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					                                         Hydrogen Bonding

   • Intermolecular forces
     of attraction between                                                 Intermolecular
                                                                           forces
     molecules
          (hydrogen bonds)                                             H


                                                               Bonds       O     H
   • Bonds exist within
     molecules
                                                                       H              O
        (covalent bonds)
                                                                                 H      Bonds


Zumdahl, Zumdahl, DeCoste, World of Chemistry 2002, page 442
                                   Interaction of Dipoles

          • (a) Interaction of two                              -   +                   -       +
                polar molecules.
                                                                                            -
                                                                                                +
                                                                            +
                                                                -               -
                                                                                        +
                                                                                                        -
          • (b) interaction of many                            +
                                                                        -
                                                                                +       -           +
                 dipoles in a liquid
                                                                                    -
                                                                    +                   +
                                                                -

                                                               Attraction
                                                               Repulsion
Zumdahl, Zumdahl, DeCoste, World of Chemistry 2002, page 442
                                  Polar Water Molecule


                                                                   H
                                                                     d+


                                                    2d -       O

                                                                   H
                                                                       d+

Zumdahl, Zumdahl, DeCoste, World of Chemistry 2002, page 443
Hydrogen Bonding among water Molecules
                    Hydrogen Bonding among water Molecules




Zumdahl, Zumdahl, DeCoste, World of Chemistry 2002, page 443
     H                                                                                           He
 1
     1                                                                                            2
     Li   Be                                                 B    C               N    O    F    Ne
 2
      3  4                                                   5    6               7    8    9    10

 3
     Na Mg

     11   12
          Ca Sc     Ti   V    Cr Mn Fe Co     Ni
                                                             Al   Si

                                                         13 14 15 16
                                                   Cu Zn Ga Ge As Se
                                                                                  P    S    Cl

                                                                                            17
                                                                                            Br
                                                                                                 Ar

                                                                                                 18
                                                                                                 Kr
                                                                                                          Boiling Points
     K
 4


 5
     19 20
     Rb Sr
               21
               Y
                    22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34
                    Zr Nb Mo Tc Ru Rh Pd Ag Cd In Sn Sb Te
                                                                                            35
                                                                                             I
                                                                                                 36
                                                                                                 Xe   of Covalent Hydrides
     37 38     39   40   41   42   43 44 45   46 47 48 49 50                    51 52       53 54
     Cs Ba          Hf   Ta   W    Re Os Ir   Pt Au Hg Tl Pb                    Bi Po       At Rn
 6             *
     55   56        72 73 74 75 76 77         78   79   80   81   82            83     84   85   86
     Fr   Ra        Rf Db Sg Bh Hs Mt                                                                  H 2O
 7             W
     87   88        104 105 106 107 108 109
                                                                                           100

               Hydrogen Bonding                                   Boiling point (oC)
                                                                                                                          H2Te
                                                                                                 0

                                                                                                                        H2Se
                                                                                                              H 2S
                                                                                       -100


                                                                                       -200
                                                                                                         2       3       4       5
Zumdahl, Zumdahl, DeCoste, World of Chemistry 2002, page 443
                                                                                                          Period of X (H2X)
Boiling Points of Covalent Hydrides

                             H 2O
                      100
 Boiling point (oC)




                        0
                                                               H2Te
                                                   H2Se
                                    H 2S                      SnH4
                      -100
                                                   GeH4
                                    SiH4
                      -200 CH4
                                           50           100           150
                                            Molecular mass
             Heating / Cooling Curve of Water




Zumdahl, Zumdahl, DeCoste, World of Chemistry 2002, page 445
                 Water
              Molecules in
               Liquid and
                 Steam




Zumdahl, Zumdahl, DeCoste, World of Chemistry 2002, page 446
                    Microscopic view of a liquid
                         near its surface




Zumdahl, Zumdahl, DeCoste, World of Chemistry 2002, page 449
                          Behavior of a liquid in a closed
                                    container




Zumdahl, Zumdahl, DeCoste, World of Chemistry 2002, page 450
Water rapidly boiling on a stove
              Formation of a bubble is opposed by
                the pressure of the atmosphere




