Umi Paper makalah jerman by wenY1J0


									                  Quality of Life Migran and Non Migrant:
          Social Conflict Potentials (Cases in Yogyakarta City)? 1)

                                  Umi Listyaningsih 2)


Urbanization is a rational economic decision considering the much better
opportunities and economic facilities that are more promising than those in a
village. For the city development, the arrival of migrants is beneficial seen from
the aspect of the availability of cheap and productive labors. However, migrants
with limited skills will only create new problems in cities. Crimes, the growing
of the slums, and the development of informal sectors will be unavoidable. On
the other hand, there are migrants with good skills that will become hard
competitors of the non-migrants. Economic gap, resources management
injustice, and social jealousy are important factors in triggering social conflicts.
Nevertheless, in Yogyakarta, the miniature of Indonesia, with its various
ethnics and cultures as well as the different live qualities between migrants and
non-migrants, the migrants and non migrants can live side by side and respect
one another. How could this happen?


      City inhabitants in Indonesia develop rapidly. In 1990, the total number
was 31.1 % and in 1995 it was 35.9 % of the total number of Indonesia
inhabitants. In 2003, the total number of city inhabitants reached up to 55.5 %

  Paper presented in Summer School Program of Cologne University Germany,
16-29 October 2005
  Teaching staff of Geography Faculty of Gadjah Mada University Yogyakarta

(BPS, 2004). The development of the city inhabitants relates with the economic
rational as the main consideration to move to another place. The needs to
survive force people to leave their villages to seek for better economic
opportunities. Research finding written in Sinar Harapan in 2004 showed that
the migrants could always get better income in city than in village although in
city they only did least skilled work. Cigar collectors, shoes polisher or paper
collectors earn twice or three times as much as their income in village. The gap
in income leads urbanization as a rational decision. However, it should be noted
that although urbanization is a rational decision for the migrants, it is a big
problem to the city development. Uncontrolled urbanization will eventually
bring bad effect to the city development. Urbanization will create employment
problems either unemployment or half unemployment which will be followed
by the development of informal sector activities. These activities will trigger
the grow of the slums and squatter as the representation of poverty symptoms
since most of the migrants live subsistence.

     One of the effects of the raise of inhabitants is the inability to fulfill the
public service (education, health, social, or religion facilities) of city
inhabitants. Another is the raise of the demand of city needs that are not
appropriate any longer. The rapid raise of inhabitants and the low industrial
employment in cities cause urbanization in Indonesia as ”urbanization without
industrialization”, ”over urbanization”, or ”cities inflation” (Potter and Lloyd-
Evans, 1998; Suharto, 2002). This phenomenon refers to the condition in which
cities develop rapidly but there are no equal available employment
opportunities especially in industrial and service sectors. As a result, the
migrants who left their villages without adequate skills will not get employed in
the modern sector of the cities. Later, they work in cities informal sectors with

low productivity, low wage, bad working condition, and without social

      As a matter of fact, the main problem of internal migrant workers closely
relates with the condition of cities informal sector often referred as
”underground economy”. For instance, those who work as vendors often face
problems of condemnation, low capitals, conflicts with the local inhabitants,
conflicts with others public users (pedestrians, public transportation drivers, car
owners, shop owners) and conflicts with security officers.

      Economic pressure is one of the factors that can change human being
characters. Those having love qualities, rights appreciation and society
responsibilities will lose them; those qualities will be replaced by social norms
breaking. Inhabitants are too concentrated to do economic activities. As a
result, they ignore a lot of social responsibilities resulting in indifferent or even
suspicious. Economic gap is one of the causes of society conflicts. The success
of the migrants because of their hard work is seen as a threat of resources
power. The native inhabitants will be marginalized because of the limited
competence; they are not competitive enough in city life. On the other side, the
failure of the migrants is followed by unemployment and poverty phenomena;
they are the causes of crimes and discomfort of living in cities. Condemnation
with a reason of orderliness is often conducted; it soon becomes a cause of
inhabitants’ conflicts.

      In a competitive economic atmosphere, those who are successful will
regard gap as a usual thing. However, those who are left behind will regard it as
injustice. Economic gap as the cause of the development of social jealousy
between the native inhabitants or non-migrants and the migrants is a time-bomb
which can explode as a conflict at any time. Despite, conflict potentials are also

caused by the culture shock between the native inhabitants and the migrants
who try to maintain their previous culture.

