physical science by NxtkM8

VIEWS: 10 PAGES: 60

									                          Chapter 1
                        Science Skills
I. What is Science?
    A. Science from Curiosity
         1. Science is a system of knowledge and the methods
         you use to fine that knowledge.

         2. Science begins with curiosity and often ends with
         discovery.

    B. Science and Technology
         1. As scientific knowledge is discovered, it can be
         applied in ways that improve the lives of people.

         2. Technology is the use of knowledge to solve practical
         problems.

         3. Science and technology are interdependent. Advances
         inn one lead to advances in the other.

    C. Branches of Science
         1. Natural science is generally divided into three
         branches: physical science, Earth and space science, and
         life science.


              a) The two main areas of physical science are
              chemistry and physics.
                    (1) Chemistry is the study of the composition,
                    structure, properties, and reactions of matter.

                    (2) Physics is the study of matter and energy and the
                    interactions between the two through forces and
                    motion.

                    (3) Physics and chemistry are called central sciences
                    because they are used in all other science areas.
    D. The Big Ideas of Physical Science
         1. Read pages 5 and 6.

II. Using a Scientific Approach
    A. Scientific Methods
         1. An organized plan for gathering, organizing, and
         communicating information is called a scientific method.

         2. The goal of any scientific method is to solve a problem
         or to better understand an observed event.

              a) Making Observations – An observation if
              information that you obtain through your senses.
                    (1) Repeatable observations are known as facts.


              b) Forming a Hypothesis – A hypothesis is a proposed
              answer to a question.
                    (1) A hypothesis must be testable.

              c) Testing a Hypothesis – Scientist perform
              experiments to test their hypothesis.
                    (1) Manipulated variable (independent variable) –
                    The variable that causes a change in another.

                    (2) Responding variable (dependent variable) – the
                    variable that changes in response to the manipulated
                    variable.

                    (3) A controlled experiment is an experiment in
                    which only one variable, the manipulated variable, is
                    deliberately changed at a time. While the responding
                    variable is observed for changes, all other variables
                    are kept constant, or controlled.
     d) Drawing conclusions – A scientist must decide if
     the data from tests supports his hypothesis. If the
     data does not support his hypothesis he must revise
     the hypothesis or propose a new one.

     e) Developing a theory – Once a hypothesis has been
     supported in repeated experiments, scientist can begin
     to develop a theory.
           (1) A scientific theory is a well-tested explanation for
           a set of observations or experimental results.

3. Scientific Laws

     a) A scientific law is a statement that summarizes a
     pattern found in nature.

     b) A scientific law describes an observed pattern in
     nature without attempting to explain it. The
     explanation of such a pattern is provided by a
     scientific theory.
4. Scientific Models

     a) A model is a representation of an object or event.
     b) Scientific models make it easier to understand
     things that might be too difficult to observe directly.
5. Working Safely in Science – Read page 11
III.Measurement
    A. Using Scientific Notation
         1. Scientific notation is a way of expressing a value as
         the product of a number between 1and 10 and a power of
         10.

         2. Scientific notation makes very large or very small
         numbers easier to with.

         3. When multiplying numbers written in scientific
         notation, you multiply the numbers that appear before the
         multiplication signs and add the exponenets.

         4. When dividing numbers written in scientific notation,
         you divide the numbers that appear before the expotential
         terms and subtract the exponents.

    B. SI Units of Measurement
         1. Scientist use a set of measuring units called SI, or the
         International System of Units.

         2. Base and Derived Units

               a) SI is built upon seven metric units, known as base
               units.
                     (1) Length – meter (m)

                     (2) Mass – Kilogram (Kg)

                     (3) Temperature – Kelvin (K)

                     (4) Time – second (s)

                     (5) Amount of substance – mole (mol)

                     (6) Electric current – ampere (A)

                     (7) Luminous intensity – candela (cd)

               b) Additional units, called derived units are made
               from combinations of base units.
                     (1) See page 16 figure 14
           3. Metric Prefixes

                a) A metric prefix indicates how many times a unit
                should be multiplied or divided by 10.
                      (1) see page 17 figure 15

                b) A conversion factor is a ratio of equivalent
                measurements that is used to convert a quantity
                expressed in one unit to another unit.

      C. Limits of Measurement
           1. Precision is a guage of how exact a measurement is.

                a) Significant figures are all the digits that are known
                in a measurement, plus the last digit that is estimated.
                b) The precision of a calculated answer is limited by
                the least precise measurement used in the calculation.
           2. Accuracy is the closeness of a measurement to the
           actual value of what is being measured.

      D. Measuring Temperature
           1. A thermometer is an instrument that measures
           temperature, or how hot an object is.

                a) Read page 20

IV.   Presenting Scientific Data
      A. Read pages 22-25




                                Chapter 2
                                   Properties of Matter

I. Classifying Matter
       A. Pure Substances
              1. Matter that always has exactly the same composition is classified as a
              pure substance.
              2. Every sample of a given substance has the same properties because a
              substance has a fixed, uniform composition.
       B. Elements
              1. An element is a substance that cannot be broken down into simpler
              substances.
                       a) There only about 100 elements.
                       b) An element has a ficed composition because it contains only
                       one type of atom.
                       c) In 1813 Jons berzelius, a Swedish chemist, suggested that
                       chemists use symbols to represent elements.
       C. Compounds
              1. A compound is a substance that is made from two or more simpler
              substances and cacan be broken down in those simpler substances.
              2. A compound always contains two or mor elements joined in a fixed
              proportion.
       D. Mixtures
              1. The properties of a mixture can vary because the composition of a
              mixture is not fixed.
              2. In a heterogeneous mixture, the parts of the mixture are noticeably
              different from one another.
              3. In a homogeneous mixture, the substances are so evenly distributed
              that it is difficult to distinguish one substance in the mixture from another.
       E. Solutions, Suspensions, and Colloids
              1. Based on the size of its largest particles, a mixture can be classified as
              a solution, a suspension, or a colloid.
                       a) When substances dissolve and form a homogeneous mixture,
                       the mixture that forms is called a solution.
                       b) A suspension is a heterogeneous mixture that separates into
                       layers over time.
                       c) A colloid contains some particles that are intermediate in
                       between the small particles in a solution and the larger particles in
                       a suspension.
assignment: Page 44; 1-8
            Work sheet section 2.1




II. Physical Properties
       A. Examples of Physical Properties
             1. A physical property is any characteristic of a material that can be
             observed or measured without changing the composition of the substances
             in the material.
                     a) Viscosity, conductivity, malleability, hardness, melting point,
                     boiling point, and density are examples of physical properties.
                             (1) The tendency of a liquid to keep from flowing – its
                             resistance to flowing – is called viscosity.
                             (2) A materials ability to allow heat flow is called
                             conductivity.
                             (3) Malleability is the ability of a solid to be hammered
                             without shattering.
                             (4) Hardness can be tested by seeing which materials can
                             scratch others.
                             (5) The temperature at which a substance changes from
                             solid to a liquid is its melting point.
                             (6) The temperature at which a substance boils is its boiling
                             point.
                             (7) Density is the ratio of the mass of a substance to its
                             volume.
                                     (a) Density can be used to test the purity of a
                                     substance.
      B. Using Physical Properties
             1. Physical properties are used to identify a material, to choose a material
             for a specific purpose, or to separate the substances in a mixture.
             2. Read page 48.
      C. Using Properties to Separate Mixtures
             1. Filtration is a process that separates materials based on the size of their
             particles.
             2. Distilation is a process that separates the substances in a solution based
             on their boiling points.
      D. Recognizing Physical Changes
             1. A physical change occurs when some of the properties of a material
             change, but the substances in the material remain the same.
Assignment: page 51; 1-9
                  Work sheet 2.2




