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Human_Trafficking

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					     Camino Real Region

  Cheri Fleming, Governor
      Julie Mairs, Chair
Soroptimists STOP Trafficking
          2008-2010
      October 13, 2008

      Slide will change after 30 seconds
                                           1
• It is the mission of Camino Real Region to
 bring together women from all walks of life
 and to enable them, through the
 development of their leadership skills, to
 truly make a difference in their
 communities and throughout the world.


                                               2
            Camino Real Region
• Organizing theory of our opposition to
  trafficking and the enslavement of women
  and girls in this country and world-wide.
“Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude,
  except as a punishment for crime whereof
  the party shall have been duly convicted,
  shall exist within the United States, or any
  place subject to their jurisdiction.” US
  Constitution: Amendment XIII – Slavery
  Abolished (1865)
                                                 3
 Someone’s daughter is on the
Road, as traffic, against her will




                                     4
Someone’s daughter is on the Road,
    as traffic, against her will
• Every 60 seconds a woman is trafficked
  somewhere in the world
• Every 10 to 30 minutes
  someone is trafficked into
  the USA, or about 18,000
  to 52,00 persons a year


                                           6
Someone's daughter is on the Road,
    as traffic, against her will
• Young women used in forced labor and
  prostitution face a wide range of diseases and
  adverse effects like:
  –   HIV-AIDS and other sexually-transmitted diseases,
  –   Early and forced marriage,
  –   tuberculosis,
  –   rape and unwanted pregnancies leading to abortions,
  –   beatings, post-traumatic stress disorder, suicide, and
  –   death by murder.


                                                               7
   Someone’s child is on a Road,
     as traffic, against her will
The little brick-maker… consent is irrelevant




                                                8
HUMAN TRAFFICKING




                    9
        HUMAN TRAFFICKING


• Human trafficking is currently tied with
  arms dealing as the second largest
  criminal industry in the world, right after
  drug dealing which is the largest criminal
  industry in the world.



                                                10
       HUMAN TRAFFICKING

• Human trafficking is is the fastest growing
  criminal enterprise delivering 15,000 to
  50,000 persons for sale into the USA each
  year.
• 80 percent of human trafficking cases in
  California occur in Los Angeles, San
  Diego, or San Francisco.
                                            11
       Where does the “Traffic”
            come from?
• Traffic Map




                                  12
Where does the “Traffic”
        go to?




                           13
                        HUMAN TRAFFICKING
                          Defined - USA
     The elements of the crime of Human Trafficking include:
     Process             +       Way/Means          +                Goal
        Recruitment          A         Threat           A          Prostitution
            or               N           or             N               or
       Transportation        D        Coercion          D         Pornography
            or                           or                             or
        Transferring                 Abduction                  Violence/Sexual
            or                           or                        Exploitation
         Harboring                     Fraud                            or
            or                           or                       Forced Labor
         Receiving                     Deceit                           or
                                         or                  Involuntary Servitude
                                     Deception                          or
                                         or                      Debt Bondage
                                   Abuse of Power              (with unfair wages)
                                                                        or
                                                            Slavery/Similar practices


  If one condition from each category is met, the result is
                          trafficking.
For adults, victim consent is irrelevant if one of the Means is
                          employed.
For children consent is irrelevant with or without the Means14
                           category.
       HUMAN TRAFFICKING
              Defined - USA
Trafficking in Persons is :
• “The recruitment, harboring,
  transportation, provision, or obtaining of a
  person for labor or services,
• through the use of force, fraud, or coercion
• for the purpose of subjection to involuntary
  servitude, peonage, debt bondage, or
  slavery." - United States

                                             15
HUMAN TRAFFICKING
     Slavery




                    16
       HUMAN TRAFFICKING
         Slavery Today Defined
• Slavery today is similar to forms of slavery
  that have existed for centuries in that
  these characteristics are found:
   – Control through violence or threat of
     violence
   – Exploitation for profit
   – Loss of free will


                                             17
       HUMAN TRAFFICKING
     Slavery Today – Life is Cheap
• Modern forms of slavery however, are
  much different in several important ways:
  – No longer a need for legal ownership
  – People caught up in slavery today can be
    purchased and sold for as little as $100
    (compared to 10 times that much in the
    1850s). As a result, people become
    "disposable;" i.e., easily replaceable.
  – Slavery cuts across nationality, race, ethnicity,
    gender, age, class, education-level, and other
    demographic features.
                                                   18
        HUMAN TRAFFICKING
             Slave Labor - USA

• Contemporary slavery/human trafficking remains
  a reality for many victims in the United States,
  where both American citizens and foreign
  nationals are trafficked into and within the United
  States for forced labor.

