Strategies by gK7QZS



    Working with our
   - Assessing phase

   Ask the student to explain the current
    assignment and how they have completed
    similar assignments in the past
   Discuss the effectiveness of the previous
    strategies used
   Determine if a new approach is needed

      Determine the assigned task (answering questions at
       the end of a chapter, studying for a test, writing a report)
      Identify the student’s current way of completing the task
      Help student to learn a more efficient and effective
       strategy for completing the task
      Know what YOUR knowledge is about the task
         – combine a strategy you already know with the student’s
           current approach
         – build a new strategy from scratch.
Constructing phase

   Weaving procedure
   Building procedure
Weaving procedure

      Listing the steps of the previously used approach
      Remind the student about its effectiveness
      Adding steps to the list that will create an effective
      Refine the steps
      Reviewing/listing the steps of the combined strategy
      Comparing the new strategy to the student’s previously
       used approach
The Theme Writing Strategy

Weaving Procedure Example

 Step 1: List the student’s approach to the task

            *Turn the paper in
 Step 2: Add steps to create an effective strategy
            Think about the topic
            Revise the draft
            Make a final copy
            *Turn the paper in

 *Denotes student contribution
Building procedure

      Begin the assignment
       –   some may actually be completed together
       –   until you are familiar with the task
      “stand back” from the task and analyze the steps being
      List the steps being used
      Refine the wording in the steps
      Have the student list/review the steps (notecard)
      Compare the new strategy to the student’s old
       approach to the task.
Modeling the strategy

   demonstrate the thinking processes by
    “thinking aloud”
   the student sees and hears the steps of the
    strategy performed correctly
Checking for Understanding

 –   ask the student to name the steps and when
     you use them
 –   talk about the benefits of the strategy
 –   where the strategy can be used
 –   why each step is important
 –   any changes the student can see to make it
     more personalized or efficient
Provide Feedback

      positive: tell what the student did correctly
      corrective: point out any errors
       –   prioritize the order you discuss them
       –   demonstrate what it should have looked like
       –   have the student practice
       –   explain once practiced successfully
      make sure it is individualized and confidential
      immediately
Factors that make for
Effective Feedback

   Feedback is positive              Feedback is
    –   What did they do               individualized and
        correctly?                     confidential
   Feedback is corrective            Feedback is immediate
    –   Specify errors
    –   Specify how to avoid the
    –   Model
    –   Practice/feedback
Transferring phase

  –   Celebrate student mastery of the strategy and progress
      toward the student becoming better learner
  –   Develop a plan for the student independently use the
         Specific places/classes where the strategy can be used
         Specific assignments on which the strategy can be used
         Dates and times when the student will actually apply the
          strategy to the assignments
         Dates and times when the student and AC staff can review
          the results of these applications.
  –   Monitor and provide feedback outside of a tutoring
      session (classroom)
Critical Features of Strategies

  –   Must be directly related to the assignment
  –   Relates to a key academic task that the student will encounter
      many times as a learner
  –   Practical and easy to use
  –   Comprised of a logical sequence of several steps
  –   Coordinated system of learning behaviors that good learners use
  –   Each step should begin with a verb
  –   Easy to remember…short and made up of words that a student
      can easily read and understand
  –   The total numbers of steps must be less than seven
  –   Have a memory device built into them
  –   Produce a positive outcome
The Self-Questioning Strategy
Step Sequence

 Step 1: Attend to clues as   Step 4: Identify the
 you read                     answers

 Step 2: Say some questions   Step 5: Talk about the

 Step 3: Keep predictions
 in mind

Categories of strategies

  –   Framework Strategies
         Writing essay papers
         Reading/understanding textbooks
         Studying for a test
         Planning a semester
         PREP
The PREP Strategy Steps

   Step 1: Preview the reading
   Step 2: Read key paragraphs
    –   Read a paragraph
    –   Ask yourself, “What is the main idea and
        important details?”
    –   Put the main idea and details into your own words
   Step 3: Express ideas in writing
   Step 4: Prepare study cards
Categories of strategies

  –   Building block strategies
          Make up the framework strategies
            – paraphrasing within “PREP”
            – LINCS
LINCS Vocabulary Strategy Steps

   Step 1:   List the parts
   Step 2:   Imagine a picture
   Step 3:   Note a reminding word
   Step 4:   Construct a LINCing story
   Step 5:   Self-test
Categories of strategies

  –   Finishing-touch strategies
          Built around individual needs

   reading materials to/with students
   supervising the practice of newly acquired
   reviewing lessons and giving informal tests
   directing lessons through questions
   providing feedback and reinforcement
   preparing materials for tutoring
Knowing the student

   The more you discover about a student, the
    easier it becomes to work with him or her.
Getting to Know the Student

