148 Construction Materials by HC120727213242


									                     Metals are versatile housing materials because they can
                    be shaped in so many ways. They are available in a variety
                      of natural colors or can be coated for a wider array of
                        colors and for added protection. Metals are strong,
                     decorative, and good conductors of heat and electricity.

  CAST IRON is made of
 iron and carbon, melted
in a furnace and cast into
   shapes such as wood
      burning stoves,
 bathtubs, sinks, skillets,
    sewer lines, waste
 disposal systems, lawn
 furniture and gas pipes.                              BRONZE is an alloy of
                                                      copper and tin, forming
                                WROUGHT IRON is          a strong, beautiful,
                              nearly pure iron used     stately material that
                               for ornamental lawn    weathers well. It is used
                                furniture, lighting   for thresholds, screws,
                              fixtures, fences, and   plumbing supplies, and
                                 staircase/porch          decorative pieces
                                     railings.          including sculpture.
                                        BRASS is an alloy of copper and
                                          zinc, ranging in color from a
                                        coppery red to silvery white. Tin
                                        can be added or it can be coated
                                          with clear enamel to prevent
                                            tarnishing. Ir can be cast,
                                         hammered, stamped, rolled, or
                                         drawn into bolts, screws, pipe
                                          fittings, wire, furniture, and
                                                decorative pieces.
 ALUMINUM is lightweight, highly
resistant to corrosion, an excellent                   COPPER is most
   conductor of electricity, a good             important for it’s electrical
  reflector of light and heat, easily           and heat conductivity, and
   formed into many shapes, and                   resistance to corrosion.
     receptive to many finishes.                   Exposed to moist air, it
 Aluminum can be “extruded” into                   becomes coated with a
window and door frames, railings,                     thin layer of green
and hardware. It can also be “cast”              carbonate that protects it
   into lamp bases, plant stands,                from further corrosion. It
    cookware, and grills. It can be                 is used in wiring and
      “rolled” into range hoods,                      roofing materials,
 awnings, garage doors, appliance                  cookware, lamps, and
        panels, and ductwork.                         decorative pieces.
                         LEAD is a heavy but
                             workable metal
STAINLESS STEEL is             resistant to
 steel with chromium      corrosion. It is used
added, making it hard      under showers and
     and corrosion         as liners for pools,
resistant over a wide        and in drainage
temperature range. It    pipes. It expands and
  is used for gutters,   contracts in different
downspouts, cooking       temperatures, and it
 and eating utensils,        can cause lead
   appliances, sinks,    poisoning… limiting
   countertops, and         many household
     even furniture.        applications. It is
                             used in leaded
                            window designs.
                        Glass is the only housing construction material that
                       allows the passage of light and permits a clear view.
                            It does not conduct electricity and is almost
                                   completely corrosion resistant.
  The “tensile strength” of glass
refers to the amount of force that
   glass can withstand without
breaking. Tensile strength can be
      increased by increasing
 thickness or by applying certain
    production techniques. It is
     decreased by scratches,
     imperfections, and rapid
       temperature changes.

                                        Float glass is a flat glass, less
                                      expensive and better quality than
                                        sheet glass or plate glass. It is
                                       distortion-free, can be made in
                                     various strengths and thicknesses,
                                      and in very large sheets. It can be
                                     tinted to reduce heat transmission
                                                  and glare.
                        Hand blown
                          glass is
                      expensive but
                      beautiful. It is
                      used primarily
                       for art pieces,
                      vases, and fine
                                           Stained glass refers to glass
                                           colored by pigments or metal
                                              oxides fused to glass.
  Types of decorative
      glass include
patterned, etched, cut,
      or enameled.
Patterned safety glass
 is often used for tub
or shower enclosures.
  Cut glass sparkles.
Etched glass appears
   frosted. Enameled                      Crystal is perfectly clear glass.
glass has color added                    Lead crystal contains lead oxide,
     to it’s surface.                      giving it clarity and sparkle.
                                      Clay is easily shaped, but firing that clay at
                                       high temperatures preserves the shape,
                                          color, and texture. After firing, this
                                      “ceramic” also becomes resistant to heat,
                                       cold, moisture, acids, and salts. It can be
                                     glazed, colored, and textured for decoration.
                                      Glazing increases it’s strength and seals it
                                                 to make it waterproof.