• Hearing-impaired Mexican men, women and
  children were forced to peddle items on the
  streets of New York to earn money for their
  traffickers;
                                                   19
       HUMAN TRAFFICKING
           Slave Labor - USA
• South Asian women forced to work in a
  textile factory without pay and with
  constant physical and sexual violence
  against them;
• Young American girls forced to prostitute
  themselves on the streets of Los Angeles
  (and dozens of other cities) while under
  constant physical and sexual violence
  from pimps and those purchasing the sex;

                                          20
HUMAN TRAFFICKING
   Slave Labor USA
                 Maria Suarez
       Maria was sold into slavery at
      the age of 15 in a suburb of Los
         Angeles. Her owner was an
       elderly man with a wife. Police
       would later report that the man
      was 'an old lecher' and 'brujo' or
         sorcerer, who bought young
        girls from Mexico and trading
        them in when they turned 20
             years of age.

                                           21
Girls Exploited, Trafficked
       and Enslaved




                              22
Girls Exploited, Trafficked
       and Enslaved
• The US Department of State
  estimates that each year, more than
  two million children, mostly girls, are
  exploited in the global commercial
  sex trafficking trade, many of them
  trapped in prostitution.
                         .[1]




                                            23
Girls Exploited, Trafficked
       and Enslaved
          Child Sex Tourism
           engages tourists, mostly
           men, in sex trafficking
           by purposely traveling to
           known sex destinations,
           seeking anonymity in
           pornography or
           prostitution, or engaging
           in pederasty with young
           children and
           homosexuality with
           young and older adults.
                                  24
HUMAN TRAFFICKING
 Slavery – Victims…




                      25
      Victims… Adolescent Girls
Customers/exploiters come from all over the world. The PROTECT Act
 makes it illegal for an American to sexually abuse a minor in another
                                country.
             Perpetrators can receive up to 30 years in jail.




                                                                    26
Victims… Women and girls, hidden in the
  shadows and out in the open for all to
                 see
The U.S. Department of State estimates between 600,000 and 800,000
      people are trafficked across international borders each year.
         Millions more are enslaved within national borders.




                                                                 27
             Victims… Mother
This desperate mother traveled from her village in
   Nepal to Mumbai, India, to find and rescue her
   teenage daughter who was trafficked into an
   Indian brothel. Nepalese girls are prized for their
   fair skin and are lured with promises of a "good"
job and the chance to improve
their lives.
"I will stay in Mumbai, until I find my
daughter or die. I am not leaving
here without her."
                                                     28
             Victims… Girl Child
Street kids, runaways, or children living in poverty can fall
   under the control of traffickers who force them into
   begging rings. Victims of organized begging rings are
   often beaten or injured if they don't bring in enough
   money. They are also vulnerable to sexual abuse.

Children are sometimes
intentionally disfigured
to attract more money
from passersby.


                                                                29
          Victims… Defenseless
• Young girls are prized in the carpet industry for their
  small, fast fingers.
• Defenseless, they do what they're told, toiling in
  cramped, dark, airless village huts from sunrise until well
  into
       the
            night.




                                                            30
          Corruption…
The Root Cause of Exploitation,
    Trafficking and Slavery




                              31
 Corruption… Defined
• Is behavior in any organized, inter-
  dependent system in which part or all of
  the system is either:
  – not performing duties it was originally
    intended to,
  – or is performing them in an improper way, to
    the detriment of the system's original purpose.
• This behavior has connotations of evil,
  malignance, sickness, and loss of
  innocence or purity.                           32
Corruption… Effects
• Threatens security and damages trust in
  systems which affect people’s daily lives.
• Is a particular concern for the world’s
  police and judicial systems, as corruption
  in one country can compromise an entire
  international investigation.
• Does not itself produce poverty, but does
  have a direct and immediate impact on
  economic growth and good governance,
  which in turn raises poverty levels
                                               33
 Corruption… Makes crime safe for
  criminals
• Is a manifestation of public and private
  institutional weakness, poor ethical
  standards, skewed incentives and
  insufficient enforcement.
• Terrorists, traffickers and other organized
  criminals rely on the complicity of corrupt
  public and private leaders to carry out their
                                              34
  illegal activities.
 Political/Public Corruption… Defined
• The dysfunction of a political system or public
  institution in which government officials, political
  officials or employees seek illegitimate personal
  gain through actions such as bribery, extortion,
  cronyism, nepotism, patronage, graft, and
  embezzlement.
• Reflects the impairment of integrity, virtue, or
  moral principles and inducements to do wrong
  by improper or unlawful means.


