Study Guide for Exam I of Fundamentals of Materials Science by P068jl

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									    Study Guide for Exam I of Fundamentals of Materials Science

The exam will include Chapter 1 through Chapter 3 (page 1 ~ page 75) of Callister’s
textbook Fundamentals of Materials Science and Engineering. The exam will be
conducted in English and is a close-book exam. Scientific calculator is allowed and
equation sheet will be provided if needed. Pens, rulers, calculators, and erasers, etc.,
are not allowed to be borrowed from other people. No extra paper are needed during
the exam unless is provided by the personnel who proctor the exam. Electronic
dictionaries and similar products that provide translation functions are not allowed in
the exam. Please bring your student ID or other personal picture ID with you for the
exam.

Exam Time and Place: 9:55-11:30 AM, 3rd Lecture Building, Room 201.
Exam Date: October 15, 2007

The score of Exam I will seriously be part of your final grade of this course. Please
get fully prepared and show your own effort during the exam. Please be advised that
failure to comply with the Student Academic Integrity requirement will result in a
failing grade for the whole course of this semester.

Key points you must know are listed as follows:

First declaration: For almost everything including important concepts, I don’t need
you to remember exact definition written from the textbook. However, if I give you
the explanation of a specific concept, you need to know what concept is that. For
example, I am not going to ask what a crystalline material is, but I may ask you “If the
atoms in some materials are arranged in a repeating periodic manner over a large
atomic distance in three dimensions, what are such materials called?” You should be
able to answer: crystalline materials.

Chapter 1
1. Terms and concepts: Tetrahedron of Materials Science and Engineering
2. The development of materials: from the Stone Age to advanced materials, the
   timeline.
3. What is Materials Science and Engineering? What are the four components of the
   tetrahedron of MSE?
4. You need to be able to distinguish between natural materials and engineered
   materials.
5. Different scales: subatomic, atomic, microscopic, and macroscopic scales. Length
   scale unit conversion. Common sense of some length scale such as human hair,
   interatomic distance, etc.
6. List at least six materials properties such as electrical property, optical property,
   etc, and what do they mean?

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7. For each materials property, I have included some figures in the lecture notes. You
    should be able to explain what can be inferred from reading those figures.
    Examples can be found in Problem 10, Quiz 1.
8. List six different classifications of materials, i.e., types of materials and examples.
9. Cite the distinctive chemical or physical features of each class of materials.
10. Standard materials selection process, i.e., what are the steps? Pick application 
    properties  candidate materials  determine processing.
11. What are the future of Materials Science and Engineering? List several examples
    of future materials to be developed.

Chapter 2
1. Terms and Concepts: see page 27.
2. Understand the basic concepts: charges, masses, atomic weight, atomic mass,
    atomic mass unit, atomic number, mole, Avogadro’s number, the number of atoms
    per cm3, their conversion and some simple calculations.
3. Name the two atomic models, and note the difference between them. What are the
    key assumptions in each model?
4. Know the important concepts associated with the two atomic models, such as
    quantum mechanics, quantum jump, energy level, energy state, finite energy,
    fuzzy orbits, probability density, probability distribution, electron cloud, etc.
5. What do the four quantum numbers mean, i.e., n, l, ml, ms? Where did the four
    quantum numbers come from?
6. What is the Pauli Exclusion Principle?
7. What is the order of the subshell energy state? 1s, 2s, 2p, 3s, …
8. What is the definition of valence electrons?
9. You should be able to write down electron configuration of given elements.
10. Features of the Periodic Table of Elements.
11. Understand the concept of electronegativity and know how electronegativity
    varies with different columns of elements in the periodic table.
12. Schematically plot attractive, repulsive, and net energies versus interatomic
    separation for two atoms; note on this plot the equilibrium separation and the
    bonding energy.
13. What is electron volt? How is it converted to Joules?
14. What are primary bonding types and what are secondary bonding types?
15. How is bonding energy associated with each type of bond?
16. Briefly describe ionic, covalent, metallic, hydrogen, and van der Waals bonds.
    This includes many pages from the lecture notes, so please read carefully and see
    if you understand the content.
17. What materials and materials class exhibit each of the bonding types? Remember
    only the typical ones.
18. What bonds are directional and what are non-directional?
19. What is a polar molecule?
20. What does secondary bond include? What are the features of such secondary
    bonds?

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21. What is hydrogen bond? Give an example.
22. Table 2.3 should be important in terms of typical substances for each different
    bonding type.
23. Relationship between bonding energy and melting temperature, elastic modulus,
    and coefficient of thermal expansion, and why?

