Card #1: Early People/History

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Card #1: Early People/History Powered By Docstoc
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  50 Multiple Choice Questions
  1 Thematic Essay
  1 DBQ
  8 – 12 Scaffolding Questions
  3 Hours
  You must stay for 2 hours
  Essay and docs in blue or black pen
  Multiple choice in pencil
Questions

  Questions 1 – 40 (approx) are
   chronological
  Questions 40 – 50 are random
  Maps, charts, graphs, quotes, and
   passages make up to 15 questions
  30 (or so) questions from Global 10
Needs

  2 Pencils
  Blue or Black Pens
  Essay in pen
  Sign your name
  Eat breakfast
  Sleep
Card #1: Social Studies/Early
People
  Nomads/Hunter-Gatherers – people who
   moved from place to place and followed
   food sources
  Neolithic Revolution – beginning of
   farming, permanent settlements, and
   domesticated animals
  River Valleys – Cradle of Civilization,
   fertile land
Card #1: Early People/History

  Culture/Cultural Diffusion
  Civilization – governments, writing, laws,
   architecture
  Primary Source – first hand account
  Economist – Money
  Anthropologist – Studies people
  Archaeologist – Studies artifacts
Card #2 – China/Yellow River

  Huang    He (Yellow) River –
   “River of Sorrows”; loess makes
   it yellow and fertile
  Dynastic Cycle – leader rules
   until he loses the Mandate of
   Heaven
  Written language
Card #3 – Mesopotamia: Tigris and
Euphrates Rivers
  Rivers   flood and leave behind fertile
   silt
  Major city-state: Sumer;
  Also known as Fertile Crescent
  Modern day Iraq
  Polytheistic. Built temples called
   ziggurats
  System of writing was cuneiform
Card #3 – Mesopotamia: Tigris and
Euphrates Rivers (cont)
 Babylonians:
  Hammurabi – written system of laws;
  unequal for poor
    “an eye for an eye”
Card #4 – Egypt: Nile River

  Hieroglyphics – system of writing
  Papyrus - paper
  Contributions: science, medicine,
   math, pyramids
  Advanced Civilization
  Pharaoh
  Polytheism
Card #5: Classical Greece

    Located on Mediterranean Sea; Greeks
     became skilled seafarers
    Geography: Many small islands and
     mountains led to disunity among Greeks and
     creation of independent city-states
    Sparta: militaristic
    Athens: education, culture and first direct
     democracy
    Athens was a limited democracy (only adult,
     land owning male citizens could vote)
    Philosophy in Athens: Socrates, Plato
Card #5: Classical Greece (cont)

 Alexander the Great:
  created a large empire and culture that
   included Greek, Indian, Persian, and
   Egyptian cultures
  Became known as Hellenistic Culture
  Advancements in science, math,
   architecture (GOLDEN AGE)
Card #6: Classical Rome

    Rome begins as a Republic: government
     officials chosen by the people
    Social Classes: Patricians (rich) and Plebeians
     (poor)
    The Senate was the governing body
    12 Tables – written laws (compare with…)
    Rome becomes an empire
    Pax Romana – period of peace in the Roman
     Empire (led by Augustus Caesar)
Card #6: Classical Rome


  Roman Impact: Laws, architecture,
   roads, aqueducts, Greco-Roman culture
  Bread and Circus – gladiator fights
  Fall of Rome: corruption, invasions, high
   taxes
  Rome is divided into two parts to make it
   more manageable (western empire
   called Rome, eastern called Byzantine)
Card #7: Byzantine Empire

  The Roman Empire is split because it is too
   large
  The western part was Rome and the eastern
   part was Byzantine
  Byzantine preserved Roman culture and laws
   with Justinian’s Code of Laws (compare
   with…)
  Greatly influenced Russia’s alphabet (Cyrillic)
   and religion (Orthodox Christianity)
Card #8 – Trading Routes