                                                     35
Political/Public Corruption… Effects
• Access to politics and political will are:
  – organized with limited transparency, limited
    competition and
  – directed towards promoting narrow interests
    that impose barriers to equity, mobility and
    basic freedoms.



                                                   36
 Public and Private Corruption… Makes
  crime safe for criminals
• Fuels trans-national crime like:
  – Human trafficking,
  – Forced and coerced labor
  – Slavery, and
  – Sex trafficking and prostitution.

                                        37
Political and Private Corruption… Makes
  sex trafficking and prostitution
  possible
• Prostitution, legal or not, is inherently
  harmful and dehumanizing, and fuels
  trafficking in persons, a form of modern-
  day slavery.
• Few activities are as brutal and damaging
  to people as prostitution.

                                              38
Political and Private Corruption… Makes
  sex trafficking and prostitution
  possible
• Legalized prostitution expands the market
  for:
  – commercial sex,
  – opening markets for criminal enterprises, and
  – creating a safe haven for criminals who traffic
    people into prostitution.

                                                  39
Institutional Strength - Prosecution
  Works
• Swedish aggressive prosecution of
  customers, pimps, and brothel
  owners began in 1999 and in two
  years resulted in:



                                       40
Institutional Strength - Prosecution
  Works
  –a 50 percent decrease in women
   prostituting,
  –a 75 percent decrease in men
   buying sex, and


                                       41
Institutional Strength - Prosecution
  Works
  –A reduction of trafficking for the
   purposes of sexual exploitation.




                                        42
     What can we do as Women?
         Report Trafficking
Clues
  – Accompanied by a controlling person or boss;
    not speaking on own behalf;
  – Lack of control over personal schedule,
    money, I.D., travel documents;
  – Transported to or from work; lives and works
    in the same place;
  – Debt owed to employer/crew leader; inability
    to leave job;
  – Bruises, depression, fear, overly submissive.
                                                43
    What can we do as Women?
        Report Trafficking
• CALL THE COPS!
 – National Human Trafficking Resource
   Center at 1-888-373-7888: attended 24/7
 – Your local police department
 – For more information on human trafficking,
   visit www.acf.hhs.gov/trafficking.




                                                44
      Institutional Strengths
 What Works- Especially in the USA
• Civic Involvement Works:
  – Awareness, Advocacy, Action
  – Public Awareness of the crime
  – Public Demand for action on the crime
  – Political Will to combat the crime
  – Resource Allocation to prevent and
    intervene
  – Law Enforcement that knows what to do
  – Criminal and Civil Prosecution
  – Victim Protection
• Determined Women                          45
Civic Institutional Strengths
 USA                Soroptimist
                                 Awareness
 Public              Public
Awareness           Demand
                                     Right
                                  Resources
                              Action     Advocacy
        Political
          Will




                                                    46
   Who Are We To Organize Against
            Trafficking?

           WE ARE SOROPTIMISTS
• We are part of a network of Soroptimist
  clubs all over the world.
• Our purpose is to do work that makes
  a difference to improve the status and
  transform the lives of women and girls,
  in local communities and throughout the
  world.
                                        47
What can Clubs do about
      Trafficking?


 Soroptimists STOP
    Trafficking
      (SSTR)


                          48
What are Clubs encouraged to
         do locally?
            SSTR



 Objective: More than 90% of clubs will
    support at least one SI Project.




                                          49
What can Clubs do locally?
          SSTR



   AWARENESS



                             50
    What can Clubs do locally?
              SSTR
1. Educate members about what
   trafficking and sexual slavery are, the
   root causes of this activity, costs to
   communities and warning signs that it
   may be happening in your community.
  – Bring more educated eyes and ears to bear
    on this matter.



                                                51
   What can Clubs do locally?
             SSTR
2. Educate interested community social
   and economic groups on this matter,
   the warning signs and the costs to the
   community.
  – Get this matter on the agenda of
    government, social and economic action
    groups in your community.
  – Raise awareness and demand for action on
    this matter in your community.
                                            52
What can Clubs do locally?
          SSTR



     ADVOCACY



                             53
      What can Clubs do locally?
                SSTR
3. Build demand for a gender analysis of
   local budgets
  –    Identify resources intended to prevent, intervene
       and prosecute trafficking and sexual slavery crimes.
  –    Build demand for transparency in the actions of
       local government to address this matter for the
       benefit of the community and the victims.
  –    Assure that resources intended for the abatement of
       trafficking are appropriately and efficaciously
       targeted and effectively applied in service to victims
       and the community

