Proteins Fats Carbohydrates
Fiber Water Vitamins
About 17 minerals are considered ‘essential’ to
humans… required for proper functioning and good
health. Seven of them are macrominerals. The
remaining ten are needed by the body in daily
amounts of 0.01g or less. They are called the
MICROMINERALS or TRACE MINERALS.
Iron (Fe) is a key element in the metabolism of almost
all living organisms. In humans, iron is an essential
component of hundreds of proteins and enzymes.
Hemoglobin and myoglobin
of the blood are iron-
containing proteins that are
involved in the transport and
storage of oxygen.
An iron-containing enzyme
is required for DNA
synthesis. Iron is required
Anemia results in a decreased for a number of vital
amount of oxygen being delivered functions, including growth,
to the cells. reproduction, healing, and
The amount of iron in food (or
supplements) that is absorbed and
used by the body is influenced by
Heme iron is found mostly in meat,
the iron nutritional status of the
fish, and poultry. It is more readily
individual and whether or not the
absorbed than nonheme iron.
iron is in the ‘heme’ (hēm) or
‘nonheme’ form. Individuals who are
anemic or iron deficient absorb a
larger percentage of the iron they
consume (especially nonheme iron)
than individuals who are not anemic
and have sufficient iron stores.
Nonheme iron is found in plants, dairy
products, meat, and iron salts added to
foods and supplements. The
absorption of nonheme iron is strongly
influenced by other foods in the same
meal such as ‘enhancers’ (vitamin C)
and inhibitors (polyphenols like coffee
and tea, and soy protein).
The recommended daily allowance of iron is:
Adolescents 14-18 years: 11mg for males and 15mg for females
Adults 19-50 years: 8 mg for males and 18mg for females
Adults 51 years and older: 8mg for males and 8 mg for females
Overdoses of iron are the leading An iron deficiency eventually
cause of poisoning fatalities in results in iron deficiency anemia.
children under 6 years of age. Symptoms may include
Symptoms may include nausea, paleness, fatigue, rapid heart
vomiting, abdominal pain, tarry stools, rate, palpitations, and rapid
lethargy, weak and rapid pulse, low breathing on exertion. Iron
blood pressure, fever, difficulty deficiency impairs athletic
breathing, and coma. performance and physical work
capacity, and the ability to
maintain a normal body
temperature on exposure to
cold. Severe cases may result in
brittle and spoon-shaped nails,
sores at the corners of the
mouth, taste bud atrophy, and a
Iodine (I), a non-metallic
trace element, is required
Thyroid hormones regulate a number of by humans for the
physiologic processes, including growth and synthesis of thyroid
repair of tissues, metabolism, functioning of hormones.
nerves and muscles, reproductive function,
development of the fetus, and the condition
of the skin, hair, teeth, and nails.
The iodine content of most foods depends
on the iodine content of the soil. Seafood
is rich in iodine because marine animals
can concentrate the abundant levels of iodine
in seawater. Certain types of seaweed are
also very rich in iodine. Processed foods may
contain slightly higher levels of iodine due to
the addition of iodized salt or food additives,
such as calcium iodate and potassium iodate.
Dairy products are relatively good sources of
iodine because iodine is commonly added to
animal feed in the U.S.
Salt (iodized) 1 gram 77mcg
Cod 3 ounces 99mcg
Milk (cow's) 1 cup (8 fluid ounces) 56mcg
Turkey breast, baked 3 ounces 34mcg
Tuna, canned in oil 3 ounces (1/2 can) 17mcg
Adolescents 14-18 years 150mcg/day for males and females
900 UL (upper tolerable limit)
Adults 19 years+ 150 mcg/day for males and females
1,100 UL (upper tolerable limit)
The spectrum of IDD (iodine deficiency
disorders) includes mental retardation,
hypothyroidism, goiter, and varying
degrees of other growth and
developmental abnormalities. Goiter, or
the enlargement of the thyroid gland, is
one of the earliest and most visible
signs of iodine deficiency.
Acute iodine poisoning from overdose is
rare and usually occurs only with doses of
many grams. Symptoms of acute iodine
poisoning include burning of the mouth,
throat, and stomach; fever; nausea;
vomiting; diarrhea; a weak pulse; and coma.