III. Chemical Properties
        A. Observing Chemical Properties
              1. A chemical property is any ability to produce a change in the
              composition of matter.
              2. Chemical properties can be observed only when the substances in a
              sample of matter are changing into different substances.
              3. Frammability is a material’s ability to burn in the presence of oxygen.
              4. The property that describes how readily a substance combines
              chemically with other substances is reactivity.
      B. Recongnizing Chemical Change
              1. A chemical change occurs when a substance reacts and forms one or
              more new substances.
              2. Evidence of a chemical change.
                     a) A change in color.
                     b) Production of a gas.
                     c) Formation of a precipitate.
                            (1) Any solid that forms and separates from a liquid
                            mixture is called a precipitate.
                     d) Production of heat or light.
      C. Is a Change Chemical or Physical?
              1. When matter undergoes a chemical change, the composition of the
              matter changes. when matter undergoes a physical change, the
              composition of the matter stays the same.
Assigment: page 58; 1-8
           Work sheet section 2.3
                                        Chapter 3
                                     States of Matter
I. Solids, Liquids, and Gases
       A. Describing the States of Matter
              1. Solid is the state of matter in which materials have a definite shape and
              a definite.
                      a) The term definite means that the shape and volume will not
                      change as the material changes location.
              2. Liquid is the state of matter in which a material has a definite volume
              but not a definite shape.
              3. Gas is the state of matter in which a material has neither a definite
              shape nor a definite volume.
                      a) gases will have the shape and volume of their containers.
              4. Plasma is a state of matter in which atoms have been stripped of their
              electrons.
                      a) 99% of all the matter that can be observed in the universe is
                      plasma.
       B. Kinetic Theory
              1. Kinetic energy is the energy an object has due to its motion.
              2. The kinetic theory of matter says that all particles of matter are in
              constant motion.
       C. Explaining the Behavior of Gases
              1. Motion in Gases
                      a) Particles of a gas are never at rest.
                      b) As particles collide they may lose kinetic energy.
                      c) Particles travel in a straight line until they collide.
              2. There are forces of attraction among the particles of all matter.
              3. The constant motion of particles in a gas allows a gas to fill a container
              of any shape or size.
                      a) The kinetic theory as applied to gases has three main points.
                              (1) particles in a gas are in constant random motion.
                              (2) the motion of one particle is unaffected by the motion
                              of other particles unless the particles collide.
                              (3) Forces of attraction among particles in a gas can be
                              ignored under ordinary conditions.
       D. Explaining the Behavior of Liquids
              1. The particles in a liquid are morre closely packed than the particles in
              a gas.
                      a) This means the attractions between the particles in a liquid do
                      affect the movement of the particles.
              2. A liquid takes the shape of its container because particles in a liquid
              can flow to new locations. The volume of a liquid is constant because
              forces of attraction keep the particles close together.
       E. Explaning the Behavior of Solids
              1. Solids have a definite volume and shape because particles in a solid
              viberate around fixed locations.
Assignment: page 74; 1-8
worksheet section 3.1
II. The Gas Laws
       A. Pressure
              1. Pressure is the result of a force distributed over an area.
                      a) The SI unit for pressure, the pascal (Pa), is shorthand for
                      newtons per square meter.
                      b) collisions between particles of a gas and the walls of the
                      container cause the pressure in a closed container of gas.
       B. Factors That Affect Gas Pressure
              1. Factors that affect the pressure of an enclosed gas are its temperature,
              its volume, and the number of its particles.
                      a) Temperature – Rasing the temperature of a gas will increase its
                      pressure if the volume of the gas and the number of particles are
                      constant.
                               (1) A temperature of 0 K is called absolute zero. This is
                               the temperature at which all molecular motion ceases.
                      b) Volume – Reducing the volume of a gas increases its pressure
                      if the temperature of the gas and the number of particles are
                      constant.
                      c) Number of Particles – Increasing the number of particles will
                      increase the pressure of a gas if the temperature and the volume are
                      constant.
       C. Charles’s Law
              1. Charles’s law states that the volume of a gas is directly proportional to
              its temperature in kelvins if the pressure and the number of particles of gas
              are constant.
                           V V
                      a) 1  2
                           T1 T2
       D. Boyle’s Law
              1. Boyle’s law states that the volume of a gas is inversely proportional to
              its pressure if the temperature and the number of particles are constant.
                      a) P1V1 = P2V2
       E. The Combined Gas Law
              1. The combined gas law describes the relationship among the
              temperature, volume, and pressure of a gas when the number of particles is
              constant.
                           PV       PV
                      a) 1 1  2 2
                            T1       T2
Assignment: page 81; 1-8
                  Worksheet section 3.2
III. Phase Changes
        A. Characteristic of Phase Changes
               1. A phase change is the reversible physical change that occurs when a
               substance changes from one state of matter to another.
               2. Melting, freezing, vaporization, condensation, sublimation, and
               deposition are six common phase changes.
        B. Temperature and Phase Changes
               1. The temperature of a substance does not change during a phasechange.
        C. Energy and Phase Changes
               1. Energy is either absorbed or released during a phase change.
                       a) During an endothermic change, the system absorbs energy
                       from its surroundings.
                                (1) The amount of energy used during melting is called the
                                heat of fusion.
                       b) During an exothermic change, the system releases energy to its
                       surrounding.
        D. Melting and Freezing
               1. The arrangement of molecules in water becomes less orderly as water
               melts and more orderly as water freezes.
               2. Melting
                       a) When a substance melts heat flows from its surrounding to the
                       substance.
                       b) At the melting point of the substance some molecules gain
                       enough energy to overcome the attractions and move from their
                       fixed positions.
                       c) When all of the molecules have enough energy to move,
                       melting is complete.
                       d) Any energy gained by the substance after the phase change
                       increases the average kinetic energy of the molecules and the
                       temperature rises.
               3. Freezing
                       a) When a substance freezes energy flows from the substance into
                       its surroundings.
                       b) At the freezing point of a substance some molecules move
                       slowly enough for the attractions between molecules to have an
                       effect.
                       c) When all the molecules have been drawn into an orderly
                       arrangement, freezing is complete.
                       d) Any energy removed from the substance after the phase change
                       decreases the average kinetic energy of the molecules, and the
                       temperature drops.
        E. Vaporization and Condensation
               1. The phase change in which a substance changes from a liquid into a
               gas is vaporization.
                     a) Vaporization is an endothermic process.
                     b) The heat of vaporization of a substance is the amount of energy
                     required to vaporize one gram of that substance.
                     c) Evaporation takes place at the surface of a liquid and occurs at
                     temperatures below the boiling point.
                              (1) Evaporation is the process that changes a substance
                              from a liquid to a gas at temperatures below the substances
                              boiling point.
                              (2) The pressure caused by the colllisions of vapor and the
                              walls of the container is called vapor pressure.
                     d) When the vapor pressure becomes equal to atmospheric
                     pressure, a substance boils.
                              (1) The temperatue at which this happens is called the
                              boiling point.
                              (2) The boiling point of a substance depends on the
                              atmospheric pressure.
             2. Condensation
                     a) condenstionn is the phase change in which a substance changes
                     from a gas or vapor to a liquid.
                              (1) condensation is an endothermic process.
      F. Sublimation and Deposition
             1. Sublimation is the phase change in which a substance changes from a
             solid to a gas or vapor without changing to a liquid first.
             2. When a gas or vapor changes directly to a solid without first changing
             to a liquid, the phase change is called deposition.
Assignment: page 91; 1-8
   workbook section 3.3
                                      Chapter 4
                                   Atomic Structure

