5 making it happen: a programme of action
5.1 A key test of the Strategy is whether its policies and proposals are implemented successfully and at the required pace to
meet London’s needs. This chapter addresses implementation issues. It is structured in two main sections:
Funding, financing and programming issues
the Strategy’s horizons and approach to determining the pace and resources required for implementation;
availability of financial and other resources required for delivery.
Frameworks for implementation and monitoring
responsibility for implementation;
mechanisms for reviewing progress (such as milestones and key indicators of performance).
Funding, financing and programming issues
The Strategy’s horizons and approach to determining the pace required for implementation
5.2 The Strategy sets out policies and proposals for transport in London towards an horizon of 2011 (later for some of the
major projects), recognising that a period of this length is needed to address the full range of London’s transport needs, and to
ensure transport plans are integrated with other plans for London’s longer term development. However, most proposals have an
horizon of up to five years. Some additional detail is given for the years 2001/2 to 2003/4, on the basis of the funding levels
promised by the Government in their Spending Review 2000 (summarised in table A1 of the Government’s 10 Year Plan for
Transport1), which are relatively fixed.
5.3 In the later years, from 2004/5 to 2010/11, the proposed pace of implementation of the Strategy has been based
principally on the need to:
make good the backlog of investment needed to ensure the existing system operates efficiently, as rapidly as practicable;
increase the capacity of the transport system at a speed that is practical to achieve, and sufficient to cope with and support
the projected increases in demand and economic development arising from London’s growth over the next decade;
make the necessary progress towards bringing in longer term increases in the capacity of the Underground and rail systems
to meet further growth in demand over the following decade;
complement the land use plans that will be developed through the emerging London Plan (Spatial Development Strategy) so
that the Capital’s continuing long term growth can become increasingly sustainable in transport terms, and support decisive
progress over the decade towards improving alternative means of travel to the private car.
5.4 As discussed in chapter 2 – challenges, London’s population has grown significantly faster over the last five years than
was assumed by Government when it developed its 10 Year Plan for Transport, which included funding allocations for transport
in London. Future growth is also expected to be faster than was assumed for the 10 Year Plan, with current trends pointing to
London’s population reaching 8.1 million by 2016 rather than the 7.6 million implied in the analysis for the 10 Year Plan. The 10
Year Plan therefore significantly underestimated London’s needs.
5.5 As much of London’s transport system is already at or near capacity, meeting the needs arising from additional growth
requires large increases in investment and funding for new infrastructure.
5.6 The Strategy’s analysis of the required pace of implementation, set out above, leads to a significantly higher funding
requirement from 2004/5 onwards than the levels set out in the Government’s 10 Year Plan for Transport. Ten year programme
costings and income forecasts are necessarily subject to considerable uncertainty. However, current projections suggest that the
additional funding requirement beyond levels implied in the Government’s 10 Year Plan for Transport from 2004/5 onwards rises
to approximately £500 million per annum (pa) by 2006/7 though this falls in later years. Allowing for the £200 million pa net
revenue from the proposed central London congestion charging scheme, this reduces to £300 million in 2006/7. The figures will
need to be reviewed through the Transport for London (TfL) business planning and borough Local Implementation Plan (LIP)
processes, which will establish firm levels and phasing of improvements and necessary funding.
5.7 London makes a large annual net contribution to the UK economy, estimated at £20 billion for 1998/9 2. Over the last
two decades, too little of the wealth generated in London has been returned to the city to allow its transport system to be
developed to meet the demands of London’s economic and population growth. This misguided approach starved London of
investment, and resulted in the present crisis in its transport system. The Mayor believes that London must retain a larger
proportion of the wealth it creates, in order to invest in the infrastructure and transport improvements which are vital for the city’s
economic efficiency and quality of life. This is essential not only for London, but given its role as a gateway to the UK and
contribution to the national economy, also for the whole nation’s continuing prosperity.
5.8 Increased Government funding should be supplemented, where appropriate, by the involvement of the private sector
and bonds financing, to help bring essential investment forward to the earliest practicable dates.
5.9 Raising fares would not be the appropriate way to fund London’s additional transport investment needs. In overall
terms, London’s passengers already face much higher fares than in comparable major cities. Moreover, higher fares make public
transport less attractive relative to the private car. This is contrary to the Strategy and the Government’s aim of encouraging a
shift from cars to public transport.
Policy 5.1 The Mayor will press central Government for funding at the levels needed to implement the Transport Strategy at
the fastest practicable pace, reflecting the very high benefits to London and the United Kingdom that this will bring.
5.10 Given inevitably constrained resources, it is also essential that good value for money is obtained and efficiency
maximised. This has been a core principle in the development of the Strategy and must also be key to its implementation. The
Mayor has sought the best transport managers in the world to provide the necessary leadership for TfL. Approaches that will be
adopted include rigorous management and business planning processes, learning from best practice, thorough evaluation of
out-turn benefits and costs, and focused research and analysis work.