     Exchange ending in Competition

     The arrival of the migrants causes a movement in relation patterns of
migrants and indigene from exchange relation pattern to competitive relation.
This movement happens when area development brings about a gap between
the availability of the employment and job seekers. According to the Census
conducted in 2000, around 93.58% of employment batch in cities have worked
and the rests are categorized as job seekers. Around 45 % of employees in
cities work in informal sectors (BPS, 2001). Is the employed employment
batch able to make ends meet? How is the productivity?

     The arrival of migrants in some economic sectors becomes complement
(causing exchange) because of the rareness of the local employees that are
available for these sectors. However, most of the economic sectors become
competition arena between the local inhabitants and the migrants. In this arena,
the indigene must compete with the migrants to fight for the limited
employment opportunity. In some cases, it can be seen that the migrants have
stronger competitiveness. This condition cannot be separated from their early
will to leave their native place to get a better economic life. Economic pressure
in the native place is a strong motivator to do maximum efforts to get optimal
result. The following is the statement of one of fried noodle migrant sellers in

       I am not ashamed working like this; the most important is that
       it is legal and the villagers (in Purwokerto) do not know what
       my work is. What they know is that I am working and
       whenever I go back I can bring some money to treat my

       friends. To make a comparison, selling fried noodle is better
       than working in a rice field. I do not have to work hard.
     The success of the migrants cannot be separated from the roles of the
previous migrants. There is a convention that the previous migrants are
responsible of the life of the following migrants in the city as long as they have
not been able to be economically independent. The previous migrants should at
least give a place to sleep, food, or employment information. Some migrants
often held apprentice program to the previous migrants work. No wonder it can
be found that migrants have the same work when they have the same origin.
Friendship and local ties will get stronger and even stronger when there are
social activities established by the same migrant from the same origin.

       (I am Salimin from Wonosari). When I first went to Yogya, I
       stayed in mbak Jainem’s house. There were three people at that
       time; I was the only man. My two friends became housemaid. I
       was the only one who continued mbak Jainem’s business of
       selling bakso (meatballs). At first, I helped her to cook or sell
       than I was given a pushcart and its contents to sell bakso
       mobile; mbak Jainem may have seen that I was able to sell on
       my own. Finally, I sold bakso mobile, but because I was tired of
       mobiling I decided to sell bakso permanently. Mbak Jainem said
       up to you and if it is possible the location can be near the
       hospital, my place now. She herself helped me obtain the permit
       and ask permission to other bakso vendors as there are many

     Meanwhile, the non-migrants who have limited skills must be able to start
their own business and show their potentials to the migrants. There is a
tendency that company owner would rather employ the migrants with lower
wage to the non-migrants. Besides, the social cost of the migrants is lower than
the non-migrants that will affect to the working productivity. The following is
the statement of a rumen contractor in Sleman. Most of his employees are from
Bantul and Klaten Central Java.

        Our advantage is that they work more seriously because they are
        away from their family. Besides, when we are on the deadline,
        time is not a problem. Working until night is not a bi deal; it is
        an advantage because they can get overtime payment. On the
        other hand, if the employees are the local people, they talk a lot
        especially in breaking time. The time can be longer since they
        can go home, have lunch, or talk to their neighbors. When there
        is a social activity such as wedding reception or funeral, they
        will ask for permission.
      Capital logic that pays attention to economic benefits causes the
capitalists either non-migrants or non-migrants tend to get employees that can
be paid cheap and do not create loss to the capital accumulation. Decision to get
cheap employees causes capitalists to seek for migrant workers because they
are willing to get lower payment than the non-migrants. Besides considering
the economic rational, the choice of migrant workers is also done based on
ethnicity suspect. To the capitalists, it is more beneficial to hire migrant
workers than the non-migrants because the indigenes ”take a lot of holidays”.
This stereotype appears as they have to take apart in the custom and religious
activities. A lot of economic competitions, either at the level of capital owner
or employees create several phenomena that strengthen ethnocentrism.
Ethnocentrism appears from the perception of the threat to the identity of
Balinese from the migrants. Non-migrants will feel that they are not secure and
in threat of the arrival of the migrants.

      Either direct competition or indirect competition not only happens in
fighting for the employment opportunity but also in capital competition. The
local capitalists will compete with other capitalists from other areas.

      The development of social facilities such as education, religion, and
tourism is followed by the development of economic facilities. This condition
will directly affect the land usage, from farming sector becomes settlement,

education, or economics. The establishment of Indonesian Islamic University in
North Yogyakarta has motivated the development of boarding house, service
units such as food stall, telecommunication kiosks, shops, or Laundromats.