Zinc (Zn) is an essential trace element for all forms of
life. The significance of zinc in human nutrition and
public health wasn’t recognized until 1961.
Numerous aspects of cellular
metabolism are zinc-dependent.
Zinc plays important roles in
growth and development, the
immune response, neurological
function, and reproduction. On
the cellular level, the function of
zinc can be divided into three
categories: 1) catalytic, 2)
structural (of proteins and cell
membranes, and 3) regulatory
(binds to DNA and influences
the transmission of genes)
Shellfish, beef, and other red
meats are rich sources of
The zinc in whole grain products zinc. Nuts and legumes are
and plant proteins is more difficult relatively good plant sources
for the body to absorb. The enzymatic of zinc.
action of yeast in leavened whole
grain breads improves absorption.
Oysters 6 medium (cooked) 76.3mg
Beef 3 ounces (cooked) 6.0mg
Turkey (dark meat) 3 ounces (cooked) 3.8mg
Milk 1 cup (8 ounces) 1.8mg
Beans, baked 1/2 cup 1.8mg
Adolescents 14-18 years 11mg/day for males 9 mg/day for females
Adults 19 years and older 11mg/day for males 8mg/day for females
The symptoms of severe zinc
deficiency include the slowing or
cessation of growth and
development, delayed sexual
maturation, characteristic skin
rashes, chronic and severe diarrhea,
immune system deficiencies,
impaired wound healing, diminished
appetite, impaired taste sensation,
night blindness, swelling and
clouding of the corneas,
and behavioral disturbances.
Overdoses of zinc have occurred as a result of the consumption of
food or beverages from galvanized containers. Signs of acute zinc
toxicity are abdominal pain, diarrhea, nausea, and vomiting. Single
doses of 225 to 450 mg of zinc usually induce vomiting. Long-term
excesses of zinc result in copper deficiencies.
Copper (Cu) is an essential trace element for humans and animals. In
the body, copper shifts between the cuprous (Cu1+) and cupric (Cu2+)
forms, though the majority of the body's copper is in the Cu2+ form.
The ability of copper to easily accept and donate electrons explains
its important role in oxidation-reduction (redox) reactions and in
scavenging free radicals.
Copper is a critical
functional component of a
number of essential
enzymes. One of these
enzymes helps maintain the
integrity of connective tissue
in the heart and blood
vessels and also plays a role
in bone formation. Others Dark chocolate
help metabolize iron and has high levels
contribute to the correct of dietary
functioning of the brain and copper.
Remember this slide and
how antioxidants work?
This is a free Now that the radical
radical with one This is the antioxidant.
He prevents the free has two electrons, he
unpaired electron. is no longer free to do
radical from continuing
He is destroying his destruction, by harm.
fat and some giving him an extra More free radicals may
proteins, and electron to hold onto. be created as a result
accelerating aging of tobacco, alcohol,
in a process called COPPER EASILY FINDS
FREE RADICALS AND stress, lack of sleep,
oxidation… while poor diet, and
trying to find a DONATES
Copper is found in a wide
variety of foods.
It is most plentiful in organ meats, shellfish, nuts, and seeds. Wheat
bran cereals and whole grain products are also good sources.
The tolerable upper intake level (UL) of copper is:
Adolescents 14-18 years 8,000 mcg/day
Adults 19 years and older 10,000 mcg/day 900 mcg is the RDA
Copper deficiency may present itself
as a form of anemia or in abnormally
low numbers of white blood cells,
accompanied by increased
susceptibility to infection; low body
temperature, bone fractures and
osteoporosis, irregular heartbeat,
loss of skin pigment, and thyroid
Copper overdose has occurred through the
contamination of beverages by long-term
storage in copper-containing containers or
water standing in copper pipes. Symptoms of
acute copper toxicity include abdominal pain,
nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. Of more concern
from a nutritional standpoint is the possibility of
liver damage resulting from long-term exposure
to lower doses of copper.
Manganese (Mn) is a mineral found in large
quantities in both plant and animal matter, but It aids in the
only trace amounts can be found in human formation of
tissue. Manganese is predominantly stored in connective tissue,
the bones, liver, kidney, and pancreas. bones, blood-
clotting factors, and
sex hormones and
plays a role in fat
Manganese is also
normal brain and
nerve function. Like
copper, it is an
Whole grains are a major source of dietary manganese. Refined
grains provide only half the amount of manganese as whole grains.
