Childhood Obesity

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					  Childhood Obesity


       Mary E. LaBella
 Maternal and Child Health
Social Work Leadership Team
     November 5, 2004
Purpose of the Presentation


In order to be leaders in the fight
against childhood obesity WE
MUST BE WELL INFORMED.
      Goals and Objectives
 Goal
  Each recipient will be well-informed on
  the topic of childhood obesity
 Objective
  Each recipient will be able to define
  childhood obesity and discuss its multi-
  faceted nature
         What is Obesity?
 The presence of a body mass index
  (BMI) greater than the 95th percentile for
  age and sex according to national
  growth charts.
 The most common nutritional disorder
  among our nation’s youth.
       Contributing Factors of
        Childhood Obesity
   Medical
   Behavioral
   Reduced energy expenditure
   Societal pressure
   Nutritional transition
Physical Consequences
             Cardiovascular
             Respiratory
             Endocrine
             Metabolic
             Orthopedic
     Long-term Consequences
   Adult obesity
   Cardiovascular disease
   Breast cancer
   Colon caner
   Type 2 Diabetes
   Financial ramifications
  Psychological Factors

 Lowered self-esteem
 Increased depression ratings
 Social outcasts
        Psychosocial Aspects
   Fewer years of education
   Lower family income
   Higher poverty rates
   Lower marriage rates
       Diagnostic Methods
 Research - underwater weighing,
  multifrequency bioelectrical impedance
  analysis, and magnetic resonance
  imaging
 Clinical - weight for height, body mass
  index (BMI = weight (kg) / height (m)),
  waist circumference, and skinfold
  thickness
                    Epidemiology
                       All     White Black    Mex-
                                              Amer
Boys & Girls             %       %      %       %


Birth – 23 Months       11.4    10.1   18.5    13.7


2 – 5 Years             10.4    10.1   8.4     11.1

6 – 11 Years            15.3    11.8   19.5    23.7

12 – 19 Years           15.5    12.7   23.6    23.4
                    Epidemiology
                       All     White Black    Mex-
                                              Amer
Boys                     %       %      %       %


Birth – 23 Months       10.4    9.2    16.2    13.6


2 – 5 Years              9.9    8.8    5.9     13.0

6 – 11 Years            16.0    12.0   17.1    27.3

12 – 19 Years           15.5    12.8   20.7    27.5
                    Epidemiology
                        All     White Black    Mex-
                                               Amer
Girls                    %        %      %       %


Birth – 23 Months        12.8    11.7   20.9    13.8


2 – 5 Years              11.0    11.5   11.2    9.2

6 – 11 Years            14.5     11.6   22.2    19.6

12 – 19 Years           15.4     12.4   26.6    19.4
                Prevention
 Risk factors to be addressed:
 high birth weight

 maternal smoking in first trimester

 early introduction to solid foods

 overweight parents

 Black, Caribbean, or Pakistani ethnic

  group
              Prevention
 Risk factors to be addressed:
 socio-economic deprivation

 > 11 hours/week TV/video

 low participation in school sports

 few interests involving active play

 > 2 hours per day traveling by car

 few siblings
             Treatment
 A combination of simple dieting and
  exercise is not the “magic bullet.”
 Interventions should focus on
  acceptance of realistic body weight and
  the incorporation of healthy eating and
  physical activity.
       Treatment – Family
          Involvement
 The home, with parental and family
  involvement, appears to be the most
  influential treatment setting.
 Combination of behavioral, social
  learning, and family system approach.
 “Parenthood Presence”
  Cultural and Socioeconomic
            Aspects
 White children are at a reduced risk for
  obesity than their African American and
  Hispanic counterparts.
 Research shows that environmental factors
  that promote increased energy intake and
  decreased energy output are increasing and
  have a significant effect on children from
  various ethnic backgrounds.
  Cultural and Socioeconomic
            Aspects
 SES is inversely associated with
  childhood obesity among whites, yet
  higher SES does not seem to protect
  African American and Hispanic children.
  Cultural and Socioeconomic
            Aspects
 African American and Hispanic youth
  tend to have lower levels of physical
  activity and dietary patterns that
  contribute to higher BMIs compared to
  white children.
Organizational and Community
           Factors

           Fast-paced
           Career-
            oriented
           Limited
            access to
            treatment
           Ethical Issues

   Self-determination
   Autonomy
   Service
   Dignity and worth of the person
 Social Work Interventions

 Macro level
 health education

 lobby local units of government

 organize family events
Social Work Interventions

  Micro level
  prenatal counseling

  family education

  counseling

  planning
         In Conclusion….
 Childhood obesity is a growing epidemic
  that disproportionately affects
  minorities.
 Childhood obesity is not just an
  individual disease with individual
  consequences, but a public health issue
  with many causes and effects.
         In Conclusion….
 Due to its multi-faceted nature,
  childhood obesity needs to be
  addressed ACROSS ALL HELPING
 PROFESSIONS in an
 INTERDISCIPLINARY MANNER
 In order to combat childhood obesity
  we must involve FAMILIES, not just the
  obese child
Any Questions?

				
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