Rashes by 01dGd1AR



   Workplace Hazardous
Materials Information System
Unit 1

    Hazardous Chemicals
        Let’s Do an Experiment…
   Let’s take two safe chemicals and mix
    them together.
       Potassium permanganate
       Glycerin
   Both of these are available at any
     Reasons for WHMIS
   Designed after the US model called the
    “Right to Know” law.
   Conveys knowledge of hazardous
    chemicals to workers who use them in
    their jobs.
   Designed to reduce injuries and time lost
    due to exposure to hazardous chemicals.
     Some Hazardous Chemicals…
   Undercoats & Topcoats
   Hardeners
   Buffing Compounds
   Cleaners
   Solvents
   Body fillers
   Welding gases
   Adhesives
        Overexposure Effects
   Acute Exposure      Chronic Exposure
       Burns               Nerve Damage
       Dizziness           Lung Scarring
       Nausea
       Coughing
        Hazardous Materials
   Irritants
   Corrosives
   Toxins
       Poisons
   Carcinogens
       Chemicals that cause
   Allergenics
       Chemicals that cause
        an allergic reaction
        Lung Irritants
   Chemicals that affect the:
       Lungs and nasal passages
       Skin
       Eyes
        Upper Respiratory Irritants
   Affect the nose and throat
   Dissolved by water
   Normally not life-threatening
   Can make breathing difficult after long
   Found in:
       Thinners, plastic cleaners, urethane reducers,
        body fillers, polishes, weld-through primers,
        sodium hydroxide powder (from airbag
        Middle Respiratory Irritants
   Cause coughing and wheezing
   Partially dissolved by water
   Normally not life-threatening
   Can make breathing difficult after long
   Found in:
       Thinners, plastic cleaners, urethane reducers,
        body fillers, polishes, weld-through primers,
        sodium hydroxide powder (from airbag
        Lower Respiratory Irritants
   Travel deep into the lung
   Not dissolved by water
   Can be life-threatening
   Found in:
       Adhesives, rubberized undercoatings, paints
        that contain isocyanates
        Irritant Reaction
   Itching
   Burning
   Rashes
   Found in:
       Epoxy repair materials,
        plastic bonding
        cleaners, hardeners
        and reducers, body
        Corrosive Materials
   Can cause skin burns and respiratory
   Are found in many cleaning products and
    metal preparation materials
   Are either highly acidic or highly alkaline
   Examples include:
       Paint strippers, prep solvents, wire wheel
        cleaners, sulphuric acid in batteries, oxalic
        acid, full-strength degreasers
     Nervous System Effects
   Dizziness
   Headaches
   Nausea
   Blurred vision
   Poor coordination
        Nervous System Depression
   Ingredients that cause central nervous
    system depression include:
       Benzene
       Toluene
       Xylene
   These chemicals are added as thinning
    agents, allowing the product to be sprayed
    or flow easier.
   Toxins can be broken down into:
       Mild neurotoxins
       Liver toxins
       Reproductive toxins
       Blood toxins
        Mild Toxins
   Mild neurotoxins cause central nervous
    system depression and destroy nerve
   The effects of this condition are similar to
    drinking too much alcohol.
   Effects include:
       Dizziness, headaches, nausea, blurred vision,
        poor coordination
     Liver Toxin Exposure
   Exposure to liver toxins comes from
    breathing vapors while:
        Liver Toxin Chemicals
   Examples include:
       Toluene, xylene, butyl acetate, lead
        chromates, nickel compounds, methylene
   Found in some:
       Urethane enamels
       Adhesives
        Reproductive Toxins
   May cause birth defects
   Birth defects can vary from minor to severe
   Materials that may contain reproductive
    toxins include:
       Products containing toluene
       Gasoline
       Products containing lead compounds
       Acrylic lacquers
       Urethane enamels
        Blood Toxins
   Destroy or deform red blood cells
       Red blood cells carry oxygen through the blood
        stream. Destroying or deforming red blood
        cells reduces the amount of oxygen being
        carried through the blood stream
   Overexposure may cause difficult breathing
    or loss of consciousness
   Materials that may contain blood toxins
       Some aerosol cleaners and enamel clear coats
   Examples of carcinogenic materials
   May cause people to react to certain
   Normally do not cause a reaction when
    first exposed. The reaction starts with the
    second exposure.
   Each person will have a different reaction
    to different materials.
   Some materials contain chemicals that are
    more likely to cause reactions than others.
      Examples of allergens
   Acrylic sealers
   Adhesives
   Sealers
   Epoxy resins
   Clear coats
   Hardeners
   Activators
     Routes of Entry
   Breathing
   Swallowing
   Absorption through skin
   Injection through skin
     Breathing Hazardous Materials
   Most common way of entering the body.
   Starts when products being mixed, poured,
    or used, give off vapors or dust particles.
   Causes them to collect in the lungs and be
    absorbed into the blood stream.
   Can be prevented by wearing a proper
   Used to protect against:
       Grinding and sanding dust
       Undercoating and rust proofing mists
       Paint sprays
       Asbestos
       Welding fumes
       Glass fibers
        Types of Respirators
   Dust respirators
   Air-purifying respirators
       Fume respirators
       Vapor respirators
       Combination fume and vapor respirator
   Fresh-air supplied respirator
     Dust Respirators
   Generally used for dust that is non-toxic.
   Should not be used for fumes or chemical
   Should only be used if approved by NIOSH.
     Air-purifying Respirators
   Used when working with products that
    produce vapors, toxic dusts, asbestos,
    fumes, etc.
   Consist of a filter media, activated
    charcoal, or a combination of both.
     Vapor Filters
   Have an absorbent material, usually
    activated carbon, contained in a cartridge.
   Do not provide any protection from
    welding fumes.
     Fume Filters
   Made of layers of filter material.
   Do not provide any protection from
    chemical vapors.
     Combination Filters
   Combine a charcoal cartridge with a
    particle pre-filter.
   Provide protection from both chemical
    vapors and welding fumes.
        Choosing the Proper Respirator