Policy 5.2 In developing and implementing the Transport Strategy, a core principle is that all resources used for transport must
provide good value for stakeholders including transport users, London’s residents, businesses, and taxpayers.
Proposal 5.1 To help ensure value for money from the use of resources for transport, Transport for London will pursue rigorous
management and business planning processes, and will seek to learn from best practice and through focused research and analysis
A summary of the Strategy’s proposed outputs and corresponding financial resources required
5.11 Figure 5.1, at the end of this chapter, provides an overview and broad timetable for key elements of the programme
proposed in the Strategy. After taking account of the demographic and employment changes set out in chapter 2 – challenges,
and assuming funding is available for the full programme of improvements proposed in the Strategy, the following broad changes
in weekday travel patterns are expected between 2001 and 2011:
40 per cent more bus passengers across London, alongside a similar level of increase in bus capacity;
15 per cent more morning peak passengers on the existing Underground network, alongside an increase in capacity of 17 per
9 per cent more morning peak passengers on National Rail services in London (excluding CrossRail and Thameslink),
alongside an increase in capacity of 12 per cent;
a reduction of 15 per cent in traffic in Central London, reducing growth from 41/2 per cent to zero in Inner London, and
reducing the rate of traffic growth in Outer London by a third to 5 per cent - with greater traffic reductions in sensitive
In addition, by 2011, many travellers will be benefiting from CrossRail, Thameslink 2000 and extensions to the East London
Line, which will add substantial further capacity to the network. Together with improvements to the existing network, total rail
capacity will be increased by up to 40 per cent by 2011, after the completion of CrossRail, and up to 50 per cent by 2016, after
the completion of the Hackney-SouthWest Line. Any delay to these projects would obviously also delay capacity growth. One or
more local corridors could benefit from new tram or segregated high quality bus schemes.
5.12 These figures draw on analysis using the London Transportation Studies (LTS) model developed by the Government
Office for London, internal TfL models, analysis of past trends and assessments of the likely scale of impact of factors not
included in these models. They will be reviewed through further modelling work to support the development of the London Plan
and the TfL business planning process.
5.13 Whilst such forecasts are necessarily uncertain, they do indicate that the Strategy’s proposals should increase the
overall capacity of London’s transport system faster than projected increases in travel demand. This increase is in addition to the
improvements in reliability and quality the Strategy, and strong TfL management, will achieve. This will help tackle acute
overcrowding and contribute to achieving the high quality transport system demanded of a world city.
5.14 However, even with the benefit of CrossRail, Thameslink 2000 and the East London Line Extensions, the increase in
Underground capacity over the next decade is projected to be only slightly greater than the corresponding growth in demand.
Overcrowding will therefore still be a problem. The Hackney-SouthWest Line must therefore be implemented as soon as possible
after CrossRail, to add further capacity and flexibility to the transport system.
5.15 Figure 5.2 sets out a broad financial analysis of available resources and funding needs identified in the Strategy.
Funding and financing need to be considered for:
TfL (excluding the Underground but including TfL transport grant to boroughs);
other sources of funding for transport activities;
National Rail serving London.
These are discussed in turn below.
5.16 For TfL excluding the Underground, the Government has promised funding through its transport grant rising from
around £800 million in 2001/2 to £1.2 billion in 2003/4, totalling some £3 billion over the three years (all financial figures in this
section are quoted at 2001/2 prices). The Government’s 10 Year Plan for Transport implies Government grant will continue at
£1.1 billion pa from 2004/5 to the end of the 10 year plan period in 2010/11. Overall, including the private sector investment that
the Government assumes will be forthcoming, the 10 Year Plan for Transport proposes around £25 billion of external resources
for transport in London between 2001/2 and 2010/11.
5.17 In addition to Government funding, TfL will also receive trading income, principally from bus and DLR fares.
Excluding the Underground, trading income (adjusted to include all bus fares income) is projected to increase from around £770
million in 2001/2 to £840 million in 2003/4, and to rise to £900 million by 2010/11. Total grant and income available for running
existing services and making enhancements is consequently projected to increase from £1.5 billion in 2001/2 to £2.1 billion in
2003/4, and to stay at around £2 billion pa until 2010/11.
5.18 Funding for the Underground is excluded from the Government’s 10 Year Plan for Transport and the Government has
promised separate provision to TfL when the Underground transfers to its control. It is essential that this funding provision is
adequate. Financing mechanisms that provide stability and early investment are required, which must also be agreed in a way that
does not compromise system safety. Funding and financing for the Underground must cover the urgent investment needed to
rehabilitate the system, which is the first priority, and also to modernise it and provide the substantial additional capacity needed
to tackle overcrowding on trains and at stations.