  Silk Road (China) stretched up to 4000
   miles– cultural diffusion
  Phoenicians – Mediterranean trading
   empire. Contribution - alphabet
  Zheng He (China) – sea trade. Canton,
   China became trading center
Card #9 – Christianity and Judaism

  Monotheistic
  Ten Commandments – written laws,
   moral and ethical code of conduct
  Torah – Jewish holy book, half of the
   Christian Bible (Old Testament)
  Important people: Jesus, Moses
Card #10 - Islam

  Monotheistic
  God: Allah
  Founder: Muhammad
  Holy City – Mecca
  Holy Book – Koran (Qu’ran)
Islam (cont)

    5 Pillars of Islam –
      Faith – in one God
      Prayer – 5X per day facing Mecca

      Fasting – one month during daylight

      Pilgrimage (hajj) – to Mecca once in your
       life
      Alms (Charity) – to the less fortunate
Card #11 – Hinduism and Buddhism

 Hinduism:
  Caste system: social class system with
   no mobility
  Reincarnation – rebirth. Which caste
   determined by karma (actions in life; can
   be good or bad) and dharma (moral and
   religious duties)
  Moksha – enlightenment; end of
   reincarnation
Card #11: Hinduism and Buddhism
(cont)
 Buddhism
  Founder: Siddhartha Guatama
  Reincarnation (same as Hindu)
  Nirvana: enlightenment; end of
   reincarnation (same as moksha)
Card #11: Hinduism and Buddhism
(cont)
 Buddhist Holy Laws
  Four Noble Truths
    Suffering exists because of desire. No
     desire, no suffering
    Eightfold Path – The way to avoid suffering
Card #12: Other Religions

 Confucianism (China):
  Everyone has a duty or responsibility
   based on their position in life
  5 Relationships: Inferior must serve
   superior
  Filial Piety: Respect for parents
  Basis for civil service exams in China
Card #12: Other Religions (cont)

 Shinto and Animism
  Spirits exist in everything
  Worship of nature
Card #13: Islamic Civilization

 Golden Age:
  preserved Greco-Roman culture
  Learning: algebra, medicine, architecture
  KING


 LORDS


VASSALS

KNIGHTS

 SERFS
Card #14: Medieval Europe

    Feudalism (MANORIALISM) – social and
     political system where everyone had a
     responsibility to someone else
    All lived on a manor; self-sufficient
    Lords owned land, knights protected it
     (chivalry), serfs worked the land
    Church was very powerful
    Black Plague killed many; spread thru trade
Card #15: The Crusades

  Pope asks Christians to take back the
   Holy Land (Jerusalem) from the Muslims
  They go because: promised heaven,
   gain land, excitement, escape feudalism
  Christians win at first, but can’t keep
   Jerusalem
  Effects: trade, new products, learning,
   cultural diffusion, feudalism ends
Card #16 - Japan
            EMPEROR


             SHOGUN


             DAIMYO

             SAMURAI

            PEASANTS
Card #16 - Japan

  Borrow culture from Korea and China
  Feudalism
  Daimyo = Lord
  Samurai = Knight
  Bushido = Chivalry
Card #17 - Mongols
Card #17 - Mongols

  Unified by Genghis Khan
  Warriors on horseback; nomads
  Very large empire
  Pax Mongolia: stability and peace
  Marco Polo: traveled and wrote about
   time with Mongols in China
Card #18: West African Civs
Card #18: West African Civs

  Mali, Ghana, Songhai engaged in salt
   and gold trade through the Sahara
  Timbuktu: center of learning and trade
  Mansa Musa: spread Islam
Card #19: Renaissance
Card #19: Renaissance
    Begins in Italy b/c of ports, patrons who pay
     for art
    Humanism: focus on the individual and
     present life
    Michelangelo: Sistine Chapel, David
    Da Vinci: Renaissance Man
    Shakespeare: sonnets, plays
    Machiavelli: wrote The Prince, gain and keep
     power at any cost
    Printing press: invented by Gutenberg;
     increased literacy and spread ideas
Card #20 – Protestant Reformation