Zumdahl, Zumdahl, DeCoste, World of Chemistry 2002, page 452
                Boiling Points of Covalent Hydrides

                                                                      H 2O
                                                               100
                                          Boiling point (oC)



                                                                                         H2Te
                                                                 0

                                                                                       H2Se
                                                                             H 2S
                                                               -100


                                                               -200
                                                                        2       3       4       5
                                                                         Period of X (H2X)
Zumdahl, Zumdahl, DeCoste, World of Chemistry 2002, page 443
     H                                                                                           He
 1
     1                                                                                            2
     Li   Be                                                 B    C               N    O    F    Ne
 2
      3  4                                                   5    6               7    8    9    10

 3
     Na Mg

     11   12
          Ca Sc     Ti   V    Cr Mn Fe Co     Ni
                                                             Al   Si

                                                         13 14 15 16
                                                   Cu Zn Ga Ge As Se
                                                                                  P    S    Cl

                                                                                            17
                                                                                            Br
                                                                                                 Ar

                                                                                                 18
                                                                                                 Kr
                                                                                                          Boiling Points
     K
 4


 5
     19 20
     Rb Sr
               21
               Y
                    22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34
                    Zr Nb Mo Tc Ru Rh Pd Ag Cd In Sn Sb Te
                                                                                            35
                                                                                             I
                                                                                                 36
                                                                                                 Xe   of Covalent Hydrides
     37 38     39   40   41   42   43 44 45   46 47 48 49 50                    51 52       53 54
     Cs Ba          Hf   Ta   W    Re Os Ir   Pt Au Hg Tl Pb                    Bi Po       At Rn
 6             *
     55   56        72 73 74 75 76 77         78   79   80   81   82            83     84   85   86
     Fr   Ra        Rf Db Sg Bh Hs Mt                                                                  H 2O
 7             W
     87   88        104 105 106 107 108 109
                                                                                           100

                                                                  Boiling point (oC)
                                                                                                                          H2Te
                                                                                                 0

                                                                                                                        H2Se
                                                                                                              H 2S
                                                                                       -100


                                                                                       -200
                                                                                                         2       3       4       5
Zumdahl, Zumdahl, DeCoste, World of Chemistry 2002, page 443
                                                                                                          Period of X (H2X)
     H                                                                                           He
 1
     1                                                                                            2
     Li   Be                                                 B    C               N    O    F    Ne
 2
      3  4                                                   5    6               7    8    9    10

 3
     Na Mg

     11   12
          Ca Sc     Ti   V    Cr Mn Fe Co     Ni
                                                             Al   Si

                                                         13 14 15 16
                                                   Cu Zn Ga Ge As Se
                                                                                  P    S    Cl

                                                                                            17
                                                                                            Br
                                                                                                 Ar

                                                                                                 18
                                                                                                 Kr
                                                                                                          Boiling Points
     K
 4


 5
     19 20
     Rb Sr
               21
               Y
                    22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34
                    Zr Nb Mo Tc Ru Rh Pd Ag Cd In Sn Sb Te
                                                                                            35
                                                                                             I
                                                                                                 36
                                                                                                 Xe   of Covalent Hydrides
     37 38     39   40   41   42   43 44 45   46 47 48 49 50                    51 52       53 54
     Cs Ba          Hf   Ta   W    Re Os Ir   Pt Au Hg Tl Pb                    Bi Po       At Rn
 6             *
     55   56        72 73 74 75 76 77         78   79   80   81   82            83     84   85   86
     Fr   Ra        Rf Db Sg Bh Hs Mt                                                                  H 2O
 7             W
     87   88        104 105 106 107 108 109
                                                                                           100

               Hydrogen Bonding                                   Boiling point (oC)
                                                                                                                          H2Te
                                                                                                 0

                                                                                                                        H2Se
                                                                                                              H 2S
                                                                                       -100


                                                                                       -200
                                                                                                         2       3       4       5
Zumdahl, Zumdahl, DeCoste, World of Chemistry 2002, page 443
                                                                                                          Period of X (H2X)
Boiling Points of Covalent Hydrides

