Name: ___________________________________ Date: ________________________ Bohr-Rutherford Diagrams – Forming Ions In the Bohr-Rutherford model of the atom, __________________ charged electrons orbit around a __________________ nucleus. The nucleus contains _________________ and ___________________, and makes up most of the mass of the atom. When an atom is forming an ion, it must fill it’s ___________shell with electrons. Having a full valence shell makes the atom more ___________ which means they are less ________________. RECALL - # Protons = atomic number # Electrons = # Protons – the charge on the atom # neutrons = atomic mass – atomic number 19 EXAMPLE: F 9 1. Determine the number of protons, neutrons and electrons in Fluorine. 2. Draw a Bohr-Rutherford diagram of the fluorine atom, putting protons and neutrons in the nucleus, and electrons in the orbits. Two electrons fit in the first orbit, and eight in the next two. EXAMPLE:40 Ca 2+ * This atom has a charge of 2+, it is called an ION. Draw a diagram. 20 1. Did Calcium gain or lose electrons to become an ion? Name: ___________________________________ Date: ________________________ EXAMPLE: Draw the Bohr-Rutherford diagram of the element Chlorine (Cl), and then the ion of chlorine (Cl-). PRACTICE: 1. Draw the following Bohr-Rutherford Diagrams, and calculate the ionic charge. Ionic Charge = # Protons - # Electrons Sodium (Na) Calcium (Ca) Fluorine (F) # protons = # protons = # protons = # electrons = # electrons = # electrons = Ionic Charge = Ionic Charge = Ionic Charge = Sodium Ion (Na1+) Calcium Ion (Ca2+) Fluorine Ion (F1-) # protons = # protons = # protons = # electrons = # electrons = # electrons = Ionic Charge = Ionic Charge = Ionic Charge = 2. What are valence electrons? 3. What are core electrons?
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