5.19 Over the ten year horizon of the Strategy, funding will also be needed to deliver the other Underground enhancements
set out in chapter 4C – London Underground. These include station and interchange improvements, accessibility, and safety and
security improvements. The cost of all these necessary enhancements must be provided for within the Government’s funding for
5.20 Although the Government’s promised transport funding for TfL (excluding the Underground) represents a substantial
increase on 2000/1, rising bus tender prices and other cost pressures mean that a significant proportion of this funding increase
will be needed just to maintain existing services. There will be additional financial pressures in 2002/3, when significant costs
will be incurred for works needed to introduce future improvements (in particular the proposed central London congestion
charging scheme, and bus priorities). These costs occur before the financial benefits of congestion charging revenues, and
patronage and revenue increases arising from new bus priorities.Given the financial constraints, the key early priorities for
expenditure will be:
maintaining service quality in light of increasing demand and cost pressures;
tackling congestion through taking forward the proposed central London congestion charging scheme, associated traffic
management measures, and complementary improvements to the bus network;
tackling bus unreliability, and raising quality and service frequencies;
developing the major projects to the stage where implementation can be taken forward, so London’s needs for increased
transport capacity can be met.
5.21 Rehabilitating the Underground is a major priority. The Strategy accepts the Government’s assurances that it will
provide the necessary separate funding for this purpose.
5.22 Even on the funding projections implicit in the Government’s 10 Year Plan, opportunities for making improvements
will be significantly greater in later years. Funding available for enhancements increases from £170 million in 2001/2 to £470
million (£650 million including the net revenue from the proposed congestion charging scheme) in 2003/4. It then remains at
around £350 million pa (£550 million pa including the net revenue from the proposed congestion charging scheme) until
5.23 However, the indicative analysis set out in figure 5.2 shows that by 2006/7, funding for TfL, excluding the
Underground, could be of the order of £300 million pa short of what the Strategy sets out as necessary to meet London’s growing
needs, with the gap falling to £150 million by 2010/11. This estimate already incorporates the benefit of net revenue from the
proposed congestion charging scheme, which Government has promised will be treated as additional to its transport grant for at
least ten years from introduction of the scheme. Without this, additional funding of some £500 million pa would be needed by
2006/7. These indicative figures will need to be confirmed through further analysis as part of the TfL business planning process.
Should the proposed additional funding not be available, the pace of implementation will be slowed, to reduce costs as necessary.
5.24 It is important to note that the Strategy programmes summarised in figure 5.1, and the indicative financial analyses
summarised in figure 5.2 and discussed above, are based on current understanding of needs, likely programme costs and levels of
demand and fares income. They will be reviewed through TfL business planning and borough processes. There are also risks that
could substantially change the picture. For example, an economic downturn could reduce the fares income available to help fund
implementation of the Strategy.
figure 5.2 Indicative financial analysis of Transport Strategy
£m, constant 2001/2 prices Note
2001/02 2002/03 2003/04 2004/05 2005/06 2006/07 2007/08 2008/09 2009/10 2010/11
a Total transport grant to TfL 760 940 1210 1110 1110 1110 1110
1110 1110 1110
b Forecast TfL trading income 1 770 800 850 860 890 890 900
900 900 910
c Funding available for operations and 1520 1750 2050 1970 2000 2000
2010 2010 2010 2020
d Expenditure to maintain current services 2 -1350 -1560 -1590 -1610 -1630
-1670 -1670 -1680 -1680 -1690
and programmes (including cost pressures)
e Funding available after Base and 170 190 460 360 370 330
340 330 330 330
Pressures expenditure (=c+d)
f Net cost/income from proposed 3 -60 -70 180 200 200 200
200 200 200 200
congestion charging scheme
g Total available for enhancements including 110 120 640 560 570
530 540 530 530 530
net income from proposed congestion
charging scheme (=e+f)
h Projected cost of enhancements excluding funding 4 -110 -120 -640 -760
-830 -850 -850 -830 -750 -680
for Underground and implementing Major Projects,
and excluding congestion charging costs
i Funding gap excluding funding for the 0 0 0 -200 -260 -320
-310 -300 -220 -150
Underground and for implementing
Major Projects (=g+h)
Includes bus revenue on all routes, DLR fares, taxi licencing income, and Street Management income from boroughs, but not
Includes increased bus contract costs, increased resources for improving bus reliability, costs of implementing the bus fares
freeze, completion of the London Bus Priority Network and higher demand London Cycle Network routes, DLR extension to
London City Airport and DLR accessibility enhancements, TfL development work for CrossRail and Hackney-SouthWest Line,
and funding for essential road and bridge maintenance.
Net costs and income from proposed central London congestion charging scheme (see annex 5), assuming procurement strategy
as at May 2001.
4 Indicative projected costs of implementing full set of Strategy proposals excluding costs associated with the Underground and
implementing Major Projects.