I. Studying Atoms
      A. Ancient Greek Model of Atoms
             1. The philosopher Democritus believed that all matter consisted of
             extremeely small particles that could not be divided.
                     a) He called the particles atomos which means “uncut” or
                     “indivisable”.
                     b) He thought there were many types of atoms with specific
                     properties.
             2. Aristotle did not think there was a limit to nte number of times matter
             could be divided.
                     a) Most people accepted Aristotle’s veiws of matter.
      B. Dalton’s Atomic Theory
             1. John Dalton was born in 1766.
             2. Evidense for Atoms
                     a) Dalton measured the masses of elements that combine when
                     compounds form.
                     b) He noticed that no matter how large or small the sample, the
                     ratio of the masses of the elements in the compound is always the
                     same. They have a fixed composition.
             3. Dalton’s Theory
                     a) Dalton proposed the theory that all matter is made up of
                     individual particles called atoms, which cannot be divided.
                     b) The main points of Dalton’s theory are as follows:
                             (1) All elements are composed of atoms.
                             (2) All atoms of the same element have the same mass, and
                             atoms of different elements have different masses.
                             (3) Compounds contain atoms of more than one element.
                             (4) In a particular compound, atoms of different elements
                             always combine in the same way.
                     c) In Dalton’s theory atoms are pictures as solid spheres.
                     d) Dalton’s theory was not completely correct but served as a
                     basis for our modern atomic theory.
      C. Thomson’s Model of the Atom
             1. J. J. Thomson (1856-1940) used electric current to learn more about
             the atom.
             2. Thomson’s Experiments
                     a) Thomson built a sealed tube with gas at low pressure and a
                     metal discs at each end.
                     b) When an electric current was passed through the tube a
                     glowing beam would appear.
                    c) When charged plates were placed on either side of the tube, the
                    beam was bent away from the negative plate and towards the
                    positive plate.
             3. Evidence for Subatomic Particles
                    a) Thomson concluded that the particles in the beam had a
                    negative charge because they were attracted to the positive plate.
                    b) He hypothesized that the particles came from inside atoms.
                            (1) No matter what metal Thomson used for the disc the
                            particles produced were identical.
                            (2) The particles had about 1/2000 the mass of a hydrogen
                            atom, the lightest atom.
                    c) Thomson’s experiments provided the first evidence that atoms
                    are made of even smaller particles.
             4. Thomson’s Model
                    a) In Thomson’s model of the atom, the negative charges were
                    evenly scattered thoughout an atom filled with a positively charged
                    mass of matter.
                            (1) This was called the “plum pudding” model.
             5. Rutherford’s Atomic Theory
                    a) In 1899, Ernest Rutherford discovered that uranium emits fast-
                    moving particles that have a positive charge. He named them
                    alpha particles.
                    b) The gold foil experiment
                            (1) Rutherford hypothesized that the mass and charge at
                            any location in the gold would be too small to change the
                            path of an alpha particle.
                            (2) When Rutherford’s student, Ernest Marsden, aimed a
                            narrow beam of alpha particles at the gold the screen
                            around the gold produced a flash of light when struck by
                            the alpha particles.
                            (3) This allowed Marsden to figure out the path of an alpha
                            particle after it passed though the gold.
                                    (a) Most of the particles passed straight through.
                                    (b) Some particles, about one out of every 2000,
                                    were deflected.
                                    (c) A few particles even bounced straight back.
                            (4) Rutherford concluded that the positive charge of an
                            atom is not evenly spread throughout the atom. It is
                            concentrated in a very small, central area that Rutherford
                            called the nucleus.
                                    (a) The nucleus is a dense, positively charged mass
                                    located in the center of the atom.
                            (5) According to Rutherford’s model, all of an atom’s
                            positive charge is cincentrated in its nucleus.
Assignment: page 105; 1-8
   workbook section 4.1
II. The Structure of an Atom
    B. Properties of Subatomic Particles
         1. By 1920, Rutherford had seen evidence for the
         existence of two subatomic particles and had predicted
         the existence of a third.

         2. Protons, electrons, and neutrons are subatomic
         particles.

              a) Protons
                    (1) A proton is a positively charged subatomic
                    particle that is found in the nucleus of an atom.

                    (2) Each proton is assigned a charge of 1+.

              b) Electrons
                    (1) Electron comes from the Greek work meaning
                    amber.

                    (2) An electron is a negatively charged subatomic
                    particle that is found in the space outside the
                    nucleus.

                    (3) Each electron has a charge of 1-.

              c) Neutrons
                    (1) Discovered in 1932 by the English physicist James
                    Chadwick.

                    (2) A neutron is a neutral subatomic particle that is
                    found in the nucleus of an atom.

                    (3) It has a mass almost exactly equal to that of a
                    proton.
     C. Comparing Subatomic Particles
           1. Protons, electrons, and neutrons can be distinguished
           by mass, charge, and location in an atom.

                 a) Page 109; figure 10
           2. Everything known about the nucleus and subatomic
           particles is based on how the particles behave.

                 a) Scientists still do not have an instrument that can
                 show the inside of an atom.

     D. Atomic Number and Mass Number
           1. The atomic number of an element equals the number
           of protons in an atom of that element.

                 a) Atoms of different elements have different
                 numbers of protons.
           2. The mass number of an atom is the sum of the protons
           and neutrons in the nucleus of that atom.

                 a) Number of neutrons = Mass number – Atomic number
     E. Isotopes
           1. Isotopes are atoms of the same element that have
           different numbers of neutron and different mass numbers.

           2. Isotopes of an element have the same atomic number
           but different mass numbers because they have different
           numbers of neutrons.
Assignment: page 112; 1-9
 workbook section 4.2
V. Modern Atomic Theory
    A. Bohr’s Model of the Atom
         1. Niels Bohr (1885-1969) developed a model of an atom
         that focused on the positions of the electrons.

         2. Energy Levels

              a) In Bohr’s model, electrons move with constant
              speed in fixed orbits around the nucleus.

              b) The possible energies that electrons in an atom can
              have are called energy levels.
              c) An electron in an atom can move from one energy
              level to another when the atom gains or loses energy.

              d) Scientist can measure the energy gained when
              electrons absorb energy and move to a higher energy
              level. They can measure the energy released when the
              electron returns to a lower energy level.
         3. Electron Cloud Model

              a) An electron cloud is a visual model of the most
              likely locations for electrons in an atom.

              b) Scientist use the electron cloud model to describe
              the possible locations of electrons around the nucleus.
         4. Atomic Orbitals

              a) An orbital is a region of space around the nucleus
              where an electron is likely to be found.

              b) An electron cloud is a good approximation of how
              electrons behave in their orbitals.
                    (1) page 117; figure 15
             5. Electron Configurations

                    a) An electron configuration is the arrangement of
                    electrons in the orbitals of an atom.

                    b) The most stable electron configuration is the one in
                    which the electrons are in orbitals with the lowest
                    possible energies.
                            (1) When all electrons in an atom have the lowest
                            possible energies, the atom is said to be in its ground
                            state.
Assignment: Page 118; 1-8
   Workbook section 4.3
                            Chapter 6
                          Chemical Bonds

I. Ionic Bonding
    B. Stable Electron Configuration
         1. When the highest occupied energy level of an atom is
         filled with electrons, the atom is stable and not likely to
         react.

               a) The noble gases have stable electron configurations
               with eight valance electrons. (Helium has 2)
         2. An electron dot diagram is a model of an atom in which
         each dot represents a valence electron. The symbol in the
         center represents the nucleus and all the other electrons
         in the atom.

               a) page 159; figure 2
    C. Ionic Bonds
         1. Some elements achieve stable electron configurations
         through the transfer of electrons between atoms.

         2. Formation of Ions

               a) When an atom gains or loses an electron, the
               number of protons is no longer equal to the number
               of electrons. The charge on the atom is not balanced
               and the atom is not neutral.

               b) An atom that has a net positive or negative electric
               charge is called an ion.
                           (a) An ion with a negative charge is an anion.

                           (b) An ion with a positive charge is a cation.
3. Formation of Ionic Bonds

     a) A chemical bond is the force that holds atoms or
     ions together as a unit.

     b) An ionic bond is the force that holds cations and
     anions together.
4. Ionization Energy

     a) Ionization energy is the energy required to remove
     an electron from an atom.
           (1) Ionization energies increase from right to left
           across a period and decrease going down a group or
           family.

5. Ionic Compounds

     a) Compounds that contain ionic bonds are ionic
     compounds, which can be represented by chemical
     formulas.
           (1) A chemical formula is a notation that shows what
           elements a compound contains and the ratio of the
           atoms or ions of these elements in the compound.
                 (a)


                       Magnesium Chloride
                             MgCl2
                                                  Two
                            One                   chloride
                            magnesium             anions
                            cation.
                    b) Crystal Lattices
                            (1) Solids whose particles are arranged in a lattice
                            structure are called crystals.

                    c) Properties of Ionic Compounds
                            (1) The properties of an ionic compound can be
                            explained by the strong attractions among ions within
                            a crystal lattice.
Assignment: Page 164; 1-8
   Workbook section 6.1

VI.   Covalent Bonding
      A. Covalent Bonds
             1. A covalent bond is a chemical bond in which two
             atoms share a pair of valence electrons.

                    a) When two atoms share one pair of electrons, the
                    bond is called a single bond.

                    b) page 166; figure 9
             2. Molecules of elements

                    a) A molecule is a neutral group of atoms that are
                    joined together by one or more covalent bonds.
                    b) The attractions between the shared electrons and
                    the protons in each nucleus hold the atoms together in
                    a covalent bond.

                    c) Many nonmetal elements exist as diatomic
                    molecules.
                            (1) Diatomic means “two atoms”.

                            (2) Fluorine, chlorine, bromine, iodine, nitrogen,
                            oxygen, and hydrogen all form diatomic molecules.
             3. Multiple Covalent Bonds

                    a) Atoms share two pairs of electrons to form double
                    bonds.

                    b) Atoms share three pairs of electrons to form triple
                    bonds.