                                                                 Roofing tile is
                                                                 expensive and
                                                                  more porous
                                                                   than other
  Mosaic tile is
                       Glazed tile
made of porcelain
 or natural clay;
 smaller in size,       Quarry tile or
 smoother, and         pavers are the
brighter in color.   strongest ceramic
    Pottery refers to ceramic      Earthenware products are casual,
  objects such as dinnerware,         porous, fragile, and opaque.
 cookware, and vases. There are   Generally red or brown, it is used for
          three types…            flower pots, casual dinnerware, and
                                              folk pottery.

Stoneware is made of
    finer clay than                           Porcelain is fired at very
 earthenware, usually                          high temperatures to a
light brown or gray in                      white, finely textured finish.
   color. It is fired at                     It is completely “vitrified”
 higher temperatures,                       (made into glass) and very
 making it waterproof                           hard. It has a delicate
    and durable. It                           appearance, and is used
accepts subtle colors                        for fine dinnerware or for
  with a matte finish.                           sinks and bathtubs.
Plastics are usually reasonable in cost, moisture
 and corrosion resistant, lightweight, tough, and
easily molded into complex shapes. Plastics are
replacing many natural building materials due to
         low maintenance requirements.
                          Wood is a hard, fibrous substance that forms
                            the trunk, stems, and branches of trees. It
                           can be processed to make lumber, plywood,
                          or other wood products used in construction.

     Wood can be generally
classified as either a hardwood
 or a softwood. Softwoods are
 strong and resilient, but they
 do not accept finishes as well
 as most hardwoods. They are
    most commonly used in
  construction. Examples are
  cedar, cypress, fir, pine, and

 Hardwoods tend to be more expensive than softwoods. They resist denting
     and scratching better and their surfaces yield smooth finishes with
 attractive grain patterns. Hardwoods are most often used for flooring and
  furniture. Examples are ash, beech, birch, cherry, elm, mahogany, maple,
                           oak, poplar, and walnut.
   LUMBER is wood sawed from logs
     into boards of various sizes.

                                               MILLWORK is processed lumber,
                                                such as doors, window frames,
  TIMBER is lumber that is 5” or larger         shutters, trim, panel work, and
   in width and thickness, and is used                      molding.
   mainly for support posts or beams.
    LAMINATED TIMBER is layers of
 wood glued together with all the grain
   running in one direction…simply
    making thicker pieces of timber.

 PLYWOOD is made from thin sheets of wood called veneers or plies. They are
glued together to form a panel, with the grain of one ply running at right angles
to the grain of the next ply to give it strength and prevent warping or splitting.
 The outer plies might be fine, attractive veneers if used in furniture, or rough
                        layers if used in floors and walls.
HARDBOARD is a type of composite board
  made from refined wood fibers that are
pressed together. One or both sides may be
 PARTICLE BOARD is a type of composite
 board made from wood flakes, chips, and
  shavings that are bonded together with
                                        BLEACHES remove the natural color of
                                        the wood to give it a pale or weathered
                                 FILLERS are often applied to wood such as
 VARNISHES are used as top
                                 oak, walnut, and mahogany that have “open
  coats, emphasizing wood
                                  grain”. By filling the pores of the grain, the
  grain and deepening wood
                                finished surface will be smooth with an even
SHELLAC is a type of vanish
designed to seal wood under STAINS add color to wood              OIL penetrates
        a final top coat.      without masking grain            wood to highlight
  LACQUER is a durable top     patterns. They are oil-,       the grain, darken the
   coat, producing a glossy   alcohol-, or water-based.        wood, and produce
             finish.                                               a soft luster.
  POLYURETHANE is a clear
   finish that dries quickly,
  wears well, and has a high
   resistance to chemicals,                                       WAX is used over
   alcohol, and grease. It is                                     other surfaces to
   popular for wood floors.                                      produce a smooth
EPOXY RESIN is an excellent                                      luster, but must be
    floor and exterior finish                                         renewed
      because of durability.                                         frequently.
                             Masonry materials are versatile, durable, and
                             beautiful. They are more expensive than wood
                                products, but require less maintenance.