   Cartridge-type filters are color coded to
    indicate the type of material each is
    designed to filter.
       Black color code is designed to protect against
        organic vapors.
       Orange color code is designed to protect
        against dust, fumes, and mists.
       Purple color code is designed to protect
        against fumes generated during welding
        NIOSH Classifications
   National Institute For Occupational Safety
    And Health
   Identifies a series of 3 particulate filters:
       100-rated filters (99.97% efficiency). This
        filter offers similar protection to HEPA filters.
       99-rated filters (99% efficiency).
       95-rated filters (95% efficiency).
   Divided in to 3 categories:
       ‘N’ for non-oil resistant, ‘R’ for oil resistant, ‘P’
        for oil proof.
        Cartridge-type Respirators
   Must be regularly cleaned and disinfected.
   Must be properly maintained:
       Check for cracks, tears, or holes before use.
       Replace clogged particle filters.
       Replace vapor cartridges if contaminates can
        be smelled or tasted. If the respirator is
        disposable, throw it away.
        Effects of Welding Fumes
   Welding requires wearing a welding fume
   Failure to wear a respirator could result in
    a sickness characterized by:
       Sore throat
       Fever
       Chills
       Nausea
       Headaches
        Effects of Welding Fumes
   These symptoms will usually occur within
    4-8 hours of exposure and can last as long
    as 24 hours.
   Fumes which can result in fume fever
       Zinc oxide, magnesium oxide, copper,
        cadmium, chromium, and lead.
        Effects of Welding Fumes
   Long-term exposure to these fumes may
    cause such illnesses as:
       Cancer of the kidneys, larynx, or urinary tract.
       Diseases of the heart, blood, stomach, and
       Skin sensitivity, hearing loss, or eye problems.
       Birth defects.
    Fit-testing Respirators
   To fit-test a respirator:
        Fasten the respirator around your head and neck.
         Make sure the fit is snug, but not too tight.
        Check the fit by covering the exhalation valve and
         gently exhaling. There should be a slight
         pressure inside the respirator without leaking at
         the seal.
        With cartridge-type respirators, cover the
         cartridges with your hands and inhale gently until
         the respirator collapses slightly.
        Hold your breath. The respirator should stay
         slightly collapsed and not leak from the sides.
     Air-supplied Respirators
   Must be able to supply Grade ‘D’ breathing
   Should be worn whenever using products
    containing isocyanates.
   Must be used when abrasive-blasting with
    silica sand.
   Can be supplied with air from the shop
    compressor or an air pump.
        Using Compressor Air
   To ensure Grade ‘D’ air from a shop
    compressor, a 3-stage filter is generally
       Bulk liquids and visible particles (stage 1)
       Particles and liquid droplets larger than .01
        microns (stage 2)
       Hydrocarbons and odors from the compressed
        air (stage 3)
     Full-face Coverage
   Since isocyanates can enter the body
    through the eyes, a hood or full-face mask
    is recommended. Safety glasses do not
    offer enough protection for painters.
        General Respirator Rules
   Must be NIOSH approved.
   Employees must be trained on their use.
   May not be altered in any way.
   Must be stored in a location that prevents
    deformation of the face piece and
    exhalation valve and protects them from:
       Dust, sunlight, extreme temperatures,
        excessive moisture, and damaging chemicals.
     Ingesting Hazardous Chemicals