      B. Unequal Sharing of Electrons
             1. Polar Covalent Bond

                    a) A covalent bond in which electrons are not shared
                    equally is called a polar covalent bond.

                    b) When atoms form a polar covalent bond, the atom
                    with the greater attraction for electrons has a partial
                    negative charge. The other atom has a partial
                    positive charge.
             2. Polar and Nonpolar Molecules

                    a) the type of atoms in a molecule and its shape are
                    factors that6 determine whether a molecule is polar
                    or nonpolar.

      C. Attraction Between Molecules
             1. Attractions between polar molecules are stronger than
             attraction between nonpolar molecules.

                    a) These attractions are not as strong as ionic or
                    covalent bonds, but they are strong enough to hold
                    molecules together in a liquid or solid.
Assignment: Page 169; 1-8
            Workbook section 6.2


VII. Naming Compounds and Writing Formulas
      A. Describing Ionic Compounds
             1. The name of an ionic compound must distinguish the
             compound from other ionic compounds containing the
same elements. The formula of an ionic compound
describes the ratio of ions in the compound.

2. Binary Ionic Compounds

     a) A compound made from only two elements is a
     binary compound.
          (1) The name for the cation is the name of the metal
          without any changes.

          (2) The name for the anion uses part of the name of
          the nonmetal with the suffix –ide.

          (3) page 171; figure 16 and page 172; figure 17
    3. Metal With Multiple Ions

         a) Many transition metals form more than one type
         of ion.

         b) When a metal forms more than one ion, the name
         of the ion contains a Roman numeral to indicate the
         charge on the ion.
    4. Polyatomic Ions

         a) A covalently bonded group of atoms that has a
         positive or negative charge and acts as a unit is a
         polyatomic ion.
         b) page 173; figure19
    5. Writing Formulas for Ionic Compounds

         a) Place the symbol of the cation first, followed by the
         symbol of the anion.
         b) Use subscripts to show the ratio of the ions in the
         compound.
         c) Because all compounds are neutral, the total
         charges on the cations and anions must add up to
         zero.

B. Describing Molecular Compounds
    1. The name and formula of a molecular compound
    describe the type and number of atoms in a molecule of
    the compound.

    2. Naming Molecular compounds

         a) the general rule is that the most Metallic element
         appears first in the name.
               (1) These elements are farther to the left in the
               periodic table. If the elements are in the same group,
               the more metallic element is closer to the bottoms of
               the group.
                    b) The name of the second element is changed to end
                    in the suffix –ide.

                    c) Prefixes are used to indicate the number of atoms
                    of each element in a molecule of the compound.
                    Mono- is never used for the first element named.
                           (1) page 175; figure20

             3. Writing Molecular Formulas

                    a) Write the symbols of the elements in the order that
                    the elements appear in the name.

                    b) The prefixes indicate the subscripts that should be
                    used.
Assignment: page 175; 1-7
            workbook section 6.3
VIII. The Structure of Metals
      A. Metallic Bonds
             1. A metallic bond is the attraction between a metal
             cation and the shared electrons that surround it.

             2. The cations in a metal form a lattice that is held in
             place by strong metallic bonds between the cations and
             the surrounding valence electrons.

      B. Explaining Properties of Metals
             1. The mobility of electrons within a metal lattice explains
             some of the properties of metals.

                    a) The ability to conduct an electric current and
                    malleability are two important properties of metals.
      C. Alloys
             1. An alloy is a mixture of two or more elements, at least
             one of which is a metal.

                    a) Alloys have the characteristic properties of metals.
             2. Scientist can design alloys with specific properties by
             varying the types and amounts of elements in an alloy.

                    a) Read pages 178-181.
Assignment: Page 181; 1-8
            workbook section 6.4


                                   Chapter 7
                               Chemical Reactions
I. Describing Reactions
    D. Chemical Equations
         1. In a chemical reaction, the substances that undergo
         change are called reactants.

         2. The new substances formed as a result of that change
         are called products.

         3. A chemical equation is a representation of a chemical
         reaction in which the reactants and products are
         expressed as formulas.

         4. The law of conservation of mass states that mass is
         neither created nor destroyed in a chemical reaction.

    E. Balancing Equations
         1. In order to show that mass is conserved during a
         reaction, a chemical equation must be balanced.

              a) You can balance a chemical equation by changing
              the coefficients, the numbers that appear before the
              formulas.
                    (1) The first step in balancing an equation is to count
                    the number of atoms of each element on each side of
                    the equation.

                    (2) The next step is to change one or more
                    coefficients until the equation is balanced.
      F. Counting With Moles
             1. Because chemical reactions often involve large
             numbers of small particles, chemists use a counting unit
             called the mole to measure amounts of a substance.

                    a) A mole (mol) is an amount of a substance that
                    contains approximately 6.02 x 1023 particles of a
                    substance.
             2. The mass of one mole of a substance is called molar
             mass.

             3. Once you know the molar mass of a substance, you
             can convert moles of that substance in mass, or a mass
             of that substance into moles.

      G. Chemical Calculations
             1. In chemical reactions, the mass of a reactant or
             product can be calculated by using a balanced chemical
             equation and molar masses of the reactants and
             products.

             2. Read pages 197-198
Assignment: page 198; 1-8
workbook section 7.1


II. Types of Reactions
      A. Classifying Reactions
             1. Some general types of chemical reactions are
             synthesis reactions, decompositions reactions, single-
             replacement reactions, double-replacement reactions.
             and combustion reactions.

                    a) A synthesis reaction is a reaction in which two or
                    more substances react to form a single substance.
                            (1) The reactants may either be elements or
                            compounds.

                            (2) The general equation for a synthesis reaction is
                            A+B→AB
                    b) A decomposition reaction is a reaction in which a
                    compound breaks down into two or more simpler
                    substances.
                            (1) The products may be elements or compounds.

                            (2) the general equation for a decomposition reaction
                            is AB→A+B.

                    c) A single-replacement reaction is a reaction in
                    which one element takes the place of another element
                    in a compound.
                            (1) Single-replacement reactions have the general
                            form A+BC→B+AC

                    d) A double-replacement reaction is one in which two
                    different compounds exchange positive ions and form
                    two new compounds.
                            (1) The general form of a double replacement
                            reaction is AB+CD→AD+CB.

                    e) A combustion reaction is one in which a substance
                    reacts rapidly with oxygen, often producing heat and
                    light.
      B. Reactions as Electron Transfers
             1. The discovery of subatomic particles enabled
             scientists to classify certain chemical reactions as
             transfers of electrons between atoms.

                    a) Oxidation – a synthesis reaction in which a metal
                    combines with oxygen.
                            (1) Any process in which an element loses electrons
                            during a chemical reaction is called oxidation.

                    b) Reduction – The process in which an element gains
                    electrons during a chemical reaction is called
                    reduction.
                            (1) Oxidation and reduction always occur together.
Assignment: page 205; 1-8
workbook section 7.2


III.Energy Changes in Reactions
      A. Chemical Bonds and Energy
             1. Chemical energy is the energy stored in the chemical
             bonds of a substance.

             2. Chemical reactions involve the breaking of chemical
             bonds in the reactants and the formation of chemical
             bonds in the products.

                       a) Breaking chemical bonds requires enough energy
                       to break the bonds of reacting molecules and get the
                       reaction started.
                       b) The formation of chemical bonds releases energy.
                            (1) The heat and light given off by a propane stove
                            result from the formation of new chemical bonds.

      B. Exothermic and Endothermic Reactions
             1. A chemical reaction that releases energy to its to
             surroundings is called an exothermic reaction.

             2. A chemical reaction that absorbs energy from its
             surroundings is called an endothermic reaction.

      C. Conservation of Energy
             1. In any chemical reaction energy is conserved.
Assignment: page 209; 1-7
workbook section 7.3
IV.   Reaction Rates
      A. Reactions Over Time
           1. A reaction rate is the rate at which reactants change
           into products over time.

           2. Reaction Rates tell you how fast a reaction is going.

      B. Factors Affecting Reaction Rates
           1. Factors that affect reaction rates include temperature
           surface area, concentration, stirring, and catalysts.

                a) Temperature
                      (1) Increasing the temperature of a substance causes
                      its particles to move faster, on average.

                      (2) Particles that move faster are both more likely to
                      collide and more likely to react.

                b) Surface Area
                      (1) An increase in surface area increases the
                      exposure of reactants to one another.