Other rich dietary sources of manganese include nuts and seeds,
legumes, pineapples, and green or black teas.
The adequate intake (AI) for manganese is 2.3 mg/day
for adult men and 1.8 mg/day for adult women.
Manganese rarely causes side effects
when taken orally, but there are
numerous symptoms when
manganese is ‘inhaled’ (such as by
industrial workers or miners or taken
intravenously, such as loss of
appetite, headaches, leg cramps,
muscle rigidity, tremors, convulsions,
extreme irritability, acts of violence,
and hallucinations. Low levels of manganese in the body
can contribute to infertility, bone malformation,
weakness, and seizures. Since calcium,
phosphorous, and manganese work closely
together in the body, dietary requirements of
manganese may increase as calcium and
Malformation at end of bone phosphorous consumption increases.
Fluorine (F) occurs naturally as the negatively charged ion, fluoride(F-).
Fluoride is considered a trace element because only small amounts are
present in the body (about 2.6 grams in adults), and because the daily
requirement for maintaining dental health is only a few milligrams a
day. About 95% of the total body fluoride is found in bones and teeth.
Although humans do not require fluoride for growth or to sustain life,
its role in the prevention of tooth decay is well established. Fluoride
hardens tooth enamel and stabilizes bone mineral.
Fluoride is absorbed in
the stomach and small
intestine. Once in the
blood stream it rapidly
tissue (bones and
developing teeth). At
usual intake levels,
fluoride does not
accumulate in soft
The major source of
dietary fluoride in the
U.S. diet is drinking
water. Most home
water filters do not
however most bottled
water is low in
toothpastes also add
fluoride to the body.
Rich sources of fluoride include tea, which concentrates fluoride in its
leaves, and marine fish that are consumed with their bones (e.g.,
sardines). Foods made with mechanically separated (boned) chicken,
such as canned meats, hot dogs, and infant foods, also add fluoride to
the diet. In addition, certain fruit juices, particularly grape juices, often
have relatively high fluoride concentrations.
Adolescents 14-18 years 3.0 mg/day males 3.0 mg/day females
Adults 19 years and older 4.0 mg/day males 3.0 mg/day females
In humans, the only clear effect of inadequate fluoride intake is an
increased risk of dental caries (tooth decay) for individuals of all ages.
that children under 6
years of age ingest an
average of 0.3 mg of
with each brushing.
Children under the age of 6 years who ingest more than 2 or 3 times
the recommended fluoride intake are at increased risk of a white
speckling or mottling of the permanent teeth, known as dental
Chromium (Cr) is an
essential mineral that
The dietary form of chromium is not made by the
is known as trivalent body and must be
chromium, or chromium III. obtained from the
Chromium is important in the diet.
metabolism of fats and
carbohydrates . Chromium
stimulates fatty acid and
cholesterol synthesis, which
are important for brain
function and other body
appears to enhance the action
Non-dietary chromium is known as The pancreas produces the
hexavalent chromium (VI), used for industrial
hormone insulin, which
purposes. It is a strong skin irritant and is
acts like a key…unlocking
recognized as a carcinogen (causes cancer)
when inhaled. cells and allowing them to
Processed meats, whole grain products, ready-to-eat bran
cereals, green beans, broccoli, and spices are relatively rich in
chromium. Foods high in simple sugars, such as sucrose and
fructose, are not only low in chromium but have been found to
promote chromium loss
Adolescents 14-18 yrs 35 mcg/day for males 24 mcg/day for females
Adults 19 to 50 years 35 mcg/day for males 25 mcg/day for females
No adverse effects have been
convincingly associated with
excess intake of chromium (III) from
food or supplements
have been promoted as a
way to build muscle and
lose weight. There is no
scientific evidence to
Selenium (Se) is required for the functioning of several selenium-
dependent enzymes called selenoproteins. These selenoproteins are
antioxidant enzymes, which play a role in preventing cell damage.
Selenium appears to
stimulate antibodies after
you receive a vaccination.