   Swallowing is the second most common
    way hazardous materials enter the body.
   Ingestion can occur by:
          Not washing before eating.
          Eating or drinking in an area where hazardous
           materials are used.
          Biting fingernails.
          Touching the mouth while coughing or sneezing.
          Smoking after handling hazardous materials.
     Preventing Hazardous Ingestion
   To prevent ingesting
    hazardous materials:
       Wear gloves when handling
        hazardous materials.
       Wash hands after any
        contact with hazardous
       Keep hands away from the
       Eat and smoke only in
        designated areas.
     Absorption Through Skin
   Hazardous materials can be absorbed
    through the skin. Skin is porous, like a
Skin Cutaway
        Absorption Through Skin
   Absorption occurs by:
       Skin contact, such as picking up a solvent-
        soaked cloth.
       Washing hands with gasoline or other solvent.
       Floor cleaning materials splashing into shoes.
   Always wear protective equipment such as:
       Gloves
       Aprons
       Boots
        Absorption Through Eyes
   Hazardous materials
    can also enter eyes
    through exposure to
       Vapors
       Dust
       Spills
   Wear safety goggles
    to help prevent eye
     Injection in Skin
   Hazardous material can enter the body
    through injection. This can be caused by a
          Entering through a broken cut or a skin rash.
          Being forced through the skin by air tools or
           cleaning equipment.
   Prevent injection by:
          Covering and protecting open cuts or sores.
          Following recommended safety procedures when
           working with tools and cleaning equipment.
    Review Question #1

Technician A says that lethal exposure to hazardous
materials can occur from biting fingernails or not
washing before eating. Technician B says that lethal
exposure can occur from breathing the vapors or dust
of a hazardous material. Who is right?

       A.   Technician A only
       B.   Technician B only
       C.   Both Technician A and Technician B
       D.   Neither Technician A or Technician B
    Review Question #2

 Technician A says that overexposure effects are
classified as either acute or chronic. Technician B says
that acute exposure is repeated exposure over a long
time and chronic exposure is a one-time sudden, high
exposure to a chemical. Who is right?

        A.   Technician A only
        B.   Technician B only
        C.   Both Technician A and Technician B
        D.   Neither Technician A or Technician B
    Review Question #3
Technician A says a supplied air respirator should
always be worn whenever painting for proper protection
against isocyanates. Technician B says any respirator
will provide adequate protection against welding fumes
as long as it is approved by both NIOSH and MSHA and
properly maintained. Who is right?

       A.   Technician A only
       B.   Technician B only
       C.   Both Technician A and Technician B
       D.   Neither Technician A or Technician B
       Review Question #4

   The most harmful type of lung irritant is the:

              A.   Upper respiratory irritant
              B.   Middle respiratory irritant
              C.   Lower respiratory irritant
              D.   None of the above
       Review Question #5

   Hazardous materials can enter the body by:

        A.   Swallowing the material
        B.   Absorbing the material through the skin
        C.   Injecting the material into the skin
        D.   All of the above
Product Labels