Chapter 3
1. Terms and Concepts: see page 67.
2. Understand the basic concepts: crystalline materials, crystal structure, atomic hard
    sphere model, lattice, unit cell, lattice parameter.
3. What is the difference between space lattice and crystal structure?
4. What are the features of difference unit cell types?
5. What are the three typical metallic crystal structures (FCC, BCC, HCP)? How are
    the atoms arranged in the unit cell? Which atoms are in touch with which atoms?
6. What is the definition of coordination number and atomic packing factor?
7. For SC, FCC, BCC, HCP, you need to know the relationship between lattice
    parameter and atomic radius, number of atoms per unit cell, coordination number,
    atomic packing factor, and close-packed direction (both geometrical direction and
    crystallographic direction).
8. Give some examples of metals exhibiting FCC, BCC, and HCP crystal structure.
    Table 3.1.
9. You need to be able to calculate theoretical density of a metal having FCC and
    BCC crystal structures given their unit cell dimensions. The equation will be
    provided if it is used in exam, but you need to know what each symbol means.
10. What are the names and features of the seven crystal systems?
11. How to determine crystallographic directions/planes? How is a crystallographic
    direction/plane described? You need to be able to write down indices for given
    direction vectors/planes, and label the direction vectors/planes for given indices.
12. For direction or plane indices, what do indices with opposite signs mean? (for
    directions, it means opposite directions; but for planes, it means the same plane
    but different faces).
13. What does direction family or plane family mean? How to describe families? You
    need to be able to write down directions or planes that contained in a specific
    family. Know exceptions in a crystallographic family in other crystal systems,
    such as in tetragonal systems.
14. Make sure you know the planes in a crystallographic family have the same atomic
    packing. You should be able to draw such planes in a unit cell. You should also be
    able to draw atomic packing for a given plane using hard sphere model.
15. Crystallographic directions and planes in HCP structure!!! Review the rules!!!
    Equation for 3-index system to 4-index system will be provided in exam.
16. Why some metals exhibit FCC crystal structure while some exhibit HCP crystal
    structure when their APF are all 0.74? What are the stacking sequences for FCC
    and HCP?
17. What are the features of a single crystal? Where are single crystals used?

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18. The concept of grain, crystallization, polycrystalline materials, and grain
    boundary.
19. What are the two steps for crystallization?  Nucleation, growth.
20. The concept of anisotropy, isotropic materials, and texture.
21. What technique is used to determine the crystal structure of a material? What
    equation is this technique based on?
22. Understand the concept of ionic character. What does higher ionic character
    percentage mean?
23. What are the two factors that influence the crystal structure of ceramic materials?
    How do the two factors have effects on the crystal structure?
24. Sketch and describe unit cells for sodium chloride, cesium chloride, zinc blende,
    fluorite, and perovskite crystal structure. Do likewise for the atomic structures of
    graphite and a silica glass.
25. Given the chemical formula for a ceramic compound, the ionic radii of its
    component ions, determine the crystal structure.
26. Density computation for ceramics.
27. Understand the concept of amorphous materials, polymorphism, and allotropy.
28. Understand what tetrahedral and octahedral positions are.


参加考试注意事项:
1. 考试包含第一章到第三章的全部内容。
2. 试卷为英文试卷,采取闭卷考试形式。
3. 考试时请携带学生证或身份证以便监考老师检查。
4. 考试期间请亲自携带可以正常使用至考试全部结束的笔,直尺和计算器等必
   要文具,计算器应当具备能够计算作业中所涉及计算内容的功能。
5. 考试期间不得互相转借计算器,笔,直尺,橡皮等文具。
6. 考试期间不得携带算草纸。考试期间不得携带文曲星等词典类或其他具有翻
   译功能的电子产品。
7. 考试期间请严格遵守考场规定,任何违反学籍管理规定的行为都会对本课程
   的最终成绩以及学籍造成十分不利的影响。

复习注意事项:
1. 本次考试是本门课程期末成绩的一部分,请大家从思想上予以重视,从行动
   上认真对待。
2. 复习以上面列出的知识要点为准,不要死记硬背,要理解知识的内涵,考试
   题目中没有名词解释,没有大段的论述题,因此不需要背诵任何东西。但是
   如果名词解释给出来定义,你应该知道是什么名次和术语。
3. 要认真复习小测验和作业中的题目,考试中很有可能出现类似或甚至相同的
   题目,因为小测验和作业都是知识重点的体现。我们目前完成的六个小测验,
   七次作业完全可以构成一份考试试卷。考试内容不超过复习资料里面的范
   围,但不意味着考试会完全重复作业和小测验里面的原题。希望大家在复习
   的时候要理解知识内容,死记小测验和作业答案对取得好成绩并没有帮助。
4. 希望大家提前复习,每天安排一至两个小时系统复习考试内容,真正把学习

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   材科基作为自己学习生活中的一部分。经验证明,星期一考试如果从周末才
   开始复习时间是不够的。
5. 希望大家都以必得高分为荣,以只想及格为耻;以提早复习为荣,以临阵磨
   枪为耻。
6. 考试前欢迎大家随时到任课教师办公室答疑,我不在的时候可以去材料楼
   335 找杨晓军老师答疑。


祝大家第一次考试取得优异的成绩!




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