
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       Reasonable Efforts
       • Must be made. Don’t leave court without it!


             Unless


       • “The parent has subjected the child to aggravated
         circumstances as defined by state law and the court
         orders that efforts do not need to be made.”




The Pennsylvania Child Welfare Training Program   Module 9: Out of Home Placement and Permanency Planning
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       Reunification Decisions
       • Reunification should be considered when:


               – Completion of treatment and successful change in
                 overall caregiver functioning;


                    OR


               – Sustainable progress toward enhancing protective
                 capacities and the ability to implement an in-home
                 safety plan.

The Pennsylvania Child Welfare Training Program   Module 9: Out of Home Placement and Permanency Planning
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       Reunification Decisions, (cont’d)
       • A reunification recommendation should be made to
         the court when each of the safety threats can be
         determined to be ameliorated by one of the following:

               – Progress toward enhancement of diminished protective
                 capacities is occurring;

               – Change or adjustment to circumstances that created the
                 threats has occurred; and

               – An in-home safety plan can be implemented.


The Pennsylvania Child Welfare Training Program   Module 9: Out of Home Placement and Permanency Planning
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       Child Permanency Plan Review-Carley
       • Progress Made during Review Period
               – Crystal got a job.
               – Crystal has learned and demonstrated age appropriate
                 expectations for her children through parenting classes.
               – Crystal completed detox and inpatient treatment. She
                 goes to aftercare, including NA meetings and had a
                 sponsor.
               – Crystal and James attended most of the scheduled visits
                 with Carley.
               – Carley is developing increased trust with Crystal.
               – Child’s relatives have on-going positive contact with
                 child.
The Pennsylvania Child Welfare Training Program   Module 9: Out of Home Placement and Permanency Planning
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       Child Permanency Plan Review-Carley,
       (cont’d)
       • Circumstances and Concerns During The Review
         Period
               – Crystal has not completed parenting classes.
               – Crystal’s finances are limited.
               – James was not approved through the ICPC home study.
               – James’ housing is still not stable.
               – James referred himself for Section 8 housing.
               – James lost one of his jobs.
               – James is on a waiting list for a psychiatric evaluation.
The Pennsylvania Child Welfare Training Program    Module 9: Out of Home Placement and Permanency Planning
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       Child Permanency Plan Review-Christian
       • Progress Made during Review Period
               – Crystal got a job.
               – Crystal has learned and demonstrated age appropriate
                 expectations for her children through parenting classes.
               – Crystal completed detox and inpatient treatment. She
                 goes to aftercare, including NA meetings and had a
                 sponsor.
               – Crystal attended most of scheduled visits with Christian.
               – Christian has an IEP for his learning disability and is
                 now less withdrawn.
               – Child’s relatives have on-going positive contact with
                 child.
The Pennsylvania Child Welfare Training Program   Module 9: Out of Home Placement and Permanency Planning
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       Child Permanency Plan Review-Christian,
       (cont’d)
       • Circumstances and Concerns During The Review
         Period

               – Crystal has not completed parenting classes.

               – Crystal’s finances are limited.

               – Michael Johnson has stated he cannot parent Christian.

               – Michael Johnson has not maintained contact with the
                 agency or Christian.


The Pennsylvania Child Welfare Training Program    Module 9: Out of Home Placement and Permanency Planning
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       Child Permanency Plan Review-Cameron
       • Progress Made During Review Period
               – Crystal got a job.
               – Crystal has learned and demonstrated age appropriate
                 expectations for her children through parenting classes.
               – Crystal completed detox and inpatient treatment. She
                 goes to aftercare, including NA meetings and had a
                 sponsor.
               – Crystal attended most of scheduled visits with Cameron.
               – Cameron does not exhibit developmental delays at this
                 time.
               – Child’s relatives have on-going positive contact with
                 child.
The Pennsylvania Child Welfare Training Program   Module 9: Out of Home Placement and Permanency Planning
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       Child Permanency Plan Review-Cameron,
       (cont’d)
       • Circumstances and Concerns During The Review
         Period

               – Crystal has not completed parenting classes.

               – Crystal’s finances are limited.

               – Colin has not maintained contact with the agency or his
                 child.

               – Colin will be incarcerated for 14 months.

               – Colin has not participated in services.

The Pennsylvania Child Welfare Training Program    Module 9: Out of Home Placement and Permanency Planning
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       Documentation for TPR Hearing
       • Includes formal progress reports from service
         providers;

       • Progress and goal changes that were discussed with
         family;

       • Case activities and progress, or lack thereof; and

       • Be prepared: the parent’s and child’s attorney may
         challenge you!



The Pennsylvania Child Welfare Training Program   Module 9: Out of Home Placement and Permanency Planning
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       Aging Out of Care Statistics
       • Up to 22% become homeless from the day they leave
         care. (AFCARS Data and Courtney, Wulczyn, Hislop,
         and Casey).
       • 37% do not finish high school, nor obtain a GED
         (Courtney).
       • Obtain a GED at 6 times the rate of the general
         population (Casey Family Program).
       • Experience an average of 7 or more school changes.
         (Pecora et al. 2003).
       • Only 1.8% obtain a bachelors degree. (Pecora et al.
         2003).

The Pennsylvania Child Welfare Training Program   Module 9: Out of Home Placement and Permanency Planning
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       Definition of Permanent Connections
       • Positive relationships that are intended to last a
         lifetime.

       • Formal or informal.

       • Can provide for emotional, physical, mental and
         spiritual well being on a permanent basis.




The Pennsylvania Child Welfare Training Program   Module 9: Out of Home Placement and Permanency Planning
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