                      (2) The greater this exposure, the more collisions
                      there are that involve reaction particles.

                c) Stirring
                      (1) By stirring the reactants back and forth collisions
                      between the particles are more likely to happen.

                d) Concentration
                      (1) Concentration refers to the number of particles in
                      a given volume.

                      (2) the more reacting particles that are present in a
                      given volume, the more opportunities there are form
                      collisions involving those particles.
                    e) Catalysts
                            (1) A catalyst is a substance that affects the reaction
                            rate without being used up in the reaction.

                            (2) Chemists often use catalysts to speed up a
                            reaction or enable a reaction to occur at a lower
                            temperature.

                            (3) In order for a reaction to take place, the reaction
                            particles must collide with enough energy to break
                            the chemical bonds of those particles. A catalyst
                            lowers the energy required to break the bonds.
Assignment: page 215; 1-8
workbook section 7.4

                                     Chapter 11
                                      Motion


I. Distance and Displacement
      C. Choosing a Frame of Reference
             1. To describe motion accurately and completely, a frame
             of reference is necessary.

                    a) The necessary ingredient of a description of
                    motion a - frame of reference – is a system of objects
                    that are not moving with respect to one another.
                            (1) How fast are you moving? Relative motion is
                            movement in relation to a frame of reference.

                            (2) Which frame should you choose? Choosing a
                            meaningful frame of reference allows you to describe
                            motion in a clear and relevant manner.
      D. Measuring Distance
             1. Distance is the length of a path between two points.

                    a) The SI unit of distance is the meter.

      E. Measuring Displacements
             1. Distance is the length of the path between tow points.
             Displacement is the direction from the starting point and
             the length of a straight line from the starting point to the
             ending point.

      F. Combining Displacements
             1. Displacement is an example of a vector quantity.

                    a) A vector is a quantity that has magnitude and
                    direction.
                    b) Add displacements by adding vectors.
                            (1) The sum of two or more vectors is called a
                            resultant vector.
Assignment: Page 331; 1-8
workbook section 11.1

II. Speed and Velocity
      A. Speed
             1. Speed is the ratio of the distance an object moves to
             the amount of time the object moves.

                    a) Average speed is computed for the entire duration
                    of a trip, and instantaneous speed is measured at a
                    particular instant.

                            (1) Average speed, v , is the total distance traveled, d,
                            divided by the time, t, it takes to travel that distance.

                                                    d
                                          (i) v 
                                                    t
                     b) Instantaneous speed, v, is the rate at which an
                     object is moving at a given moment in time.
assignment: page 333; Math practice 1 and 2

       B. Graphing Motion
              1. The slope of a line on a distance time graph is speed.

                     a) Page 334; figure 7

       C. Velocity
              1. Velocity is a description of both speed and direction of
              motion.

              2. Velocity is a vector quantity.

       D. Combining Velocities
              1. Two or more velocities add by vector addition.
Assignment: page 337; 1-7
workbook section 11.2


III.Acceleration
       A. What Is Acceleration?
              1. The rate at which velocity changes is called
              acceleration.

              2. Acceleration can be described as changes in speed,
              changes in direction, or changes in both.

              3. Acceleration is a vector.

                     a) Free fall is the movement of an object toward
                     Earth solely because of gravity.
                            (1) acceleration due to gravity is 9.8 m/s2
             4. Constant acceleration is a steady change in velocity.

      B. Calculating Acceleration
             1. You calculate acceleration for straight line motion by
             dividing the changes in velocity by the total time.

                                            v (v f  vi )
                    a) acceleration  a       
                                             t      t

      C. Graphs of Accelerated Motion
             1. The slope of a speed-time graph is acceleration.

                    a) A linear graph is one in which the displayed data
                    form straight line parts.
             2. Acceleration plotted on a distance time graph is
             nonlinear – a curve connects the data points that are
             plotted.

      D. Instantaneous Acceleration
             1. Instantaneous acceleration is how fast a velocity is
             changing at a specific instant.
Assignment: page 348; 1-7
workbook section 11.3
                              Chapter 12
                        Forces and Motion

I. Forces
    A. What Is a Force?
            1. A force can cause a resting object to move, or it can
            accelerate a moving object by changing the object’s
            speed or direction.

            2. Force is measured in newtons, abbreviated as N.

                  a) One Newton is the force that causes a 1-kilogram
                  mass to accelerate at a rate of 1 meter per each
                  second.

                  b) 1 N = 1 kg ∙ m/s2
    B. Combining Forces
            1. Balanced Forces

                  a) When the forces on an object are balanced, the net
                  force is zero and there is no change in the objects
                  motion.
            2. Unbalanced Forces

                  a) When an unbalanced force acts on an object, the
                  object accelerates.
    C. Friction
            1. Friction – a force that opposes motion of objects that
            touch as they move past each other.

                  a) There are four main types of friction: static
                  friction, sliding friction, rolling friction, and fluid
                  friction.
                        (1) Static friction is the friction force that acts on
                        objects that are not moving.
                          (a) Static friction always acts in the direction
                          opposite to that of the applied force.

                   (2) Sliding friction is a force that opposes the
                   direction of motion of an object as it slides over a
                   surface.
                          (a) Because sliding friction is less than static friction,
                          less force is needed to keep an object moving than to
                          start it moving.

                   (3) Rolling friction is the friction force that acts on
                   rolling objects.
                          (a) For a given set of materials, the force of rolling
                          friction is about 100 to 1000 times less than the force
                          of sliding or static friction.


                   (4) The force of fluid friction opposes the motion of
                   an object through a fluid.
                          (a) Fluid friction increases as the speed of the object
                          moving through the fluid increases.

                          (b) Fluid friction acting on an object moving through
                          the air is known as air resistance.

D. Gravity
     1. Gravity is a force that acts between any two masses.

             a) Gravity is an attractive force that pulls objects
             together.
             b) Earth’s gravity acts downward toward the center
             of Earth.

             c) Gravity causes objects to accelerate downward,
             whereas air resistance acts in the direction opposite to
             the motion and reduces acceleration.
                   (1) Terminal velocity is the constant velocity of a
                   falling object when the force of air resistance equals
                   the force of gravity.
    E. Projectile Motion
         1. Projectile motion is the motion of a falling object
         (projectile) after it is given an initial forward velocity.

         2. The combination of an initial forward velocity and the
         downward vertical force of gravity causes the projectile to
         follow a curved path.

Assignment: page 362; 1-8
work book section 12.1
II. Newton’s First and Second Laws of Motion
    A. Aristotle, Galileo, and Newton
         1. Read page 363-364

    B. Newton’s First Law of Motion
         1. According to Newton’s first law of motion, the state of
         motion of an object does not change as long as the net
         force acting on the object is zero.

               a) Inertia is the tendency of an object to resist a
               change in its motion.
                      (1) An object at rests tends to remain at rest, and an
                      object in motion tends to remain in motion with the
                      same direction and speed.
    C. Newton’s Second Law of Motion
         1. According to Newton’s Second law of motion, the
         acceleration of an object is equal to the net force acting
         on it divided by the object’s mass.

                                   Netforce        F
               a) Acceleration             or a 
                                    mass           m

               b) The acceleration of an object is always in the same
               direction as the net force.

Assignment: page 367; Math Practice 1-4
    D. Weight and Mass
         1. Weight is the force of gravity acting on an object.

               a) Weight = Mass x Acceleration due to gravity
                     (1) W  mg

         2. Mass is a measure of the inertia of an object: weight is
         a measure of the force of gravity acting on an object.

Assignment: page 369; 1-7
workbook section 12.2
III.Newton’s Third Law of Motion and Momentum
    A. Newton’s Third Law
         1. According to Newton’s third law of motion, whenever
         one object exerts a force on a second object, the second
         object exerts an equal and opposite force on the first
         object.

         2. When an action or reaction force is unbalanced
         acceleration will occur.

         3. Action-reaction forces do not cancel – only when equal
         and opposite forces act on the same object do they result
         in a net force of zero.

    B. Momentum
         1. Momentum is the product of an object’s mass and its
         velocity.

              a) An object has a large momentum if the product of
              its mass and velocity is large.

              b) Momentum Formula
                    (1) Momentum = mass x velocity
      C. Conservation of Momentum
           1. According to the law of conservation of momentum, if
           no net force acts on a system, then the total momentum
           of the system does not change.

                a) In a closed system, the loss of momentum of one
                object equals the gain in momentum of another object
                – momentum is conserved.

