Hydroelectric Power by jennyyingdi

VIEWS: 18 PAGES: 38

									     Hydroelectric Energy




Lauren Banta, Camden Miller, Billy Moran, Alex
 Petkaas, Tori Shinohara, and Meghan West
         Hydroelectric power
 Purpose:    use water to create electricity
 Has been around since as early as 85 BC
 Produces about 15% of the world’s
  electricity
Top Hydroelectric Countries
           1992
Dams in the US
How it Works
     Economic Performance

 Almost   all eventually make a short run
  profit.
 Slightly more than half of all dams miss
  their initial economic return goals.
 About one-fifth of the projects achieve
  less than 75% of the planned power
  targets.
        Economic Performance
 The  average cost overrun of a large dam
  is 56%, yet variability is high.
 On average, one quarter of dams cost less
  than planned their cost targets while
  almost three-quarters of the dams produce
  cost overruns
             The Causes
 Poor development of technical and cost
  estimates and supervision by sponsors;
 Technical problems that arise during
  construction;
 Poor implementation by suppliers and
  contractors; and
 Changes in external conditions (economic
  and regulatory).
         Raising Efficiency
 Improvements    in generation can be
  achieved by a combination of factors such
  as adding
 new powerhouses to the same reservoir,
  adding additional turbines, upgrading
  existing turbine and generation equipment,
  or optimizing reservoir operations to
  improve performance.
                 Corruption?
 “In the case of developing countries, financial
  institutions have a preference for „large dams
  rather than non-structural alternatives. “

 “Allpublic financial institutions should
  immediately establish independent, transparent
  and participatory reviews of all their planned
  and ongoing dam projects. While such reviews
  are taking place, project preparation and
  construction should be halted.”
Silting Over of Dams
Problem #1
Problem #2




             Where’s
             the silt?
             .
Problem #3
Problem #4
Sediment fill behind dam in California
Problem #5
Hazards of Dam Failure
      (Teton Dam Failure)
Reasons for dam failure include:
            Negligent operation
       Improper maintenance/design
             Structural failure
             Internal erosion




               South Fork Dam Failure
           Results of Dam Failure
   Loss of life
   Property damage
   Hardships for those who
    rely on reservoir for
    water or livelihood
   Loss of capital
    investment by owner
   Destruction of wildlife
    habitats
   Adverse impacts on
    ecosystems of the area
Some Catastrophic Dam Failures
                                 Johnstown,
                                  Pennsylvania
                                  (1889)

                                 St. Francis Dam,
                                  California (1906)

                                 Buffalo Creek,
                                  West Virginia
                                  (1972)

                                 Teton Dam, Idaho
   St. Francis Dam Disaster
                                  (1976)
Salmon Life Cycle
                          Chinook Salmon from
                          Columbia River




Salmon swimming
upstream in Alaska




       Spawning Sockeye
       Salmon in the
       Brooks River
               Fish Ladders
 Concrete structures to help fish bypass dams
 Not on all dams




Ladders




                       Goose Dam on lower Columbia River
    Spillways                    .
 Way for juvenile
  fish to bypass
                                Grand
  down                          Coulee
                                Dam on
 Decreases O2
                               Columbia
  levels in water                River

 Increase CO2
  levels in water


     Fish Collection Channel
          Environmental Changes
   Increase in Water Temperature




McNary Dam on Columbia River


       Better habitat for predators
                                       Northern Squawfish
                         Before the construction
                          of the Grand Coulee Dam




After construction of
the Grand Coulee Dam
Three Gorges Dam
Micro-hydro power
  Micro-Hydroelectric systems
  have been around since 1970
 New technology has made
  these systems much more
  useful and efficient
 Can operate at 80% efficiency
  at full load
 Power that is produced is
  more cost effective than any
  other kind of renewable
  energy system
Power Output & Price

           Micro-Hydroelectric
         systems can usually
         create an output up to
         1kw
         These systems range
         from about $1,500 to
         $4,000
            Possible Alternative?
   The flow of water is not
    disrupted from these
    systems so there is not a
    problem of fish migration
   There is no dam in the
    water so there is no
    silting or dam failures
   Just need to find a way to
    use a lot of systems cost
    effectively in order to
    produce enough power
    as a normal Hydroelectric
    plant would produce
Types of Micro-Hydroelectric
         Systems
           There   are many
           different types of Micro-
           Hydroelectric systems
           Here are 3 Micro-
           Hydro systems from
           Energy Systems and
           Design
           (http://www.microhydropower.com/)
    How Micro-Hydro Systems Work




   Micro-Hydroelectric systems take water from a
    stream and channel it into a pipeline that
    creates a vertical drop in order for the water to
    turn turbines that powers the system
        More Micro-Hydro Systems




   Other micro-hydroelectric systems have water pass
    through a guide vane assembly which then turns the
    propeller which is connected to the generator
                      Comparison

    Coal Energy                    Hydroelectric Energy

 Uses Limited                      Uses Renewable
  Resource                           Resource
 Produces lots of Air              Does not produce Air
  Pollution                          Pollution
 More expensive                    Less expensive
       San Antonio                       Seattle
            $0.12-$0.15 per kWhr               $0.07-$0.09 per kWhr
             Conclusion
We do support the use of current dam to
produce hydroelectric power as opposed
to coal-burning,
                however,
the trend for the future will probably be
small-scale hydro plants that provide
energy for small communities

								
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