      This changing directly affects the raise of land price because of the
demand of the needs. The following is an example of the raise of land price in
Sleman that is in Krapyak Village, Ngentan that is bought by a migrant from
Central Java.

        I bought this land in 1998 for 80.000 rupiahs per meter
        square. Now (2005) this land is 300.000 rupiahs per meter
        square. So, saving land in Yogya is advantageous. The price
        grows by itself.
      The transformation of farming land into settlement is a response of the
high demand of housing. The indigenes cannot do many things when there is an
offer to buy their land with a very high price. They are willing to exchange their
land and stay in another area that is remote from noise. Slowly, because of the
frequent pressure, local economic activists will be under the control of the
migrants who have higher performance and spirit compared to the non-migrants
or native inhabitants.

      In this condition, domination and marginalization are in progress. In
micro scale, the process of replacement of traditional sectors previously under
the control of the native inhabitants of a certain community is happening. Land,
garden, rice field of the indigenes will belong to new owners; the same thing
happens to their settlement which is gradually isolated or marginalized.
Traditional markets start to be managed by the migrants who have better skills
in selling. As a result the indigenes will be the guests in their own markets. The
process will be massive and excessive resulting in the reality that the indigenes

become the labors in their own land; they become the buyers in their own
traditional markets.

Indigenes Marginalization

      The indigenes are the group in the society who suffer the most and
become the marginal because they have to stay in the countryside or under
developed villages. Productive farming land is exchanged with a sum of money
from the migrants who are willing to buy in a higher price or even a price the
indigenes cannot afford. This phenomenon can be found in some growing
centers. The indigenes slowly move to less developed areas, and their existence
in the downtown is replaced by the migrants. In a short time, the indigenes get
economic advantages because of the high land price. However, if it is examined
further, there is an effort of taking away the modern economic assets. The
indigenes cannot take advantage of the opportunity of economic activities.
What happens is the indigenes become workers or employees of the migrants.
Condemnation is not only about land and building property but also social
economic opportunity. Their movement to the less developed areas will
certainly close the economic opportunities. How is the social and economic
condition of the migrants and non-migrants? Is there any big gap and how is
opportunity as the cause of the social conflict?

      Economic condition is distinguished into two: rich and poor. Inhabitant is
categorized as rich if they are above the poverty line and the other way around
if they are below or in the poverty line. Poverty line uses limit from the Central
Bureau of Statistics which is counted from the income per capita in the family.

           Table of Economic Condition based on the Migrants Status

                                   Non Migrants                    Migrants
Economic Condition
                               F               %              F             %
      Not Poor             1.137           87.1            311           90.9
      Poor                  169            12.9             31           9.1
      Total                1.306           100             342           100
              Source: Sakerti Data Management, 2000

      In general, the table shows that the economic life of the migrants is much
better than the non-migrants. The number of the migrants categorized as poor is
less than the number of the number of the non-migrants. On the other hand
there are possibilities that between the two groups there are migrants who live
with less good economic condition and the other way around. From the short
observation, it can be concluded that the migrants who live in the destination
area with any purpose such as education are generally from the rich. They are
able to satisfy the basic needs of their children in a place not of their hometown,
even with luxurious life. It can be seen from the chosen boarding house
equipped with various facilities as well as the growing number of motorcycles
or cars with other areas’ police number. There are also migrant families who
build houses for their relatives if they want to study in Yogyakarta. Migrant
children study in favorite universities while the indigenes go to less favorite
universities because they cannot compete economically in terms of the
education fee.

      The high number of the non-migrants who live in a poor economic
condition is closely related with their limited economic assets. As explained
before, the indigenes of Yogyakarta are forced to move to rural areas with

agrarian life. Economic demand forces them to sell their land to the migrants
and stay away to manage their land in villages. This condition is relatively good
for landowners but not for farmers who do not have economic capacity when
their employer sells the land to the migrants to be developed into settlement. In
other words, their only income has gone. Worse, they do not have other
economic businesses as they do not have the financial capability and skills.
The above table explains the need for the government policy to protect the
indigenes from condemnation. The limitation of settlement should be done soon
considering the fact that the migrants are people with high financial capability
and are willing to buy a piece of land no matter how expensive it is. If this
condition keeps happening, it will ruin the land price so that the indigenes with
limited economic capacity will be marginalized from the promising city life. In
other words, the rich is getting richer and the poor is getting poorer and suffer.