5.25 It might be argued that any such downturn would reduce transport demand, and obviate the need for some of the
Strategy’s proposals to increase transport capacity. However, levels of overcrowding are so high that new capacity would still be
needed even if demand fell significantly. The ‘mothballing’ of CrossRail in 1994 illustrates the risks. This was influenced by a
downturn in rail demand in London over the early 1990s, but rail demand then resumed its longer term growth trend. The
implementation of CrossRail, albeit in a further developed version than was then proposed, will now be a decade later than it
might have been, with all the consequent costs of increased Underground and National Rail overcrowding. Substantially
increased investment is essential to meet London’s long term transport needs, regardless of the likelihood of one or more
economic downturns through the business cycle during the period covered by the Strategy. Indeed, for London, lack of adequate
investment in the transport system could well increase the probability and intensity of a downturn.
5.26 There are a number of other sources of funding for transport
in London, many of which accrue to the boroughs, including:
borough parking account revenue surpluses (currently estimated at around £100 million pa concentrated in a few central
contributions from ‘Section 106’ developer contributions (currently estimated at around £30 million pa across London). A
number of boroughs have helped establish good practice in ensuring that new developments fund improvements to the
transport system necessitated by the demand they generate;
transport funding from other Government programmes including Revenue Support Grant and regeneration programmes;
European funding programmes.
Other potential sources of funding could include surpluses arising from civil enforcement of bus lanes and any future parking
surpluses that may accrue to TfL.
5.27 These funding sources are generally committed to specific items or on-going programmes. However, they should be
taken into account in the development of transport plans and programmes, including determining resource allocations, by both
TfL and the boroughs. The boroughs are expected to provide TfL with necessary information for this purpose. The overall aim
will be to seek to maximise transport benefits from all spending on transport in London, in line with the Strategy.
5.28 In its 10 Year Plan for Transport, the Government promised to increase its overall funding for National Rail
(passengers and freight) from £1.4 billion in 2000/1 to £3.4 billion in 2003/4 (at 2000/1 prices), complemented by substantial
additional investment from the private sector. In total, over the ten years from 2001/2, the Government proposes total investment
of £60 billion nationally on the railways, about half of this coming from the Government. Given the scale of problems on
London’s National Rail services and the high proportion of National Rail passengers travelling in, to and from London, a
substantial share of this funding needs to be devoted to addressing London’s needs. The Strategy assumes resources will be
available to fully fund the Strategic Rail Authority’s (SRA) responsibilities for London and the Strategy’s National Rail
proposals. As noted above, funding and financing for the implementation of the major schemes – many of which will involve
National Rail partners – will also need to be resolved so they can proceed, and are additional to the core levels of funding to TfL.
Proposals for new sources of funding and financing
5.29 The level of funding that central Government proposes, and its uncertainty from year to year, means that other
independent sources of funding and financing would be particularly valuable. Whilst its key focus is on tackling congestion, the
proposed central London congestion charging scheme described in annex 5 – the congestion charging scheme for central London,
offers one such opportunity. Broadly, over the early part of the ten year horizon of this Strategy, it is envisaged that the net
revenues from the proposed scheme (projected to be about £200 million pa) will help fund or bring forward improvements across
London, and priorities could include:
bus network improvements (see chapter 4F – a better bus network);
accelerating or extending accessibility improvements, such as enhancing the Taxicard scheme or the more widespread
implementation of ‘bus boarder’ kerb designs (see chapter 4F – a better bus network and chapter 4O – accessible transport);
interchange improvements and other initiatives to improve the integration of the transport network (see chapter 4P –
integration: the seamless journey);
contributions to the costs of developing possible tram or high quality segregated bus schemes, and other major schemes (see
chapter 4Q – expanding London’s transport system: major projects);
safety and security improvement schemes (see chapter 4P – integration: the seamless journey);
accelerating road and bridge maintenance programmes (see chapter 4G – streets for all: improving London’s roads and
increasing late night public transport (see chapter 4C – London Underground and chapter 4F – a better bus network);
additional funding for borough transport initiatives (see proposals across chapter 4 – improving London’s transport system).
restructuring fares on public transport (see chapter 4B – fares and tickets to make public transport more attractive);
improvements to the walking and cycling environment, and for car users (see chapters 4H – the car user, 4I – promoting
walking, and 4J – promoting cycling);
improvements to the street environment in appropriate areas through programmes such as Streets-for-People and town
centre environmental improvement schemes (see chapter 4G – streets for all: improving London’s roads and streets);
5.30 In the medium to longer term there may be an increased emphasis on using the net revenues to contribute to funding or
financing infrastructure improvements including:
helping develop and fund expanded Underground and rail capacity with new services across central London, together with
improved orbital rail services;
new Thames Gateway river crossings;
schemes to provide improved access to London’s town centres;
light rail, tram, or high quality segregated bus schemes;
selected improvements to London’s road system.
A ten year statement of the proposals for expenditure of the net proceeds from the proposed central London congestion charging
scheme, which has to be agreed by the Government, will be set out in the Congestion Charging Scheme Order. This Order will be
made by TfL following the publication of the Strategy.