  Martin Luther posts the 95 Theses
   complaining about the Church, specifically the
   sale of indulgences, or pardons for sins
  Protestants: Christian religions that “protested”
   the Catholic Church
  John Calvin: Calvinism; predestination (your
   path in life is already chosen)
  King Henry VIII created Anglican Church, or
   Church of England
Card #21: Counter (Catholic)
Reformation
  Catholic Church reforms to win back
   followers by holding the Council of Trent
  Reformation leads to disunity in religion
   in Europe
Card #22: Spain/Portugal

  Use of sailing technology such as the
   compass, astrolabe, and caravel allows
   Spain and Portugal explore
  Dias and da Gama sail to and around the
   tip of Africa
  Columbus sails to “India”
  New trade routes created
  Spanish conquistadors
Card #22: Spain/Portugal
Card #23 - Mesoamerica
Aztecs

  Mexico City
  Advanced Civilization – architecture,
   science, math, calendar
  Polytheistic
  Chinampas – floating gardens (adapting
   to environment)
Maya
Maya

  Mexico (Yucatan Peninsula)
  Advanced Civilization
Inca
Inca

  Andes Mts, Peru, South America
  Terrace Farming on mountains (adapting
   to environment)
  City Planning – roads
Card #24: Exploration

  Conquistadors: Pizarro (Inca) and Cortes
   (Aztec)
  Encomienda System: social class
   system of Spanish America based on
   place of origin
Card #24: Exploration (cont)

  Native Americans die out due to disease
  Triangular Slave Trade: African slaves
   for raw materials for finished products
  Columbian Exchange: global exchange
   of food, people, ideas, etc
  Mercantilism: nations should export more
   than they import, and the colonies should
   help
Card #24: Exploration
Card #25: Absolutism

   Absolute Monarch – complete control
    over a nation
   Divine Right – authority to rule from God
   Louis XIV (France): “The Sun King” – “I
    am the state.”
   Peter the Great (Russia): westernize;
    wanted a warm water port
Card #25: Absolutism (cont)

 England: Responses to Absolutism
  Magna Carta, Glorious Revolution, and
   the English Bill of Rights: led to England
   becoming a limited monarchy
Card #26: Scientific Revolution

  Scientific Method - experiment
  Copernicus – heliocentric model
  Galileo – Telecope
  Newton – Gravity
  Observation, inquiry,
 experimentation
Card #27: Enlightenment

  Question, reason, democracy
  Locke – natural rights (life, liberty, and
   property)
  Montesquieu – separation of powers and
   checks and balances
  Voltaire – free speech
  Effects: American Rev, French Rev
Card #28: French Rev/Napoleon

  Causes: Enlightenment, American Rev,
   Inequality
  3rd Estate: High taxes, no say in gov’t
  Bastille – symbolic of the revolution
  Declaration of Rights of Man
  Robespierre – Reign of Terror
Card #28: French Rev/Napoleon

  Napoleon – Napoleonic Code (equality),
   large empire, defeat in Russia
  Congress of Vienna – gave Napoleon’s
   land back to previous monarchs
Card #29: Latin American
Revolutions
  Toussaint L’Ouverture and Simon
   Bolivar: independence
   leaders/nationalists/revolutionaries
  Spanish America: Encomienda system.
   Peninsulares (pure Spanish blood) on
   top
Card #29: Latin American
Revolutions
Card #30: Nationalism

  Italy: Cavour, Garibaldi, and Mazzini are
   nationalists/unifiers
  Germany: Otto von Bismarck (OVB)
   used blood and iron to unify German
   speaking people
Card #31: Industrial Revolution