 BRICK is fireproof, weather-resistant,
 and easy to maintain. It is popular for
fireplaces, chimneys, walls, and floors.

Bricks come in a variety of colors and sizes. Colors vary with
 the chemical make up of the clay used to make them and the
    time and temperature used to fire them. Mortar is used
between the bricks to bond them together and seal the spaces
                       between them.
   Glass blocks are hollow units of clear,
 rippled, or frosted glass. Some of the air
has been removed from the hollow core to
     prevent condensation and improve
   insulation value. They give privacy but
                 allow light.
                      Stone is difficult to work with in building, so is labor
                         intensive and therefore expensive. It has varied
                        colors and textures to provide visual interest. It is
                     fireproof and resistant to decay, and gives a feeling of
      Types of natural stone         permanence and stability.
    include granite (hard and
  durable), sandstone (porous
 and prone to dampness, with
     poor insulation value) ,
limestone (weathers rapidly in
     humid climates), marble
 (expensive and luxurious but
not as durable as granite), and
  slate (hard and brittle, made
    from compressed clay or
  shale). Manufactured stone
     (made from lightweight
   concrete or fiberglass) and
    terrazzo (durable material
     made from marble chips
bonded together with cement)
     are stone-like materials.
   Concrete is used for foundations, exterior
    walls, floors, walks, and driveways. It is
economical, tough, weather resistant, and long
  lasting. It can be colored, have an exposed
aggregate (pebbles in it show up), be textured,
     or be scored into geometric patterns.
  Carpets, rugs, upholstery, and curtains are common
textile products used throughout the home to add color,
                   texture, and comfort.
   Fibers are the basic element of all fabrics, and are
   combined to form a yarn that is woven, knitted, or
fastened together. Fibers are either natural or manmade
                 from chemical sources.