5.31 As noted above, the Government has given assurances that congestion charging revenue will be additional to transport
grant for at least ten years. In the context of London’s investment needs, and of the large net contribution London already makes
to national finances, the Mayor believes it would be right for this to be extended beyond this timescale for as long as it is needed.
Proposal 5.2 The Mayor will press central Government to make net congestion charging revenues additional to transport grant
and ring-fenced for spending on transport in London for as long as it is needed beyond the initial ten year period.
5.32 In addition to congestion charging revenues, flexibility for the GLA/TfL to attract external funding from the market
could also help facilitate real long term stability of adequate finance, particularly for major investment programmes.
5.33 Appropriate involvement of the private sector in financing transport improvements is welcomed wherever this is the
most efficient and safe option. One approach, set out in chapter 4C – London Underground, is issuing bonds, in particular to help
finance the Underground’s investment. A similar approach would also have real attractions for financing major infrastructure
schemes. This was recognised by the Government in guaranteeing funding for the completion of the Channel Tunnel Rail Link.
5.34 This approach has also been successfully used to raise investment
funds for public transport elsewhere in the world. Its potential advantages include:
provision of a major additional injection of capital into London’s transport system, allowing schemes to be taken forward
that provide good value for money and generate additional fares income, but cannot currently be progressed due to lack of
provision of more stable, predictable finance for transport in London allowing more cost-effective long term planning;
greater transparency in the distribution of the costs of transport investment between central Government, local and regional
government, and passengers;
greater democratic accountability and control of major projects through the GLA and TfL, as compared to some forms of
private sector financing, which can lead to fragmentation of control and loss of direct accountability.
Proposal 5.3 The Mayor and Transport for London will pursue the idea of partly financing transport investments by means of
Framework for implementation and monitoring
The roles of different agencies in delivery: The Mayor and GLA, and Transport for London
5.35 The Mayor provides leadership, and is the central focus for developing
an integrated vision for transport and for ensuring transport and other strategies are complementary; whilst the Greater London
Assembly has a key scrutiny role. However, much of the implementation of the Mayor’s transport policies will be carried out and
co-ordinated by a variety of agencies such as the boroughs, and in particular TfL. It is essential that the Strategy’s priorities flow
through into the detailed business and action plans that TfL develops and to its work with other partners.
Policy 5.3 Transport for London’s plans will reflect the Transport Strategy’s objectives, priorities, policies and proposals.
The roles of different agencies in delivery: involving other partners
5.36 There are many partners whose commitment and action will be essential in implementing the Strategy. These include
central Government; the boroughs; sub-regional partnerships; the Strategic Rail Authority, Railtrack, and London Train
Operating Companies; bus, taxi and private hire operators; freight and other transport operators; the highway and planning
authorities for the areas surrounding London; and of course individual travellers and organisations in London who make travel
related decisions every day.
5.37 Central Government provides a major proportion of the funding for transport in London. The longer term funding
programme set out by the Government in its 10 Year Plan for Transport moves towards recognising the increased scale of
resources needed to begin to put right decades of under-investment, and accommodate London’s economic and population
growth. It also offers the prospect of greater funding stability, allowing longer term planning, and more cost-effective and
efficient programming of work. However, as discussed above, taking forward the full set of proposals in the Strategy at the pace
it recommends, is likely to require a still higher rate of investment. Differences in projections of London’s population growth and
their resource implications also need to be resolved.
5.38 Continuing dialogue is needed with central Government on the funding requirements for transport in London. The case
for additional funding and new financing mechanisms to achieve the rate of progress necessary in the Strategy needs to be
recognised. Urgent work is also needed to secure funding and financing for implementing major schemes.
5.39 Detailed rolling action plans and programmes will be the responsibility of the implementation agencies such as TfL, the
London boroughs, and National Rail partners. However, policies in the Strategy are potentially relevant to all the implementation
5.40 The London boroughs are key partners responsible for the implementation of many of the elements of the Strategy, and
will develop Local Implementation Plans (LIPs) setting out what they need to do for this purpose. In particular, the boroughs are
responsible for 95 per cent of London’s streets, for developing and implementing the majority of initiatives associated with these,
such as bus priority, walking, cycling, and parking schemes, and are the local planning authority.
5.41 While covering the full period of the Strategy, the LIPs should focus particularly on boroughs’ proposals for
implementing the Strategy over the next five years, within the context of the Strategy’s longer term horizons, and include action
plans and annual milestones for achievement. Inevitably the degree of certainty will be greater in the early years when funding is
more clearly defined. The Strategy provides the policy context for the LIPs. It also gives the context for bids from the boroughs
to TfL for transport funding under Section 159 of the Greater London Authority Act 1999. The Strategy will be supplemented by
detailed guidance on the development of LIPs, and also by guidance on making bids to TfL for transport funding.
Policy 5.4 Partnership will be sought with the London boroughs in developing and implementing transport policies and plans.