Assignment: page 377; 1-7
workbook section 12.3
IV.   Universal Forces
      A. Electromagnetic Forces
           1. Electromagnetic force is associated with charged
           particles.

           2. Electric force and magnetic force are the only forces
           that can both attract and repel.

                a) Electric forces act between charged objects or
                particles such as electrons and protons.
                      (1) Objects with opposite charges attract one another.

                      (2) Objects with like charges repel one another.

                b) Magnetic forces act on certain metals, on the poles
                of magnets, and on moving charges.
                      (1) Magnets have two poles, north and south, that
                      attract each other.
                            (a) Opposite poles attract each other.

                            (b) Like poles repel each other.
    B. Nuclear Forces
         1. Two forces, the strong nuclear force and the weak
         nuclear force, act within the nucleus to hold it together.

               a) The strong nuclear force is a powerful force of
               attraction that acts only on the neutrons and protons
               in the nucleus, holding them together.
                     (1) Acts over distance that is approximately the
                     diameter of a proton.

                     (2) It is 100 times stronger than the electric force of
                     repulsion at these distances.

               b) The weak nuclear force is an attractive force that
               acts only over a short range, 10-18meters. This is less
               than the range of the strong nuclear force.

    C. Gravitational Force
         1. Gravitational force is an attractive force that acts
         between any two masses.

               a) Newton’s law of universal gravitation states that
               every object in the universe attracts every other
               object.
                     (1) Read pages 381-382

Assignment: page 382; 1-7
Worksheet section 12.4
                           Work, Power, and Machines
                                  Chapter 14

I. Work and Power
      A. What is work?
             1. Work is the product of force and distance.
             2. For a force to do work on an object, some of the force must act in
             the same direction as the object moves. If there is no movement, no
             work is done.
             3. Any part of a force that does not act in the direction of motion
             does no work on the object.
      B. Calculating Work
             1. work = force x distance
                     a) The joule (j) is the SI unit of work.
      C. What is power?
             1. Power is the rate of doing work.
             2. Doing work at a faster rate requires more power. To increase
             power, you can increase the amount of work done in a given time, or
             you can do a given amount of work in less time.
      D. Calculating Power
             1. Power = work/time
             2. The SI unit for power is the watt (W).
      E. James Watt and Horsepower
             1. One horsepower (hp) is equal to about 746 watts.
             2. Watt used horsepower because he was looking for a way to
             compare the power outputs of steam engines he had designed.
Assignment: page 415; Math practice 1-3
            page 416; 1-8
            worksheet section 14.1
II. Work and Machines
      A. Machines Do Work
             1. Machines make work easier to do. They change the size of a force
             needed, the direction of a force, or the distance over which a force is
             acts.
             2. If a machine increases the distance over which you exert a force,
             then it decreases the amount of force you need to exert.
             3. A machine that decreases the distance through which you exert a
             force increases the amount of force required.
             4. Some machines can change the direction of the applied force. This
             can make it easier to apply the needed force.
      B. Work Input and Work Output
             1. Because of friction, the work done by a machine is always less than
             the work done on the machine.
                     a) Work Input to a Machine
                           (1) The distance the input force acts through is known
                           as the input distance.
                           (2) The work done by the input force acting through the
                           input distance is called the work input.
                             (3) The force you exert on a machine is called the input
                             force.
                      b) Work Output of a Machine
                             (1) The force that is exerted by a machine is called the
                             output force.
                             (2) The distance the output force is exerted through is
                             the output distance.
                             (3) the work output of a machine is the output force
                             multiplied by the output distance.
Assignment: page 420; 1-8
             worksheet section 14.2
III. Mechanical Advantage and Efficiency
       A. Mechanical Advantage
              1. The mechanical advantage of a machine is the number of times
              that the machine increases an input force.
              2. The actual mechanical advantage equals the ratio of the output
              force to the input force.
                      a) Actual mechanical advantage = output force/input force
              3. The ideal mechanical advantage of a machine is the mechanical
              advantage in the absence of friction.
                      a) Because friction is always present, the mechanical
                      advantage of a machine is always less that the ideal mechanical
                      advantage.
       B. Calculating Mechanical Advantage
              1. Ideal Mechanical Advantage = Input distance/Output distance
       C. Efficiency
              1. The percentage of the work input that becomes work output is the
              efficiency of a machine.
                      a) Because there is always some friction, the efficiency of any
                      machine is always less than 100%.
                      b) Efficiency = work output/work input x 100%
Assignment: page 425; Math Practice 1-3
             page 426; 1-9
             worksheets section 14.3
IV. Simple Machines
       A. The six types of simple machines are the lever, the wheel and axle, the
       inclined plane, the wedge, the screw, and the pulley.
              1. A lever is a rigid bar that is free to move around a fixed point.
                      a) The fixed point the bar rotates around is the fulcrum.
                      b) The input arm of a lever is the distance between the input
                      force and the fulcrum.
                      c) The output arm is the distance between the output force
                      and the fulcrum.
                      d) to calculate the ideal mechanical advantage of any lever,
                      divide the input arm by the output arm.
                      e) Levers are classified into three categories based on the
                      locations of the input force, the output force, and the fulcrum.
                            (1) First class levers – the fulcrum is always located
                            between the input force and the output force.
                            (2) Second class levers – the output force is located
                            between the input force and the fulcrum.
                            (3) Third class levers – the input force is located
                            between the fulcrum and the output force.
             2. A wheel and axle is a simple machine that consists of two disks or
             cylinders, each one with a different radius.
                    a) To calculate the ideal mechanical advantage of the wheel
                    and axle, divide the radius (or diameter) where the input force
                    is exerted by the radius (or diameter) where the output force is
                    exerted.
             3. An inclined plane is a slanted surface along which a force moves
             an object to a different elevation.
                    a) the ideal mechanical advantage of an inclined plane is the
                    distance along the inclined plane divided by its change in
                    height.
             4. A wedge is a V-shaped object whose sides are two inclined planes
             sloped toward each other.
                    a) A thin wedge of a given length has a greater ideal
                    mechanical advantage than a thick wedge of the same length.
             5. A screw is an inclined plane wrapped around a cylinder.
                    a) Screws with threads that are closer together have greater
                    ideal mechanical advantage.
             6. A pulley is a simple machine that consists of a rope that fits into a
             groove in a wheel.
                    a) The ideal mechanical advantage of a pulley or pulley
                    system is equal to the number of rope sections supporting the
                    load being lifted.
                    b) Pulleys produce an output force that is different in size,
                    direction, or both, from that of the input force.
                            (1) Fixed pulley – a fixed pulley is a wheel attached to a
                            fixed location.
                                    (a) The direction of the exerted force is changed
                                    by a fixed pulley, but the size of the force is not.
                            (2) Movable pulley – a movable pulley is attached to the
                            object being moved rather than to a fixed location.
                                    (a) Movable pulleys are used to reduce the input
                                    force used to move a heavy object.
                            (3) Pulley system – By combining fixed and movable
                            pulleys into a pulley system, a large mechanical
                            advantage can be achieved.
      B. Compound Machines
             1. A compound machine is a combination of two or more simple
             machines that operate together.
Assignment: page 435; 1-9
            worksheet section 14.4
                              Chapter 15
                               Energy