                                                           54
      What can Clubs do locally?
                SSTR
4. Map and publicize the gaps between the
   location of trafficking services and the known
   locations from which or to which victims are
   trafficked.
  –    Map the Gaps
       http://www.endviolenceagainstwomen.org.uk/data/fil
       es/map_of_gaps.pdf
  –    Sex in the City
       http://www.eaves4women.co.uk/POPPY_Project/Do
       cuments/Recent_Reports/Sex%20in%20the%20Cit
       y.pdf

                                                       55
What can Clubs do locally?
          SSTR



        ACTION



                             56
   What can Clubs do locally?
             SSTR
5. Support the installation of valid
   programs in the primary and secondary
   grades to teach and foster respect
   between boys and girls.
  – Increase the potential for girls to have the
    confidence to resist situations of
    exploitation.
  – Increase the possibility that boys will reject
    the mistreatment of girls as being
    compatible with notions of manhood.
                                                     57
   What can Clubs do locally?
             SSTR
6. Support Awareness-Building Projects
   with money, memberships or hands on
   support
  – Bring more educated eyes and ears to bear
    on this matter.
  – Get this matter on the agenda of
    government, social and economic action
    groups in your community.
  – Raise awareness and demand for action on
    this matter in your community
                                            58
   What can Clubs do locally?
             SSTR
7. Support Social Reintegration Projects
  with money, memberships or hands on
  support
8. Support Protection Projects with
  money, memberships or hands on support
9. Support Rehabilitation Projects with
  money, memberships or hands on support


                                       59
   What can Clubs do locally?
             SSTR
10. Support Training for Journalists in
    Human Trafficking

  – Address these issues as embedded in
    the internet, television, music, movies
    and print media.



                                              61
   What can Clubs do locally?
             SSTR
11. Recruit a Local High Profile
   Spokesperson
  – Partner with local nonprofit
     organizations engaged in the struggle
     against trafficking and slavery.
  – Encourage a focus on the "volunteers"
     in these partner organizations who
     provide programmatic collaboration.
                                         62
    What can Clubs do locally?
              SSTR
12. Provide Information on this crime to
  1,000 persons.
• Involve victim survivors in this public effort.
• Get this matter on the agendas of persons
  in positions of power and influence in your
  community or area.
• Mobilize political will needed to bring
  policy and procedure changes that will
  benefit victims and survivors of this crime.
                                               63
What can Clubs and Girls do?



       LIL’ SSTR




                               66
  What can Clubs and Girls do?
           Lil’ SSTR
Help to provide Information on this crime
 to 1,000 persons.
  – Be involved through their groups
    (scouts, sports teams, youth clubs, and
    “S” clubs) and their parents in this effort
    as well.



                                              67
  What can Clubs and Girls do?
           Lil’ SSTR
Help to provide Information on this crime
 to 1,000 persons.
  – Girls can put on art shows, readings,
    plays or other communication-related
    activities on this matter ands how it
    affects children.



                                        68
  What can Clubs and Girls do?
           Lil’ SSTR
Organize a trafficking protest at a local
 transportation hub.
  – Girls can march in protests against
    trafficking, engage in discussions of their
    perception of trafficking, learn self-
    protective mechanisms, and participate
    in public speaking.


                                              69
               Why let girls… do?
                  Lil’ SSTR
Cut the      Risk for Violence             Resilience for Life
Power of     Poverty                       Meaningful opportunities for
             Discrimination                participation
Risk                                       Emotional and cognitive
             Mental illness;
             Witnessing and experiencing   competence
Grow the     violence                      Artistic and creative
             Negative family dynamics      opportunities
Power of                                   Positive attachments and
             Truancy, school failure use
Resilience   (alcohol, illicit drugs)      relationships
             Substance abuse               Good physical and mental
                                           health
             Firearms
                                           Available services and
             Incarceration, re-entry       institutions
             Community deterioration       Ethnic and inter-group
             Gender stereotyping and       relationships
             socialization
                                            Social capital
             Media violence                                               70
What did one woman do for 2,500
 children during the holocaust?




Irena Sendler, credited with saving 2,500 children from the Warsaw Ghetto, died in
May, 2008 at age 98. A social worker, she organized about 20 people to help
smuggle children out of the ghetto. She was caught and tortured by Nazis, but
never gave up information on the rescue effort.       Photo: Alik Keplicz, AP
                                              Source: AP                         71
Thank you for your attention!




       With love, Lil’ SSTR     72

				
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