The London boroughs are required to set out their proposals for the implementation of the Transport Strategy in their areas. Local
Implementation Plans (LIPs) will reflect the Transport Strategy’s objectives, policies, proposals and priorities. The Mayor will
issue guidance to the London boroughs setting out detailed requirements for their LIPs. Guidance will ensure the LIPs implement
the Transport Strategy, are co-ordinated with each other and with the plans of other implementation agencies, and are effectively
implemented and monitored. If necessary, the Mayor will issue directions to ensure the Transport Strategy is implemented.
5.42 In addition, the interactions between transport and environment, economy, land use and location of activities mean
other borough plans and actions (for example, borough Unitary Development Plans and Air Quality Management Area Action
Plans) need to be integrated with
this and other Mayoral Strategies in order to exploit synergies and maximise cost-effectiveness. Seeking effective integration
between related policies will continue to be a guiding principle in development and implementation of all the Mayor’s Strategies.
5.43 The formal relationship between the Mayor and the Strategic Rail Authority (SRA) is set out in the Greater London
Authority Act 1999 and the Transport Act 2000. Not only is the SRA a key funder of National Rail services through the
franchising process, but it has a leading part in determining infrastructure investment plans for the industry as a whole. As
described in chapter 4E – National Rail, a new London Rail Plan is proposed that will set out an implementation programme for
National Rail to deliver the relevant priorities of the Strategy and of the SRA’s National Plan.
5.44 It is also important to work closely with the other main National Rail partners, particularly Railtrack and the London
Train Operating Companies, in order to deliver the improvements the Strategy seeks for London’s National Rail network,
including better integration with other transport services.
Policy 5.5 Partnership will be sought with the Strategic Rail Authority (SRA), Railtrack and the Train Operating Companies.
The objectives, policies, proposals and priorities of the Strategy, in so far as they are matters on which the Mayor can issue
guidance and directions under Section 196 of the GLA Act, are guidance for the purposes of that section. The Mayor, through
Transport for London, will work with the SRA to ensure that the development and operation of National Rail services in London
support implementation of the Transport Strategy, are co-ordinated with the actions of other implementation agencies, and are
effectively implemented and monitored. Where necessary, the Mayor will also give directions and further guidance to the
Strategic Rail Authority.
5.45 It is imperative that change is customer focused and driven by the right of the travelling public to receive the best
possible service. Continuing consultation and clear communication will ensure that the implementation of policies is balanced,
and takes full account of the diverse needs of London, and of business. This will help build shared ownership and commitment to
policies and plans from all those who have a part to play in achieving successful implementation.
5.46 There are many other important partners who need to be engaged in delivering the improvements the Strategy seeks.
Amongst these are the new South East England and East of England Regional Assemblies which cover the areas surrounding
London. It will be important to co-ordinate London’s planning and transport policies with those of
the Assemblies and their Regional Planning Committees, so that they are mutually supportive. A pan-regional forum has been set
up between the Mayor and the South East England and the East of England Regional Assemblies, with the aim of promoting
sustainable development in London and the wider south east region and facilitating working in partnership. A significant issue for
this forum is ensuring that the approach to spatial development and parking standards in the surrounding counties and outer
London are complementary.
5.47 To shape plans and co-ordinate implementation of initiatives on freight and servicing issues, the Strategy proposes
creation of new joint mechanisms (a London Sustainable Distribution Partnership and local Freight Quality Partnerships – see
chapter 4K – freight, delivery and servicing). These will provide an opportunity for TfL, the freight industry, the boroughs, the
London Development Agency and other interested parties to debate and resolve transport issues for freight; develop the research
and analysis base to underpin policy development; and co-ordinate the plans and actions of those involved. There is also the
opportunity to build on existing partnerships such as with the Energy Savings Trust who help fund the introduction of cleaner
5.48 The delivery of the major programme of investment needed to rehabilitate the Underground and other major capital
projects to time and budget is a major challenge that will require the close involvement of many partners. It will require a culture
change, leading to much greater management efficiency. Figure 4Q.2 in chapter 4Q – expanding London’s transport system:
major projects, sets out currently projected completion dates for major capital projects. A key issue that the new TfL management
is addressing is the balance between the priority of renewing the existing system, and taking forward the construction of new
lines to provide vital future capacity.
5.49 As discussed earlier in this chapter, the speed at which the Strategy can be implemented will depend greatly on the
availability of adequate funding in future years. It will also depend on what happens to other major income and expenditure
streams, such as from fares revenue and the proposed central London congestion charging scheme. In light of these uncertainties,
a ‘monitor and manage’ approach is needed; and information on latest plans for implementation of the Strategy needs to be
brought together and made available on a regular basis.
Proposal 5.4 Transport for London will draw together a summary annual strategic assessment for transport in London. This will
set out projected income, expenditure, investment and key outputs, by summarising the plans of Transport for London, the
London boroughs, the Strategic Rail Authority, Railtrack and the Train Operating Companies.
5.50 Another major potential constraint on delivery of the Strategy is likely to be availability of appropriately skilled staff.