Education Opportunity

      Education is one of the means to improve the quality of human resources.
Qualified human resources are the main capital of development. Therefore, it is
not surprising that Yogyakarta as the centre of education becomes the
destination of developing the human resources. It causes the migration waves to
Yogyakarta increase. The high migration wave from other areas which is not
equal with the migration to other areas will surely bring about social problems.
For instance, the replacement of farming land into settlement because of the
high demand of housing, the environmental condition that is getting worse
because of pollution, the limited opportunity and other aspects that eventually
cause bad condition.

               Table of Education Level based on Migrants Status

                                 Non Migrants                    Migrants
Education Level
                             f              %              f                %
No Education              159           12.2               56         15.6
Elementary School         389           29.8               62         17.3
Junior High School        212           16.2               49         13.6
Senior High School        360           27.5               89         24.8
Universities              169           12.9               95         26.5
Others                     18            1.4                8          2.2
      Total              1,307           100            359           100
           Source: Sakerti Data Management, 2000

     What is meant by education in the following discussion includes formal
education as well as informal education such as pondok pesantren. Informal
education is categorized into other education classifications. The different
number of migrants and non migrants according to the education classification
based on the economic condition is caused by the unwillingness of the
inhabitants to provide complete data of their income or they find it difficult to
calculate the income coming from the informal work.

     Inhabitants’ distribution based on education shows that migrants have
better education than non migrants. Around 50 % of the migrants have high
education that Senior High School and above whereas the non migrants only 40
%. For the elementary education, the proportion of non migrants is a lot higher
reaching up to 30 % whereas the migrants around 17 %. This condition shows
that the education access of non migrants is lower than the migrants. Is the
condition caused by economic condition or other factors such as quality?
Whatever the causes of the problems about the different levels of education

between the non migrants and non migrants, the condition should be of
attention for the Government.        The quota for people not coming from
Yogyakarta should be conducted to open the wide opportunities for Yogyakarta
inhabitants to access the education. In order to avoid a condition in which only
the migrants can enjoy the luxury of school buildings whereas the indigenes can
only watch without enjoying them. The reflection that Yogyakarta is an
education centre should not only be seen from the luxury of the education
facilities but also from the attitude, knowledge, and skills of its indigenes. This
condition will be a reality if the inhabitants of Yogyakarta are given the
opportunity to improve their skills by accessing the available education

      Based on the above discussion, the local government should take
immediate actions to save the non-migrants from poverty or, in general, the
force of the migrants. The government should issue sensitive policy for the
local inhabitants. This condition is not meant to distinguish the migrants and
non-migrants, but to give help to a group of marginalized people. Therefore, the
role of the third party is needed so that the condition will not get worse. The
limitation of land buying, settlement establishment and business opportunity
should be tried in order to save the non migrants who have the less skills
compared to the migrants.

      This condition is delivered as a worry that someday Yogyakarta will be
occupied by those who do not come from Yogyakarta. The highly spirited
development can only reach the migrant groups whereas the native inhabitants
of Yogyakarta cannot enjoy it because of the limited access. Once again, this
writing does not mean to trigger a war between the migrants and the non-
migrants; it is only a matter of concern from the local inhabitant.

      In spite of the government involvement as a decision or policy maker, the
migrants care to pay attention to the non-migrants is expected. It should not be
realized in the form of donations but the efforts to obey all the rules and respect
all policy. For example, in the education sector, the government has set up a
rule with quota system; however, with the migrants’ economic capacity, they
can fulfill the existing requirements although it breaks the rule.

      Good economic capacity of the migrants can be seen from the quality of
the building where they live. There are many luxurious rented houses with all
of the facilities, especially around the private schools. This condition will not
happen if the migrants are not financially capable. Migrant family in the
hometown even buys land and house. Some use their money to develop their
business such as building boarding houses or rented houses. Most of them
master the economic sector of service.

Social Conflict Potentials

      The arrival of new migrants will definitely cause structural changing. The
movement of employees from villages to cities who cannot get work in formal
sectors causes the drastic deformation and greatly influences the informal sector
employment. In the dimension of city management, the existence of informal
sectors will cause a dilemma in the formulation of city management policy. On
one hand, the Government respects the economical rights but on the other the
existence of informal sectors make the city messy and uncomfortable. Many
cities lose their history and culture because of the raise of the economic
activities in those areas.