I. Energy and Its Forms
     A. Energy and Work
           1. Energy is the ability to do work.
           2. Work is a transfer of energy.
     B. Kinetic Energy
           1. The energy of motion is kinetic energy.
           2. The Kinetic energy of any moving object depends
           upon its mass and speed.
                 a) Kinetic energy (KE) = 0.5mv2
Assignment: page 448; 1-3
     C. Potential Energy
           1. Potential energy is energy that is stored as a result of
           position or shape.
                 a) Potential energy that depends upon an object’s
                 height is called gravitational potential energy.
                 b) An object’s gravitational potential energy
                 depends on its mass, its height, and the
                 acceleration due to gravity.
                       (1) Potential energy (PE) = mgh
                 c) Elastic Potential Energy
                       (1) The potential energy of an object that
                       is stretched or compressed is known as
                       elastic potential energy.
     D. Forms of Energy
           1. The major forms of energy are mechanical energy,
           thermal energy, chemical energy, electrical energy,
           electromagnetic energy, and nuclear energy.
                 a) The energy associated with the motion and
                 position of everyday objects is mechanical energy.
                 b) The total potential and kinetic energy of all the
                 microscopic particles in an object make up its
                 thermal energy.
                 c) Chemical energy is the energy stored in
                 chemical bonds.
                 d) Electrical energy is the energy associated with
                 electric charges.
                 e) Electromagnetic energy is a form of energy
                 that travels through space in the form of waves.
                 f) The energy stored in atomic nuclei is known as
                 nuclear energy.
Assignment: page 452; 1-7
              worksheet section 15.1
II. Energy Conversion and Conservation
      A. Energy Conversion
           1. Energy can be converted from one form to another.
                 a) The process of changing energy from one form
                 to another is energy conversion.
                 b) The gravitational potential energy of an object
                 is converted to the kinetic energy of motion as the
                 object falls.
                 c) Energy Conversion Calculations
                        (1) (KE + PE)beginning = (KE + PE)end
      B. Conservation of Energy
           1. The law of conservation of energy states that energy
           cannot be created or destroyed.
      C. Energy and Mass
           1. Einsteins equation, E = mc2, says that energy and
           mass are equivalent and can be converted into each
           other.
Assignment: Page 458; 1-3
             Page 459; 1-8
             Worksheet section 15.2
III. Energy Resources
      A. Nonrenewable Energy Resources
           1. Nonrenewable energy resources include oil, natural
           gas, coal, and uranium.
           a) Oil, natural gas, and coal are known as fossil
           fuels because they were formed underground from
           the remains of once-living organisms.
                 (1) Currently fossil fuels account for the
                 great majority of the world’s energy use.
                       (a)60% of known oil supplies are
                       located in a small area in the middle
                       east.
                       (b) The United States has just 2
                       percent of the world’s oil supplies but
                       about 25% of the world’s coal
                       supplies.
                       (c)Fossil fuels are relatively
                       inexpensive and are readily available,
                       but their use creates pollution.
B. Renewable Energy Resources
     1. Renewable energy resources include hydroelectric,
     solar, geothermal, wind, biomass, and, possible in the
     future, nuclear fusion.
           a) Energy obtained from flowing water is known
           as hydroelectric energy.
                 (1) As water flows downhill, its
                 gravitational potential energy is converted to
                 kinetic energy which can be used to turn
                 turbines that are connected to electric
                 generators.
           b) Sunlight that is converted into usable energy is
           called solar energy.
           c) Geothermal energy is thermal energy beneath
           the Earth’s surface.
           d) Other Renewable Resources
                 (1) The chemical energy stored in living
                 things is called biomass energy.
                       (a)Biomass can be converted directly
                       into thermal energy.
                       (2) A hydrogen fuel cell generates
                       electricity by reacting hydrogen with
                       oxygen.
     C. Conserving Energy Resources
          1. Energy resources can be conserved by reducing
          energy needs and by increasing the efficiency of energy
          use.
          2. Finding was to use less energy or to use energy more
          efficiently is known as energy conservation.
Assignment: page 466; 1-6
             worksheet section 15.3

                            Chapter 17
                  Mechanical Waves and Sound
I. Mechanical Waves
     A. What Are Mechanical Waves
          1. A mechanical wave is a disturbance in matter that
          carries energy from place to another.
                a) The material through which a wave travels is
                called a medium.
                b) A mechanical wave is created when a source of
                energy causes a vibration to travel through a
                medium.
     B. Types of Mechanical Waves
          1. The three types of mechanical waves are transverse
          waves, longitudinal waves, and surface waves.
                a) Transverse waves
                      (1) A transverse wave is a wave that
                      causes the medium to vibrate at right angles
                      to the direction in which the wave travels.
                            (a)see figure 2; page 501
                                  (i) The highest point of the wave
                                  above the rest position is the
                                  crest.
                                  (ii) The lowest point below the
                                  rest position is the trough.
                  b) Longitudinal Waves
                        (1) A longitudinal wave is a wave in
                        which the vibration of the medium is
                        parallel to the direction the wave travels.
                              (a)see figure 3; page 502
                                     (i) An area where the particles in
                                     a medium are spaced close
                                     together is called a compression.
                                     (ii) An area where the particles
                                     in a medium are spread out is
                                     called a rarefaction.
                  c) Surface Waves
                        (1) A surface wave is a wave that travels
                        along a surface separating two media.
                              (a)read page 503
Assignment: Page 503; 1-7
              worksheet section 17.1
II. Properties of Mechanical Waves
      A. Frequency and Period
            1. Any motion that repeats at regular time intervals is
            called periodic motion.
            2. Frequency is the number of complete cycles in a
            given time.
                  a) Frequency is measured in cycles per second, or
                  Hertz (Hz).
            3. A wave’s frequency equals the frequency of the
            vibrating source producing the wave.
      B. Wavelength
            1. Wavelength is the distance between a point on one
            wave and the same point on the next cycle of the wave.
            2. Increasing the frequency of a wave decreases its
            wavelength.
      C. Wave Speed
            1. Speed = wavelength x frequency
      D. Amplitude
           1. The amplitude of a wave is the maximum
           displacement of the medium from its rest position.
           2. The more energy a wave has, the greater is its
           amplitude.
Assignment: page 506; math practice 1-4
             page 507; 1-10
             worksheet section 17.2
III. Behavior of Waves
     A. Reflection
           1. Reflection occurs when a wave bounces off a surface
           that it cannot pass through.
           2. Reflection does not change the speed or frequency of
           a wave, but the wave can be flipped upside down.
     B. Refraction
           1. Refraction is the bending of a wave as it enters a new
           medium at an angle.
           2. When a wave enters a medium at an angle, refraction
           occurs because one side of the wave moves more
           slowly than the other side.
     C. Diffraction
           1. Diffraction is the bending of a wave as it moves
           around an obstacle or passes through a narrow opening.
           2. A wave diffracts more if its wavelength is large
           compared to the size of an opening or obstacle.
     D. Interference
           1. Interference occurs when two or more waves overlap
           and combine together.
           2. Two types of interference are constructive
           interference and destructive interference.
                  a) Constructive interference occurs when two or
                  more waves combine to produce a wave with
                  larger displacement.
                  b) Destructive interference occurs when two or
                  more waves combine to produce a wave with a
                  smaller displacements.
     E. Standing Waves
          1. A standing wave is a wave that appears to stay in one
          place – it does not seem to move through the medium.
                a) A node is a point on a standing wave that has
                no displacement from the rest position.
                b) An antinode is a point where a crest or trough
                occurs midway between two nodes.
          2. A standing wave forms only if half a wavelength or a
          multiple of half a wavelength fits exactly into the length
          of a vibrating cord.
Assignment: page 512; 1-8
            worksheet section 17.3
IV. Sound and Hearing
     A. Properties of Sound Waves
          1. Sound waves are longitudinal waves – compressions
          and rarefactions that travel through a medium.
          2. Many behaviors of sound can be explained using a
          few properties – speed, intensity and loudness, and
          frequency and pitch.
                a) Speed
                      (1) In dry air at 20˚C, the speed of sound
                      is 342 m/s.
                      (2) The speed of sound varies in different
                      media.
                            (a)In general, sound waves travel
                            fastest in solids, slower in liquids, and
                            slowest in gases.
                b) Intensity and Loudness
                      (1) Intensity is the rate at which a waves
                      energy flows through a given area.
                            (a)Sound intensity depends on both the
                            wave’s amplitude and the distance
                            from the sounds source.
                            (b) The deciblel (dB) is a unit that
                            compares the intensity of different
                            sounds.
                        (c)Loudness is a physical response to
                        the intensity of sound, modified by
                        physical factors.
           c) Frequency and Pitch
                  (1) Pitch is the frequency of a sound as
                  you perceive it.
                        (a)High frequency sounds have a high
                        pitch. Low frequency sounds have a
                        low pitch.
B. Ultrasound
     1. Infrasound is sound at frequencies lower than most
     people can hear, and ultrasound is sound at frequencies
     higher than most people hear.
     2. Ultrasound is used in a variety of applications,
     including sonar and ultrasound imaging.
           a) Sonar is a technique for determining the
           distance to an object under water.
                  (1) Sonar stands for sound navigation and
                  ranging.
           b) Ultrasound imaging is an important medical
           technique.
                  (1) read page 516
C. The Doppler Effect
     1. The Doppler effect is a change in sound frequency
     caused by motion of the sound source, motion of the
     listener, or both.
     2. As a source of sound approaches, an observer hears a
     higher frequency. When the sound source moves away,
     the observer hears a lower frequency.
D. Hearing and the Ear
     1. The outer ear gathers and focuses sound into the
     middle ear, which receives and amplifies the vibrations.
     The inner ear uses nerve endings to sense vibrations
     and send signals to the brain.
           a) page 517; figure 19
E. How Sound is Reproduced
         1. Sound is recorded by converting sound waves into
         electronic signals that can be processed and stored.
         Sound is reproduced by converting electronic signals
         back into sound waves.
               a) Page 518; Science and History
     F. Music
         1. Most musical instruments vary pitch by changing the
         frequency of standing waves.
               a) read page 521