Both management and staff must focus on the needs of travellers. Key factors in achieving this will be strong, world class
management being brought into TfL, and improving staff motivation. The creation of a customer driven culture is central to
overall delivery of the Strategy.
5.51 There are also some more specific staff skills issues that need to be addressed. Three particular examples are:
a shortage of bus drivers, which is affecting bus reliability;
supervisors and managers to help deliver reliable bus services – there are too few, and their training needs to be improved;
more traffic engineers and transport planners are needed to plan and implement traffic and transport measures – boroughs
have expressed particular concerns about the availability of such staff.
It is important to identify other emerging potential skill shortages and plan to overcome or minimise these. A comprehensive
approach is therefore needed.
Proposal 5.5 Transport for London (TfL) will lead an audit of the Transport Strategy’s requirements for staff with particular
skills, set against the skills of the staff in the main implementation agencies and their contractors. TfL will draw up an action plan
by mid 2002 with relevant partners to address skills shortages identified in this audit. Where the nature of specific skills shortages
and potential solutions are already clear, TfL will work with relevant partners, in particular the London boroughs, to achieve
Performance indicators for the Strategy
5.52 The Strategy gives a clear direction for improving transport in London. It will be essential to monitor trends and
progress, and respond to opportunities and challenges as they arise.
5.53 There will be high level Transport Strategy performance indicators that will be published, monitored, and used to
assess progress, and applied to help identify when intervention is required. The indicators will fit within a context of a wider set
of performance indicators developed for the GLA as a whole, which will include overarching measures of quality of life,
sustainable development, and the national framework of Best Value. The indicators will also contribute to the Mayor’s State of
the Environment Report.
5.54 The use of such indicators, and their publication, provides an important mechanism for driving implementation
forward. The indicators will be developed, reviewed and amended or extended over time if experience shows that this will be
The criteria for selecting the proposed Transport Strategy performance indicators include:
relevance to the customer;
relevance to transport aspects of the principal purposes of the GLA, of economic and social development, wealth creation
and environmental improvement;
relevance to the Strategy’s key transport priorities, as set out in chapter 4A – a balanced transport network;
relevance to the requirements of national and local policy;
maintaining a high level focus, with a limited number of indicators to help maintain that focus;
the likely availability and cost of the required data;
that they are actionable, and able to drive change and improvement.
5.56 A high level performance indicator framework for the Strategy is being developed based on the above criteria. It takes
account of performance monitoring issues arising from the Government's 10 Year Plan for Transport. The current framework
may be further refined following consultation with relevant organisations, including the Assembly.
5.57 The framework is structured to help identify progress made towards the key priorities of the Strategy. For each key
Strategy priority, a small number of headline indicators are proposed to help quantify achievement. In addition the issues of
safety and customer satisfaction, which are implicitly reflected across the priorities, are identified separately for monitoring in the
framework. Figure 5.3 summarises the proposed headline Strategy performance indicator framework.
5.58 The Strategy will support the achievement of wider economic, social and environmental goals (see chapter 3 –
objectives and linkages). The performance indicator framework therefore also includes headline indicators measuring how
transport changes will impact upon these wider goals. Figure 5.4 sets out these additional headline indicators. These indicators
will be reviewed and refined, where appropriate,
as other Mayoral Strategies are taken forward.
5.59 The implementation of the full programme proposed in the Strategy, at the pace recommended, will require additional
funding for transport in London beyond that implied in the Government’s 10 Year Plan for Transport. Should restricted funding
slow progress, this will clearly affect the Strategy’s impact on the headline performance indicators.
Proposal 5.6 Transport for London, in consultation with appropriate organisations, will review, develop and implement overall
Transport Strategy performance indicators as a priority, working jointly with the London boroughs and the Strategic Rail
Authority, Railtrack and Train Operating Companies to incorporate information required from them. Results will be made
publicly available. (The aim is to have an initial Strategy performance indicator system
in place by mid 2002.)
figure 5.3 Proposed headline indicators framework for monitoring progress in delivering the Transport Strategy
Headline Strategy Indicators
STRATEGY PRIORITIES Mode shares Reliability / Journey times Satisfaction Safety and security
(see paragraph 4A.6) (passenger and average and across modes surveys (for - accidents by
of TfL and for project
freight) and long waits surveys users, non-users mode, and National Rail delivery*
usage surveys surveys and businesses) levels of crime services provided
(a) Reduce traffic congestion 3 3 3
(b) Underground service quality 3 3 3
(c) Bus service quality 3 3 3
(d) National Rail capacity and 3 3 3 3
(e) Expanding transport system 3 3
through major projects
(f) Improving journey time for car 3
users which will particularly
benefit outer London
(g) Local transport initiatives 3 3
(h) Improving distribution of 3 3 3
goods and services
(i) Accessibility 3 3
(j) Integration 3 3
Safety and Security across 3
all means of transport
Customer satisfaction 3
= primary indicator for tracking progress on Strategy priority.