      The arrival of new migrants will surely cause demographic configuration
differences. The destination area previously known as a homogeny area
becomes heterorganic in a certain place. Migrants’ attitude in city to maintain
their native culture is often shown in public ceremonies or activities that invite
many people such as in wedding ceremony or family ceremonial meal. In city
life where there are many people with their own local culture, there is a
tendency in some groups in the society to strengthen their social status by using
their native culture. It is strengthen by the existence of community organization
based on place such as origin or ethnics such as Chinese Village, Javanese
Village, Bataknese Village, Maduranese Village and others.

      According to Hugo (1978) the migrants grouping in city plays as a
mechanism for the migrants to make adaptation with the new life in cities.
Through these groupings, information about jobs or other activities can be
obtained. It is not surprising that a company is dominated by migrants from a
certain area. However, in another side, these community organizations play a
role of maintaining the local culture or area where the migrants come from. The
origin of the migrants is often used as the name of their settlement.

      The high increase of the inhabitants because of urbanization causes the
imbalance between the number of the inhabitants and the city supports. The
development of high employment will cause unemployment and city poverty.
According to Goldstone (1999) the booming of social conflicts (in the form of
ethnical conflicts) in many countries is caused by demographic factors that
cause by social and economic discrimination and the limits of social mobility in
one group in the society. The research finding conducted by the Demography
Study Centre towards children psychological condition in conflicted areas
shows that in Aceh Province 74 % of the conflicts were caused by prosperity
gap and around 80 % because of injustice. Ethnicity only played 33 % of

triggering the conflicts. In Central Sulawesi Province, poverty played 47 % in
triggering the conflicts, injustice 35 %, and religion 45%. According to Rahmah
(2004) in Jakarta, the social gap in the society and the increase of the
inhabitants who live under the poverty line are the causes of the increase of
crimes and the fade of family ties in the society. The number of the poor
increased from 7.79 % in 1990 to 8.95 % in 1998.

      The distribution of areas susceptible of riot, fight among inhabitants, and
areas susceptible of crimes show the failure of moral education in schools and
society. The phenomenon of ”loe loe, gue gue” is caused by the treatments of
the inhabitants who live permanently to those live in a rented house. For
instance, the inhabitants’ activities or the election of the leader in the
community. This situation makes those living in a rented house to be indifferent
with all of the activities in their community. ”Indifferent is the best”.

      In a heterogeneous culture such as in Indonesia, the potential of conflict is
great. In political sociology perspective, according to Sefullah (2003), this kind
of situation will create nepotism behavior that will develop into collusion and
corruption. Psychologically, this matter can hide hidden conflicts that will
appear whenever there is opportunity. This hypothesis has become evidence in
some areas. For instance, in East Kalimantan where most of the inhabitants are
migrants; some are successful. Although the migrants and the non migrants had
been together for a long time in a close relationship, one day the conflicts
appeared and became dangerous. One of the reasons of hiding conflicts is the
jealousy towards the success of the migrants. However, it may be possible that
the attitude of the migrants hurt the custom of the native inhabitants.

      As a result of the city development there appears settlement patterns. Real
estate settlement and settlement areas that are neatly managed grow side by side

with traditional village patterns or the slums. Property business becomes a
promising area. Developers transform farming land into settlement and build
streets everywhere that reduce the green areas. Sometimes, the developers buy
land through corruption, collusion, and nepotism that creates conflicts in the
process of freeing the land. The inhabitants do not want to leave because of the
access and public facilities consideration.

      The construction of luxurious houses with their high fences has destroyed
the close social ties. The neighbors do not know one another even the name.
The individualistic life grows well. Muhford (1990) stated that city life is the
stage of many social activities. The noise of city lives colors the face of city.
Kevin (1991) stated that city is an arena of conflicts coming from various
interests where the existing result will affect the city development.     Unreal
social systems in a marginalized community will not develop well. The
jealousy level between the migrants and the non-migrants will be higher
because of the possible vanish of places or access that are considered as public

Yogyakarta and Conflict Potentials

      Yogyakarta is the miniature of Indonesia, where all of the tribes in
Indonesia are here. It happens as a result of the high wave of urbanization
especially the students. Students from outside Yogyakarta are obsessed to
continue their education in Yogyakarta as the Education City. Despite the
promising education factor, the comforts of life as well as the cheap living cost
become the main consideration to choose Yogyakarta as a research location.
There are many students’ dormitories from many provinces in Indonesia, such

as Papua Dorm, Kalimantan Timur Dorm, Riau Dorm, Betawi Dorm and

      The number of inhabitants in Yogyakarta City grows annually in line with
the increase of the number of students. Although according to Kopertis the
number of private students declined in 2005, the number was greater than those
leaving Yogyakarta. Yogyakarta is an education city. It becomes the main
education of people from other areas to seek for knowledge in this city. In other
words, the migrants who come to Yogyakarta are migrants with potentials or
economic capacity.