                             H 2O
                      100
 Boiling point (oC)




                        0
                                                               H2Te
                                                   H2Se
                                    H 2S                      SnH4
                      -100
                                                   GeH4
                                    SiH4
                      -200 CH4
                                           50           100           150
                                            Molecular mass
  Group16 Hydrogen Compounds
                         Melting      Boiling      H fusion     H vapor
Compound   Molar Mass
                        Point (oC)   Point (oC)   (cal/mol)   (cal/mol)


 H2O          18          0.0        100.0        1440        9720

  H2S         34         -85.5        -60.7        568        4450

 H2Se         81         -60.4        -41.5        899        4620

 H2Te        130         -48.9         -2.2       1670        5570
                                                 Ethanol is Polar

                                                               d-
                                                                             H
                                               H
                                                                   O         d+
                                                                           Polar bond

                                     H              C          C       H


                                               H                   H
Zumdahl, Zumdahl, DeCoste, World of Chemistry 2002, page 469
                  Ethanol and Water are Soluble

                                                                                   H

                                                                     H       O
                           H                                   O
                                                                                   H

                   H           C                               C H
                                                                         ‘Like dissolves like’
                           H                                    H
Zumdahl, Zumdahl, DeCoste, World of Chemistry 2002, page 469
                                   Molecular Structure of Ice




                                                               Hydrogen
                                                               bonding




Zumdahl, Zumdahl, DeCoste, World of Chemistry 2002, page 455
                           Sodium Chloride Crystal




                                                               = Cl-

                                                               = Na+
Zumdahl, Zumdahl, DeCoste, World of Chemistry 2002, page 455
                                    Packing of NaCl Ions




                                                           = Cl1-   = Na1+
Zumdahl, Zumdahl, DeCoste, World of Chemistry 2002, page 456
Packing of NaCl Ions




     Electron Microscope
     Photograph of NaCl
Dissolving of Salt in Water

      Na+
      ions                   Water molecules




                       Cl-
                      ions




   NaCl(s) + H2O  Na+(aq) + Cl-(aq)
                                              Dissolving of NaCl
                                                           H         H

                                                               O

                                                               Na+

                                       +                                     +
                                              +
                                                         hydrated ions
                         -      +        -                               +   -
                          +      -                                       -
                                                               Cl-




Timberlake, Chemistry 7th Edition, page 287
An alloy is a homogeneous mixture of metals.

• Brass = Copper + Zinc
   • Solid brass
      • homogeneous mixture   Solid Brass




     Copper

     Zinc
• Brass = Copper + Zinc
   • Brass plated
      • heterogeneous mixture   Brass Plated
      • Only brass on outside




     Copper

     Zinc
Hardened Steel




     Steel       Iron
                 Carbon
                            Gold
       Gold
       Copper
       Silver



24 karat gold         18 karat gold         14 karat gold




24/        atoms Au   18/        atoms Au   14/        atoms Au
      24                    24                    24
                                       Precipitation Reaction Between
                                       AgNO3 and KCl

AgCl                                    AgNO3(aq) + KCl(aq)           unknown white solid


                                        Ag+ + NO3- + K+ + Cl-              unknown white solid

                                           in silver   in potassium
                         Ag+     Cl-        nitrate       chloride
   K+         NO3-                         solution       solution
        Cl-
                     ?         K+
          +              Cl-
   NO3- Ag                             Ag+ + NO3- + K+ + Cl-              Ag+ + Cl- + K+ + NO3-
                               NO3-
  Ag+          Cl-
        K+                      Ag+                                         product         product

                                          AgNO3(aq) + KCl(aq)            AgCl(s) + KNO3(aq)

         AgCl precipitate
   AgNO3(aq) + KCl(aq)  KNO3 (aq) + AgCl(s)
                         Formation of a solid AgCl




                      AgNO3(aq) + KCl(aq)  KNO3 (aq) + AgCl(s)
Zumdahl, Zumdahl, DeCoste, World of Chemistry 2002, page 220

				
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