  Caused by agricultural revolution and
   population explosion
 Effects
  Urbanization (increase population in
   cities), child labor, child labor laws,
   improved living standards, better and
   faster products, rise of the middle class
   and big business
Card #31: Industrial Revolution
(cont)
  Karl Marx (Marxism): The lower class (the
   have nots or the proletariat) will revolt against
   the factory owners (haves or the bourgeoisie)
   in an uprising that will spread across the
   world. History is based on social class
   struggles.
  Adam Smith (Capitalism/Market
   Economy/Laissez Faire): prices set by supply
   and demand; consumers have choices
Card #31: Industrial Revolution
(cont)
  Laissez Faire: gov’t stays out of people’s
   economic affairs
  Example: Irish potato crop fails; many
   die, many migrate to America
Card #32: Imperialism

 Caused by:
  racism (White Man’s Burden: a poem
   that spoke of the inferiority of the
   Africans)
  Desire for natural resources
  Missionaries
 Berlin Conference – Africa divided up by
   European powers
Card #32: Imperialism

    China: Boxer Rebellion/Opium Wars
     were fought to get rid of foreign
     influence. Spheres of influence were
     trading areas for foreign powers
Card #32: Imperialism (cont)

 India:
 Received technology and modernization
   but also suffered greatly.
 Sepoy Rebellion – fight against disrespect
   of Indian culture (compare with…)
Card #33: Meiji Restoration

  Japan was isolationist, but the West
   wanted to trade with them
  Matthew Perry arrives and forces them
   to sign the Treaty of Kanagawa
  Meiji Restoration – Shogun is taken out
   and Emperor Meiji modernizes,
   westernizes, and industrializes Japan
  Trade increases and Japan gains
   colonies
Card #34: World War I
 Causes:
  Nationalism: Serbia wanted their
   independence from Austria. A nationalist
   assassinated Archduke Ferdinand of Austria-
   Hungary.
  This area was called the Powder Keg because
   it could blow at any minute
  Militarism: Germany built up their military
  Alliances: Triple Alliance (Central Powers) and
   Triple Entente (Allies)
Card #34: World War I (cont.)

  Trenches, technology (tanks, machine
   gun, poison gas), total war (all of the
   nation’s resources went to the war effort)
  US enters due to unrestricted sub
   warfare
  Russia exits due to Russian Revolution
  Treaty of Versailles: Blame, reparations,
   lost land and military for Germany, new
   nations created, League of Nations
Card #35: Russian Revolution

  Czar is a totalitarian ruler
 Causes of revolution:
  World War I, Bloody Sunday
Card #35: Russian Revolution

  March Revolution: Czar out; Temporary
   Gov’t set up; they fail b/c they stay in WWI
  November Revolution: Bolsheviks
   (communists), led by Lenin, take over
  Peasants support them b/c they promise
   “Peace, land, and Bread”
  Set up a command economy (communism)
   where the state controls everything
Card #35: Russian Rev (cont)

  Stalin takes over and focuses on industry
   (5 year plan) and agriculture (combining
   small farms into state run collective
   farms)
  Causes mass starvation and kills those
   who oppose him
  Great Purge – fake trials and
   imprisonment (in Gulags) or killing of
   opposition
Card #36: Rise of Fascism

  Fascism uses extreme nationalism,
   terror and censorship
  Germany: facing hyperinflation,
   desperation, and anger after WWI, Hitler
   is able to gain power
  Italy: Mussolini gains power
  The Allies and League of Nations
   appease Hitler by letting him take over
   countries with no consequences
Card #37: World War II

 Causes:
  Appeasement (Munich Conference)
  German and Axis Powers aggression
   (Poland was the last straw)
 Major Events:
  Pearl Harbor, Stalingrad (cold in Russia),
   Invasion of Normandy, Hiroshima and
   Nagasaki
Card #37: World War II (cont)

 Effects
  United Nations
  Germany Divided into democratic and
   communist zone
  Nuremberg Trials – Nazis on trial for crimes
   against humanity
  Marshal Plan - $ to rebuild Europe
  Truman Doctrine – military protection to fight
   dictatorship
Card #38: Cold War
 Iron Curtain
  NATO (democratic) vs. Warsaw Pact
    (communist) – military alliances
  satellites (countries surrounded and controlled
    by the USSR)
  Marshall Plan ($ used to combat communism)
  Containment (keeping communism where it is)
  Domino Effect
  Non-alignment – countries who took sides on
    a case by case basis (India)
Card #38: Cold War (cont)