          Due to the high number of population, it is not surprising that culture
and ethnics in this city are various. Economically, as has been discussed
before, there are two categories of migrants. The first is the potentials migrants
with good education and economy. Equipped with adequate economy, they are
able to dominate the economic sector of city service. The opportunity to
develop property business, laundry, telecommunication kiosks, photocopy
centers is widely available. It means that the economic capacity of migrants is
getting stronger. The second category is the migrants with limited economic
condition. As a result, they have to live in poverty and limits. The uncertainty
of employment as well as the economic pressure of household greatly affect to
the increase of family needs that eventually lead to social conflicts.

      These migrants’ characters will trigger conflicts.       The first group of
migrants creates conflicts because of the social jealousy. Admitted or not, the
exclusivity of migrants in their original Ares is obvious. Migrants’ villages
usually have social facilities developed by the government starting from
transportation facilities, communication, education and so on. The question is

whether the social jealousy resulting from the social gap between the migrants
and non migrants is a conflict potential that will soon explode.

       Research finding using short questionnaire indicated that almost all of
the migrants live in harmony with the non-migrants. Migrants with their
elasticity mingle with non-migrants actively take parts in social activities such
as religious gathering, and security. The clear gap between the migrants and
non-migrants can be neutralized by social activities. Very often, the migrants
become one of the donors to decide the development of economic capacity.

      Secondly, there are life differences between the middle- and lower
income migrants. Economic pressure that is felt together in the same
community will become ties one another. Family life and mutual cooperation
among the inhabitants will be clearly visible in this society. The life of helping
one another among the neighbors without looking at the origin is still alive.

      Based on the reality that happens in Yogyakarta, there is a big question
that has not been answered whether the different life qualities between the
migrants and non-migrants are conflict potentials that must be alerted? If no,
what factors create the comfort and peace in Yogyakarta while pluralism and
heterogeneity of the society are strongly felt?


      Migration or people mobility is a reflection of differences in development
and economic and social facilities among areas. The more differences and gaps
among the areas, the more possible migration will be. In a heterogeneous
society, the differences in the local cultural systems between the migrants and

the local inhabitants as well as the ability to adapt based on understanding and
willingness determine the emergence of conflicts.

     Village-City Migration with various characteristics between the migrants
and non-migrants is a big conflict potential, but the existence should not be
worried because there are many aspects that can be used to overcome it. What
should be discussed and get attention are how urbanization can be a mechanism
of social changing to be better and how the environment must be created to
improve the family hood among the inhabitants in the destination area. To
understand the changing tendency there must be a thorough discussion about
the positive and negative effects of urbanization to the city itself and the
migrants in the destination area. What factors can be categorized as conflict
potentials and what condition causes the emergence of the conflicts?

      In relation with the existing province autonomy, the acceptance and
placement of employees should use cross-province general requirements. It will
encourage faster social changing and reduce conflicts caused by ethnics. The
effort to improve the life quality has been marked by the inhabitants’ freedom
to interact with other places. The autonomy should not result in barriers which
discourage the mingle of one ethnic from a certain area to others.


BPS. 2001. Sensus Penduduk Indonesia 2000. Jakarta

BPS. 2004. Kondisi Tenaga Kerja Indonesia. Jakarta 2003. Kebalian: Ekonomi-Politik Identitas Orang Bali

Rahmah Andi, Agus P. Sari, Moekti Soejachmoen, and Bambang Susantono.
    2004. Loe Loe, Gue Gue Hancurnya Kerekatan Sosial, Rusaknya
    Lingkungan Kota Jakarta. Jakarta: Pelangi

Saefullah. 1995. Mobilitas Penduduk Desa-Kota: Jembatan modernisasi
     pedesaan. PRISMA: Majalah Kajian Ekonomi dan Sosial, 24(10):23-36

Tukiran. 2002. Mobilita Penduduk Indonesia: Tinjauan Lintas Disiplin. Pusat
     Studi Kependudukan dan Kebijakan UGM

Hendrizal. 2004. Problem Arus Urbanisasi. Sinar Harapan


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