  Unit 2
        Product Labels
   All materials in the
    workplace are
    required to have a
    label. Labels are an
    important source of
    information that may
       The name of the
       Part number
    Product Labels (Cont’d)
   Possible hazards when using the material
   Hazard symbols
   A statement that the MSDS is available
   How to safely handle the material Suggestions
    for first aid treatment
   The manufacturer’s name, address, and
    emergency telephone number
   The intended use of the product
     Minimum Label Requirements
   Labels for hazardous materials are required
    to provide:
        A product
         identifier or
        Hazard warnings.
        A statement that
         the MSDS is
     What If There Is No Label?
   Do not handle the product.
   Determine the nature of the material from
    the shop manager.
   Place a label on the container once the
    material has been identified.
        Hazard Symbols
   Hazard symbols on product labels are in
    picture form so they can be read in any
    language. The symbols show an
    immediate hazard warning about the
    contents of the container. Examples are:
       Cylinder
       Flame
       Skull and crossbones inside a circle
       Hand being corroded by a chemical
     Compressed Gasses
   White cylinder on a green background
     Flammable and Combustible
   Flame on a red background
     Oxidizing Material
   Flame over a circle on a yellow background
     Immediate Toxic Effects
   Causes immediate and serious (acute) toxic
   Skull and crossbones on a white
      Other Toxic Effects
   Causes other toxic effects.
   Letter ‘T’ with a dot below it.
      Biohazardous Materials
   Four overlapping circles.
      Corrosive Materials
   Hand and piece of material being corroded by
    a liquid.
      Dangerously Reactive Materials
   Letter ‘R’ with a test tube in the middle.
        Types of Labels
   There are 3 types of labels commonly used
    for identifying hazardous materials. These
       Supplier labels
       Workplace labels
       “Other Means” of identification labels
        Supplier Labels
   Must contain:
       Product name
       Supplier identifier
       Statement of MSDS
       Hazard symbols
       Handling, use & storage
       First aid measures
       Risk phrases explaining
        possible dangers of the
        Risk Phrases
   Examples of risk
       Explosive
       Flammable
       Lung irritant
       Causes burns
       May cause birth defects
       Reacts violently with
       May cause cancer
        Container Label Requirements
   The supplier does not
    have to label:
       An inner container if the
        outer container is properly
        labeled and the workplace
        agrees to apply labels to
        the inner container.
       The package liner of a
        hazardous material.
       The outer container if the
        inner container label can
        be seen and read through
        the outer container.
     Limited Vs. Detailed Label
   Supplier labels can be either detailed or
    basic depending on the size of the
    containers as long as the minimum
    requirements are met.
        Workplace Labels
   Labels created and attached in the
       Usually a result of pouring material into a
        smaller container.
            Example of mixing paint using a mixing system
   Only 3 items required on the label:
       Product identifier
       Hazard warning information
       Reference to MSDS
     Workplace Label Format
   Can be a pre-
    made format
    or something
    as simple as
    masking tape.
     Personal Protection Symbols
   Some workplace labels include personal
    protection symbols that can be checked.
        Code Symbols
   Some workplace labels may also have a
    system of codes to show the level of
    certain elements in a hazardous material.
   The system measures:
       Health hazards
       Flammability
       Reactivity
       Personal protection required
        Code Symbols
   Code system has 5 numbers (0-4).
   The higher the number, the higher the
    danger level.
       0   is   very low danger
       1   is   slightly dangerous
       2   is   moderately dangerous
       3   is   seriously dangerous
       4   is   severely dangerous
        Code Symbols
   For example, a material with a:
       Flammability of 0 is not likely to catch fire.
       Flammability of 4 will catch fire very easily.
       Health hazard of 2 is moderately hazardous to
        your health.
   The code numbers can usually be found on
    the MSDS.
        Code Symbols
   Codes are shown in different colored
       Blue for health hazard
       Red for flammability hazard
       Yellow for a reactivity hazard
       White for personal protection information
   The 4 categories are usually shown in the
    form of a diamond.
Code System Example
Hazard Code Information
     “Other Means” Label
   Used when labels are not visible due to
    something covering the labels
          Labels covered in paint
          Large storage containers where labels are hidden
           from view
   Examples:
          A mark or symbol on the container
          Special colour coded area
          A sign or placard above or off to one side that
           indicates what the material is
      Paint-Covered Container

   Paint waste
   Paint
   Large
Review Exercise
Technician A says that workplace labels are normally
created when the contents of a larger container are
transferred into a smaller container. Technician B says
that workplace labels do not need to meet the minimum
label requirements. Who is right?
A.   Technician A only
B.   Technician B only
C.   Both Technician A and Technician B
D.   Neither Technician A or Technician B
Technician A says workplace labels are required to
follow a code system that measures a material’s
flammability, shelf life, and reactivity. Technician B
says workplace labels can take any form as long as they
contain the basic information. Who is right?
A.   Technician A only
B.   Technician B only
C.   Both Technician A and Technician B
D.   Neither Technician A or Technician B
The supplier label:

A. Must be attached to any hazardous material
  that comes into the shop.
B. Needs only to contain the product name,
  statement that a MSDS is available, and risk
C. Needs to have black text over a white
D. All of the above.
The blue section of the code system indicates:

A.   Fire hazards.
B.   Reactivity.
C.   Specific hazards.
D.   Health hazards.
Examples of “other means of identification” labels

A. Marks or symbols.
B. Special color coded areas.
C. Signs or placards above or off to the side of the
D. All of the above.
Unit 3

 Material Safety Data Sheets
          Label vs. MSDS

   MSDS:
       More detailed
       Overexposure
       Detailed
        steps to avoid
       Emergency
Employer-Written MSDS
          MSDS Includes:
   Product information
   Hazardous ingredients
   Physical data
   Fire and explosion hazards
   Reactivity data
   Health hazard data
   Preventive measures
   First aid measures
   MSDS preparation
Product Identification
Hazardous Ingredients
Physical Data
Fire & Explosion Data
Fire Extinguishers

      A – Ordinary combustibles
      B - Flammable liquids
      C - Electrical fires
      D - Combustible metals
Reactivity Data
Health Hazard Data
            Exposure Limits

   Must be comfortable
   Know your physical
   Maintain equipment
   Know signs of respirator
   Store properly
Preventive Measures
     Types of Hazardous Waste

   Thinners
   Cleaning solvents
   Metal-etching acid
   Used batteries
   Waste oil
   Antifreeze
First Aid Measures
MSDS Preparation Information
Unit 4

    Workplace Education
      Supplier Responsibilities

   Classify and label supplied materials
   Provide current MSDS
   Provide source for data on toxicity of a
  Employer Responsibilities

Labels     MSDS       Training
Inventory Roster
    Hazardous Materials Inventory

   Count materials
   Refer to purchase
   Look at MSDS
       Employer Responsibilities

   Make sure MSDS is
   Add new information
   Have MSDS available
   Make sure workers understand
   Have MSDS information available for
    medical personnel
       Employee Education Program

   Assign ownership
   Set up check system
   Make sure copy of
    program is available
   Schedule employees for
   Set up training records
   Review program once per
Employee Testing Procedures

                 Give employees a
                  written test
                 Conduct a hands-on
                 Set up a mock
                  emergency and test
                  the response
    Employee Responsibilities

   Know and understand labels
   Follow label directions
   Follow safe-use procedures
   Know MSDS information
   Know emergency procedures
   Avoid removing or defacing labels
   Inform employer of missing information
   Wear required equipment
   Help develop safety plan
Requirement List
Review Exercise

        (Page 75)
Technician A says that the MSDS provides information
on hazardous material handling, storage, and use.
Technician B says that the MSDS can be used in place
of a label. Who is right?
A.   Technician A only
B.   Technician B only
C.   Both Technician A and Technician B
D.   Neither Technician A or Technician B
Technician A says that manufacturers and suppliers are
responsible for supplying training to those who work
with hazardous materials. Technician B says the
employer needs to supply training for each hazardous
material used in the workplace. Who is right?
A.   Technician A only
B.   Technician B only
C.   Both Technician A and Technician B
D.   Neither Technician A or Technician B
The section of the MSDS that explains what conditions,
such as heat or shock, make the hazardous material
unstable is:
A.   Hazardous Ingredients
B.   Fire and Explosion Data
C.   Reactivity Data
D.   Physical Data
Technician A says that the First Aid Measures section of
the MSDS explains how to treat a worker who has been
overexposed to a material. Technician B says medical
or emergency personnel generally need the First Aid
Measures section. Who is right?
A.   Technician A only
B.   Technician B only
C.   Both Technician A and Technician B
D.   Neither Technician A or Technician B
The section of the MSDS that explains how to control
the material during a spill or leak is:
A.   Hazardous Ingredients
B.   Fire and Explosion Data
C.   Reactivity Data
D.   Preventive Measures

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