Assignment: page 521; 1-9
            worksheet section 17.4

             The Electromagnetic Spectrum and Light
                          Chapter 18

I. Electromagnetic Waves
      A. What Are Electromagnetic Waves?
           1. Electromagnetic waves are transverse waves
           consisting of changing electric fields and changing
           magnetic fields.
           2. Electromagnetic waves are produced by constantly
           changing fields.
                 a) An electric field in a region of space exerts
                 electric forces on charged particles.
                 b) A magnetic field in a region of space produces
                 magnetic forces.
                 c) Electromagnetic waves are produced when an
                 electric charge vibrates or accelerates.
                 d) Electromagnetic waves can travel through a
                 vacuum, or empty space, as well as through
                 matter.
                       (1) The transfer of energy by
                       electromagnetic waves traveling through
                       matter or across space is called
                       electromagnetic radiation.
      B. The Speed of Electromagnetic Waves
            1. Michelson’s Experiment: page 534; figure 3
            2. Speed of Light
                  a) The speed of light in a vacuum, c, is 3.00 x 108 m/s
      C. Wavelength and Frequency
            1. Electromagnetic waves vary in wavelength and
            frequency.
            2. speed = wavelength x frequency
                  a) c = λν
      D. Wave or Particle
            1. Electromagnetic radiation behaves sometimes like a
            wave and sometimes like a stream of particles.
                  a) Evidence for the Wave Model: page 536;
                  figure 5
                  b) Evidence for the Particle Model
                        (1) The emission of electrons from a metal
                        caused by light striking the metal is called
                        the photoelectric effect.
                        (2) IN 1905, Albert Einstein proposed that
                        light, and all electromagnetic radiation,
                        consists of packets of energy called photons.
      E. Intensity
            1. The intensity of light decreases as photons travel
            farther from the source.
Assignment: page 535; math practice 1-3
              page 538; 1-10
              worksheet 18.1
II. The Electromagnetic Spectrum
      A. The Waves of the Spectrum
            1. The full range of frequencies of electromagnetic
            radiation is called the electromagnetic spectrum.
            2. The electromagnetic spectrum includes radio waves,
            infrared rays, visible light, ultraviolet rays, X-rays, and
            gamma ray.
                  a) Radio waves
      (1) Radio waves are used in radio and
      television technologies, as well as in
      microwave ovens and radar.
      (2) There are two ways that radio stations
      code and transmit information on radio
      waves.
            (a)In amplitude modulation, the
            amplitude of the wave is varied. The
            frequency remains the same.
            (b) In frequency modulation, the
            frequency of the wave is varied. The
            amplitude remains the same.
      (3) Radio waves also carry signals for
      television programming. The process is like
      transmitting radio signals. But one
      difference is that the radio waves carry
      information for pictures as well as sound.
      (4) Microwaves are the shortest
      wavelength radio waves.
            (a)Their frequencies vary from about
            300 megahertz to 300,000 megahertz.
            (b) They have wavelengths from
            about 1 meter to about 1 millimeter.
      (5) The word radar is an acronym for radio
      detection and ranging.
            (a)Radar technology uses a radio
            transmitter to send out short burst of
            radio waves.
                  (i) Doppler effect is an apparent
                  change in the frequency of a
                  wave.
b) Infrared Rays
      (1) Infrared rays are used as a source of
      heat and to discover areas of heat
      differences.
                        (2) Thermograms are color coded pictures
                        that show variations in temperatures.
                 c) Visible light
                        (1) People use visible light to see, to help
                        keep them safe, and to communicate with
                        one another.
                 d) Ultraviolet Rays
                        (1) Ultraviolet rays have applications in
                        health and medicine, and in agriculture.
                 e) X- Rays
                        (1) X-rays are used in medicine, and
                        transportation to make pictures of the inside
                        of solid objects.
                 f) Gamma Rays
                        (1) Gamma rays are used in the medical
                        field to kill cancer cells and make pictures of
                        the brain, and in industrial situations as an
                        inspection tool.
Assignment: Page 545; 1-7
             Worksheet section 18.2
III. Behavior of Light
     A. Light and Materials
           1. Materials can be transparent, translucent, or opaque.
                 a) A transparent material transmits light, which
                 means it allows most of the light that strikes it to
                 pass through it.
                 b) A translucent material scatters light.
                 c) An opaque material either absorbs or reflects
                 all of the light that strikes it.
     B. Interactions of Light
           1. When light strikes a new medium, the light can be
           reflected, absorbed, or transmitted. When light is
           transmitted, it can be refracted, polarized, or scattered.
                 a) Reflection
                      (1) An image is a copy of an object
                      formed by reflected (or refracted) waves of
                      light.
                      (2) Regular reflection occurs when
                      parallel light waves strike a surface and
                      reflect all in the same direction.
                      (3) Diffuse reflection occurs when parallel
                      light waves strike a rough, uneven surface,
                      and reflect in many different directions.
                b) Refraction
                      (1) A light wave can refract, or bend,
                      when it passes at an angle from one medium
                      into another.
                      (2) A mirage is a false or distorted image.
                c) Polarization
                      (1) Light with waves that vibrate in only
                      one plane is polarized light.
                             (a)page 548; figure 20
                d) Scattering
                      (1) Scattering means that light is
                      redirected as it passes through a medium.
Assignment: page 549; 1-7
            worksheet section 18.3
IV. Color
     A. Separating White Light Into Colors
          1. As white light passes through a prism, shorter
          wavelengths refract more than longer wavelengths, and
          the colors separate.
          2. the process in which white light separates into colors
          in called dispersion.
     B. The Colors of Objects
          1. The color of any object depends on what the object
          is made of and on the color of light that strikes the
          object.
     C. Mixing Colors of Light
           1. Primary colors are three specific colors that can be
           combined in varying amounts to create all possible
           colors.
                 a) The primary colors of light are red, green, and
                 blue.
           2. A secondary color of light is a combination of two
           primary colors.
           3. Any two colors of light that combine to form white
           light are complementary colors of light.
     D. Mixing Pigments
           1. A pigment is a material that absorbs some colors of
           light and reflects other colors.
           2. The primary colors of pigments are cyan, yellow,
           and magenta.
           3. Any two colors of pigments that combine to make
           black pigment are complementary colors of pigments.
Assignment: page 553; 1-8
              worksheet section 18.4
V. Sources of Light
     A. Objects that give off their own light are luminous.
     B. Common light sources include incandescent, fluorescent,
     laser neon, tungsten-halogen, and sodium-vapor bulbs.
           1. Incandescent Light
                 a) When electrons flow through the filament of an
                 incandescent bulb, the filament gets hot and emits
                 light.
           2. Fluorescent Light
                 a) A phosphor is a solid material that can emit
                 light by fluorescence.
                 b) Fluorescent light bulbs emit light by causing a
                 phosphor to steadily emit photons.
           3. Laser Light
                 a) A laser is a device that generates a beam of
                 coherent light.
                     (1) The word laser stands for light
                     amplification by stimulated emission of
                     radiation.
                     (2) Laser light is emitted when excited
                     atoms of a solid, liquid, or gas emit photons.
         4. Neon Light
               a) Neon lights emit light when electrons move
               through a gas or a mixture of gases inside glass
               tubing.
         5. Sodium-Vapor Light
               a) As electric current passes through a sodium-
               vapor bulb, it ionizes the gas mixture. The
               mixture warms up and the heat causes the sodium
               to change from a solid into a gas.
         6. Tungsten-Halogen Light
               a) Inside a tungsten-halogen bulb, electrons flow
               through a tungsten filament. The filament gets
               hot and emits light.
                     (1) The halogen gas reduces wear on the
                     filament causing the bulb to last longer.
Assignment: page 562; 1-8
            worksheet section 18.5

								
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