It also may help protect
the body from the
poisonous effects of
heavy metals and other
After a calf was fed a
selenium-deficient diet, it
died of a heart attack.
This cross-section of its
heart shows a white area
or dead tissue in the
Plant foods, such as vegetables, are the most common dietary
sources of selenium. How much selenium is the vegetables you eat
depends on how much of the mineral was in the soil where the plants
grew. Fish, shellfish, red meat, grains, eggs, chicken, liver, and garlic
are all good sources of selenium. Meats produced from animals that
ate grains or plants found in selenium-rich soil have higher levels of
Brewer's yeast, used in the production of
beer and wine, is a good source of
selenium…but can cause bloating.
The UL (upper tolerable level) of selenium is 400 mcg/day for
adolescents and adults.
Too much selenium in the blood can cause a
condition called selenosis. Selenosis can
cause loss of hair, nail brittleness, nausea,
irritability, fatigue, and mild nerve damage.
Other symptoms may include
gastrointestinal disturbances, skin rashes, a
garlic breath odor, fatigue, irritability, and
nervous system abnormalities.
Selenium deficiency is rare in people in the
United States. However, selenium deficiency
may occur when a person is fed through a vein
(IV line) for long periods of time. Keshan
disease is caused by a deficiency of selenium,
leading to an abnormality of the heart muscle.
Kashin-Beck disease, which results in joint and
bone disease, is also linked to selenium
Molybdenum (Mo) is an essential trace element for virtually all life
forms. It functions as a cofactor for a number of enzymes that
catalyze important chemical reactions in the carbon, nitrogen and
Enzymes are catalysts.
An enzyme has a protein
component and a non-
protein component… a
is a cofactor.
This leg bone of a sheep
shows painful, bony knobs
caused by an excess of
Legumes, such as beans, lentils, and peas, are the richest sources of
molybdenum. Grain products and nuts are considered good sources,
while animal products, fruits, and many vegetables are generally low
in molybdenum. Because the molybdenum content of plants depends
on the soil molybdenum content and other environmental conditions,
the molybdenum content of foods can vary considerably.
Adolescents 14-18 years 43 mcg/day for males and females
Adults 19 years and older 45 mcg/day for males and females
Deficiencies are rare, especially considering
that the average dietary intake of molybdenum
in the U.S. averages 76 mcg/day for women
and 109 mcg/day for men.
Patients fed strictly
through IV’s and
heart and Extreme overdose:
respiratory rates, acute psychosis with
headache, night hallucinations,
blindness, and seizures, and other
ultimately became neurologic
comatose. symptoms; gout-like
Cobalt (Co) is a naturally occurring
element in the earth’s crust. It is a
very small part of our environment
and very small amounts are needed
for good health. Cobalt is a
component of Vitamin B12.
As a component of Vitamin
B12, cobalt helps red blood
cell production, nervous
system function, sperm
production, normal growth
and the proper function of
the immune system. It has
also been shown to improve
memory and concentration.
Industrial sources of cobalt in:
Dyes and pigments (Cobalt Blue)
Dietary sources of cobalt are the
Drill bits and machine tools
same as vitamin B12, such as foods
of animal origin or fermented foods
where the bacteria produce the
vitamin. Organ meats are the best
source of vitamin B12 (liver, kidney,
heart, and pancreas), followed by
clams, oysters, extra-lean beef,
seafood, eggs, milk and yogurt,
chicken, cheese, and miso.
Miso is a fermented soy product with the consistency of peanut
butter. It has a strong, savory flavor and is often used in Japanese
soups and sauces.
The RDA for cobalt has not been set,
but should be considered the same as
for Vitamin B12, around 1.5 mcg/day
(micrograms per day)
Cobalt poisoning can occur when you
are exposed to large amounts of
cobalt. You can swallow too much of
it, breathe too much into your lungs,
Above: lamb on cobalt deficient
or have it come in constant contact diet
with your skin. Industrial exposure to Below: lamb with normal diet
high amounts of cobalt and
consumption of beer contaminated
with excessive amounts of cobalt can
produce heart problems.
A deficiency in cobalt is ultimately a
deficiency in vitamin B12 and would
be characterized by fatigue, diarrhea,
depression, nerve damage, and