                                                     MANUFACTURED FIBERS
                                                   These fibers are derived from
                                                    substances found in nature
                                                       such as wood pulp or
                                                  petroleum. They are chemically
              NATURAL FIBERS                          engineered into fibers.
  Cotton and flax are from plant sources; silk     Examples are acetate, rayon,
 from silkworms, wool from sheep, and some           triacetate, acrylic, glass,
specialty hair fibers are from protein sources,        metallic, nylon, olefin,
    and asbestos is from a mineral source            polyester, rubber, saran,
                                                       spandex, and vinyon.
                                                 Several fibers twisted together
                                               are called a “yarn”. That yarn will
                                                eventually be woven, knitted, or
  The size and texture of a yarn depends          fastened together to create a
   on the types of fibers from which it is                   fabric.
  made, how tightly the fibers are twisted
    together, and the number of plies or
               strands it has.
  Cotton: absorbent, shrinks in hot water,
  easy to dye, highly flammable; used for
    sheets, towels, bedspreads, kitchen
               curtains, rugs
Silk: lustrous, expensive, yellows with age,
water spots; used for draperies, upholstery,
       lampshades, and wall hangings
  Flax or Linen: strong, lint free, durable;
  used for tablecloths, draperies, kitchen
 Wool: warm, absorbent, wrinkle resistant,
  low flammability, expensive; used for
    blankets, carpets, upholstery, rugs
                                          Acetate: easy to dye, drapes well, soft
                                          and luxurious, nonabsorbent; used for
                                              bedspreads, draperies, fiberfill
                                         Acrylic: resembles wool, soft and warm,
                                           colorfast, generates static electricity,
                                         resists mildew, moths, mildew, and sun
                                          damage; used for blankets, carpeting,
                                               upholstery, draperies, fiberfill
                                           Glass: fiberglass is strong and heavy,
                                         resists heat, flames, and most chemicals;
                                             used for draperies and insulation
                                           Metallic: colorfast, durable, resists
 Polyester: colorfast, easy to dye,
                                          moths, mildew, and shrinking; used for
  retains shape, resists wrinkles,
                                            draperies, slipcovers, tablecloths
generates static, subject to pilling;
    used for awnings, blankets,          Nylon: very strong and durable, lustrous,
carpets, draperies, fiberfill, sheets,   lightweight, drapes well, generates static;
            tablecloths                     used for upholstery, outdoor furniture
                                                  covers, draperies, carpet
Rayon: resembles cotton, drapes
well, wrinkles, highly flammable;         Olefin: quick drying, resists abrasion,
   used for sheets, curtains,             chemicals, moths, and shrinking; used
           upholstery                       for awnings, carpeting, doormats
                    Fabrics with a
                  “twill weave” have
                   diagonal lines or
                  wales. They form
                    a strong fabric
                      that resists
                     wrinkles and
                  hides soil. (denim
                                     A “plain weave” is a simple over and
                    and gabardine)
                                        under weave, forming a strong,
                                     durable fabric. (percale, broadcloth)
    A “satin
                                   A “jacquard
                                    weave” is
  produces a
  smooth and
                                   by intricate
lustrous fabric
   that lacks
 durability and
                                  brocade, and
 snags easily.
Fabric with a “leno weave” is   “Knitted” fabrics are made by
  mesh-like, such as some        interlocking yarns. Though
   blankets and curtains.           not common in home
                                furnishings, knits are used in
                                 some bedding and curtains.
                                                                    “Foam” is the
                                                                       result of
                                                                  incorporating air
                                                                   into a rubber or
                                                                   substance; it’s
                                                                  used for pillows,
   “Tufting” is a construction method, primarily used to
                                                                 cushions, furniture
     make carpet. Tufting machines loop yarns into a
                                                                    padding, and
    backing material. This is usually followed by a latex
                                                                   carpet backing.
             coating to hold the yarns in place.
                                         “Felt” is a fabric made directly from wool
                                         fibers, in a process using heat, moisture,
                                          and pressure to permanently press and
                                           interlock the fibers together. It is used
                                         for sound-proofing, insulation, padding,
                                                    and decorative items.

  “Non-woven” fabrics are made by
  bonding non-wool fibers to make
   goods such as mattress pads,
backing for furniture and box springs.

                                 “Leather” has no fibers, but is used as a fabric.
                                   Manufactured from animal hides, leather is
                                   expensive, beautiful, durable, and moisture
 Color can be added to textiles in
   several different ways. “Yarn
 dyeing” colors the fibers or yarn
 prior to fabric production. “Piece
dyeing” colors the entire piece of
     fabric after it is made, and
“printing” applies a design to pre-
            made fabric.

Fabrics may receive one or more finishes after construction to add desirable
qualities: antistatic (reduces buildup of static electricity), beetling (improves
luster and absorbency on linen), bleaching (whitens natural fibers),
calendering (produces a smooth polished surface), crease-resistance (resists
wrinkling), flame-retardant (reduces chance of burning), fulling (improves the
appearance of wool), mercerization (improves luster and strength), moth-
repellent (repels moths from wool), mildew-resistant (prevents mildew),
napping (pulls up fiber ends such as in velvet), preshrunk (shrinks the fabric
before sale to the consumer), sanforized (reduces shrinkage), Scotchguard
(resists water and oil stains), soil resistant (makes fabric less absorbent),
water repellent (coats fabrics with wax, metals, or resins to resist water).

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