 Key Events:
  Cuban Missile Crisis
  Vietnam and Korean Wars – example of
   containment and domino theory
  Berlin Airlift
  Berlin Wall
  Space and Arms Race
Card #39: Collapse of Communism

 Reasons for the Fall of the Soviet Union
  Policies of Gorbachev: glasnost (free speech)
   and perestroika (some capitalism)
 Effects of fall of USSR:
  End of Cold War and communism
  Berlin Wall falls
  Transition to market economy and democracy
   for former satellites in eastern Europe
  Free elections and new nations formed
Card #40: Chinese Communist
Revolution
  Commies led by Mao; supported by
   peasants
 Mao’s Policies:
  Great Leap Forward: tried to improve
   industry; set high quotas; led to backyard
   furnaces; communes for farming; leads
   to starvation
  Cultural Revolution: Red Guards beat
   anyone who opposed Mao
Card #40: Chinese Comm. (cont)

 Deng’s policies
  Four Modernizations
  Limited Privatization: allows some
   capitalism into China; successful
  Limited Human Rights: Tiananmen
   Square Massacre
  Different from Mao b/c…
  Same as Mao b/c…
Card #41: Decolonization

  After WWII many colonies gain
   independence from their imperialists
  African independence
   leaders/nationalists: Kwame Nkrumah
   and Jomo Kenyatta
Card #41: Decolonization (cont)
    South Africa had apartheid: a system of
     unequal legal segregation of the black and
     white South Africans
    Blacks had to carry passbooks, couldn’t
     intermarry, etc.
    African National Congress (ANC), led by
     Nelson Mandela tried to end minority rule
    Mandela imprisoned; other countries use
     sanctions
    White rule ends in 1994 and Mandela elected
     president
Card #41: Decolonization (cont)

    India
      Gandhi uses civil disobedience to fight
       British imperialism (Salt March)
      India is freed in 1947. It is also divided into
       India (for Hindus) and Pakistan (for
       Muslims)
      Massacres follow as each migrate to their
       new home
Card #42: Modern Latin America

  Developing Nations: Poor healthcare,
   government instability
  Trying to turn to democracy
Card #43: Hot Spots

    Israel:
      Israelis (Jews) vs. Arabs (Muslims)
      Balfour Declaration promised Jews a
       homeland
      Palestine, an Arab nation is divided for the
       creation of Israel
      Since, constant conflict. Hamas is a terrorist
       group trying to remove Israel
      Camp David Accords: peace between Israel
       and Egypt
Card #43: Hot Spots (cont)

    Ethnic Conflict
      Ireland: Protestants vs. Catholics
      Rwanda: Hutu vs. Tutsi

      India vs. Pakistan (over Kashmir and
       nuclear weapons
Card #43: Hot Spots (cont)

    Ethnic Cleansing/Genocide
      Slobodon Milosevic (Yugoslavia)
      Pol Pot (Cambodia)

      Darfur
Card #44: Current Issues

  Deforestation: in Amazon Basin and
   Sub-Saharan Africa
  Green Revolution: farming technology
  Overpopulation
  Urbanization
  Environmental probs caused by burning
   of fossil fuels
  Solution: International cooperation
Card #45: Other Stuff

     Indus River: Monsoons, city planning
     Golden Ages: Maurya, Gupta, Tang, Song
     Trading cities: Venice, Mogadishu, Canton
     Anti-Semitism: Prejudice against Jews
     Ibn Battuta: wrote about his travels
     Ataturk: modernized Turkey
     Zionism: Jewish nationalism
     Ho Chi Minh: Vietnam nationalist
     European Union: economic alliance
     NAFTA: economic alliance
     OPEC: oil producing nations

				
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