Milestones will generally be determined through development of the TfL Business Plan, London Rail Plan and borough Local
Customer satisfaction and safety and security are implicit across the Strategy priorities but are highlighted separately here as
particularly important for monitoring.
figure 5.4 Headline indicators for monitoring progress
in delivering the wider Transport Strategy objectives
STRATEGY OBJECTIVES Headline Indicators
A prosperous city Public transport reliability and capacity – measured by indicators in figure 5.3.
A city for people Progress on relevant local transport improvements – measured by indicators
in figure 5.3.
An accessible city Transport system quality – measured by indicators in figure 5.3.
Public transport access to town centres – population within relevant travel time
bands of town centre by public transport.
A fair city Measure population and jobs within relevant travel time bands of priority economic development, housing
and regeneration areas by public transport.
Proportion of priority community regeneration areas within travel time bands
by public transport of one of London’s major town centres.
A green city Safety – measured by indicators shown in figure 5.3.
Health – mode share of walking and cycling, measured by indicators shown in figure 5.3.
• Emissions – total vehicle emissions in London, including greenhouse gases,
split by vehicle type.
• Noise – number/proportion of properties by levels of exposure to road traffic noise.
5.60 In addition, TfL will monitor a wider range of operational performance indicators for the various means of travel in
London. This will be required as part of the Best Value and business planning processes. Some of this information will also be
valuable in tracking progress towards implementing the Strategy’s proposals. As with the headline Strategy performance
indicators, these operational performance indicators are subject to review, development, refinement or amendment over time.
Proposed TfL operational performance indicators that could be of particular interest for assessing progress on aspects of
delivering the Strategy include:
transport asset performance measures, which track changes in the reliability and quality of transport services as affected by
asset failures; this could cover the overall condition of TfL and borough highways (including infrastructure for cyclists and
pedestrians); and the reliability of buses, and Underground and National Rail infrastructure;
possible indicators of frequency and extent of disruption to service for travellers, both on public transport and on streets (for
example through unco-ordinated streetworks);
indicators of reliability, crowding and journey speed on bus, Underground and National Rail services segmented by broad
geographical area, where practical;
indicators of road traffic levels and road traffic congestion segmented by broad geographical area and broad time of day,
5.61 There will also be more detailed monitoring requirements that will need to be addressed, in particular:
for monitoring boroughs’ transport activities and especially progress towards delivering outputs from Local Implementation
Plans and from transport grant from TfL to the boroughs. These requirements will be developed by TfL working with the
boroughs and will be set out in guidance to the boroughs and kept under review;
to assist Government in assessing progress towards delivering the national 10 Year Plan for Transport.
5.62 A closely related monitoring issue is air quality measurement, which is principally a matter for the Mayor’s Air Quality
Strategy and for the boroughs, but is strongly influenced by transport. Road traffic, railways and aircraft are also major sources of
noise, and the Mayor’s Ambient Noise Strategy will set out monitoring mechanisms for ambient noise.
5.63 Alongside the programme milestones summarised in figure 5.1, a number of targets are included within the Strategy. In
particular, the Strategy includes targets to increase Underground reliability (see chapter 4C – London Underground) and for
traffic reduction (see chapter 4G – streets for all: improving London’s roads and streets). Additional targets will be set as
appropriate for the various implementation agencies. These will be determined in the light of the TfL business planning process,
consultation with the boroughs on the implications for their Local Implementation Plans, and work to develop the Rail Plan for
London with the SRA. The GLA Act provides the powers to set additional targets relating to the implementation of the Strategy
as appropriate (see Section 41 (a)).
Proposal 5.7 The Mayor will set additional targets for implementation of the Transport Strategy as appropriate.
5.64 The Strategy is the first step in building a common vision and commitment to transforming transport in London. It
provides a focus for implementation organisations – particularly TfL, the boroughs and National Rail partners – on delivering the
Mayor’s key priorities for transport. Development of the Strategy has benefited enormously from the engagement of the
Assembly and functional bodies, the public, and many stakeholders. The focus now moves to implementation and action, with
wider engagement remaining essential to successful delivery.
5.65 As set out within this chapter, regular reviews of progress in implementing the Strategy in light of the resources
available for its implementation will be carried out, with publicly available reporting
in order to maximise transparency and accountability.
5.66 London’s new democratic government and the role of the executive Mayor provides the leadership needed to transform
the Capital’s currently inadequate transport system into a world class system. This is needed to sustain and carry London forward
as a great world city. The Mayor will use his democratic mandate to drive forward implementation
of the Strategy to achieve the tangible results that London requires
figure 5.1 Outline timetable for selected proposed Transport Strategy enhancements
several pages of charts to enter here
1 Department of Environment, Transport and the Regions, Transport 2010: The 10 Year Plan, 2000
2 Corporation of London, London’s contribution to the UK economy, Annual Report 2000
3 GLA/MORI, Report on public consultation on the Mayor’s Transport Strategy: Draft for Public Consultation, 2001