   Observe the student
   Open conversation with the student
   Be approachable
   Meet the student in a relaxed, friendly manner;
    work beside the learner set an example by being
    courteous and respectful be supportive and provide
   Communicate that learning is an important and
    worthwhile task
   Maintain a sense of humor

   Student’s skill level
   Strengths and weaknesses
   Instructional strategies
Instructional Techniques

   Giving directions (using appropriate vocab., etc.)
   Modeling
   Providing Feedback (keeping the student on task
    with verbal and nonverbal reinforcement)
   Questioning procedures
    –   Ask open-ended questions (require more than a yes or no
    –   Ordering questions sequentially to guide a student toward
        the conclusion
    –   Varying the levels of questions (Bloom’s)
More Teaching Strategies

   Providing Choices
   Success through Challenges
   Shortened Assignments
   Simplifying Reading level of Material
   Planned Ignoring
Active listening

 Students often are not explicit about the help they
 Actively listening to a student means that you pay
  special attention to what the student is saying and
  respond back in a way that encourages him or her
  to say more.
 Active listening encourages further conversation
 when you repeat back the general meaning of what
 you heard the person say.
Active listening-examples

   The student explains that a particular problem or
    concept is difficult and he or she is confused as to
    the meaning of the operation or information.
   “It seems to me you are having problems
    understanding what to do when
    _________________ happens.”
   “It sounds like ____.”
   “What I heard you saying is _____.”
Learning styles

   Notice and ask your students how they learn
   Visual, Auditory, and Kinesthetic (Physical)
Visual learning

   These are students that need to see how a
    problem is worked.
   When asked about studying, they make lists,
    underline text, high-light notes, and use
    pictures and illustrations.
Auditory learning

   These are students who prefer to listen to
    tapes, lectures, and talk over problems with
    other people.
   Auditory learners need to formulate answers
Kinesthetic learning

   These are students who like to put things
    together and take them apart.
   They want to see inner workings and
    manipulate data as much as possible.
Tutoring to different learning styles

   For visual learners, give them pictures and diagrams
    to observe and study. Have them draw their own
    pictures/diagrams of the concepts with which they
    are struggling.
   For auditory learners, have them think aloud and
    discuss the problematic issues with you or others
    before they write out any problems.
   For kinesthetic learners, make models or equipment
    available to them to explore the problems on which
    they are working.
Tutoring to different learning styles

   Tutoring to different learning styles
   Notice their “body language” that might indicate
    stress, confusion, nervousness, frustration, or
   Ask about different ways they might study.
   You can help tutees enhance their learning by telling
    them about learning styles and helping them see
    when each style is most productive for each tutee.
Getting the most out of a tutoring

   Tutoring is much more than working
    problems or explaining concepts.
   Tutors need to explain very clearly what the
    intent of the tutoring session is at the very
    beginning of the session.
    –   This will help the tutor and student make the most
        of the session and avoid miscommunications.
Homework sessions

   Tutors can
    –   explain how to work a problem or the meaning of a concept.
    –   Help the student’s understanding about the larger
        framework of the course or the academic area in general.
   Tutors should not do the students’ homework for
   Tutors need to set the ground rules for homework
    sessions ahead of time and honestly confront
    students’ efforts to the contrary.
Project design/feedback

   A tutor can
          – Provide critique of a tutee’s project design or drafts
          – Provide advice on how to work with team members

   A tutor should not
          – Provide insights into other teams’ projects
          – Become a de facto team member
What can't be accomplished in
tutoring sessions

   Repeating a lecture
    –   It is the student’s responsibility to obtain all class
    –   Suggest that the student get the notes from a
        friend and then come back to see you with
The importance of communication

   Communication means paying attention to what you,
    the tutor, are thinking and feeling.
   Test your own emotional "barometer" before you get
    started on another person's problems.
   Communicate what you know to students.
    –   Don’t try to bluff
    –   Admit to errors or not knowing
    –   Volunteer to find out the right answer, and follow up
   Be their advocate and coach.
Successful tutoring

   You need to actively listen to your students.
   You need to evaluate how to best help them.
   You need to be firm about how and in what
    ways you can help them.
   You need to communicate with them

                caught                 FRONT

                     Zero or nothing

       He caught nothing
BACK   during his fishing
       Relationships between the Different Categories of Strategies

A “Framework” Strategy:         A “Building Block”     A “Finishing Touch”
                                Strategy: RAP          Strategy: PAT

                            Read a paragraph           Pick a question type
Preview the reading

                            Ask yourself what is the   Ask yourself the
Read key paragraphs         main idea & important      question

Express ideas in writing                               Talk about the answer
                            Put the main ideas &
                            details into your own
Prepare study cards         words

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