Binge Drinking by qnbYDMHx


									             and Substance Abuse
Stress    is inevitable…
It is the body’s reaction
to protect itself from emotional,
physical pressures, and in extreme
circumstances…from   danger
             STRESS FACTS
   80 % of health-care expenses is spent on
    stress-related disorders
   1 in 10 Americans suffer from anxiety
   In 1998, 46 % of American population report
    feeling highly stressed.
   Ten million Americans see a psychiatrist for
    stress-related issues each year.
   One-third of the population make Stress
    Management a New Year’s Resolution each
                  Reported Level of Stress
                     in Military Life
                 Army      Navy      Marine    Air Force      Total

                 None   A Little   Some   Fairly Large     Great Deal

Lesson 3: OH-6
Rev: 26-Mar-03
Rank Ordered Sources of Stress Among
Military Personnel
                 MALES                                             FEMALES
 1.   Being Away From Family                           1. Being Away From Family
 2.   Deployment                                       2. Changes in Family
 3.   Increases in Work Load                           3. Increases in Work Load
 4.   Financial Problems                               4. Conflict with Supervisor
 5.   Conflicts Between Military and                   5. Work Relationships
      Family Responsibilities                          6. Conflicts Between Military and
 6.   Work Relationships                                  Family Responsibilities
 7.   Conflict with Supervisor                         7.5. Financial Problems
 8.   Changes in Family                                7.5. Having a PCS
 9.   Having a PCS                                     13. Deployment

           Source: 1995 Department of Defense World Wide Survey of Health Related Behaviors.

Lesson 3: OH-7
Rev: 26-Mar-03
       Body’s Response to Stress
   Fight                      Flight

   Blood pressure rises
                               Stress hormones are
   Tightening of
    muscles.                    released.
   Changes in blood           Increased
    flow/circulation.           perspiration.
   Breathing becomes          Imbalances in
    more rapid.                 normal hormone
   Increased heart rate.       levels.
    Body’s Response to Stress
   Stress activates adaptive responses. It heightens
    memory. This is why people remember stressful
    events more clearly.

   Mild stress causes changes that are useful. Stress
    can actually heighten our ability to focus and
    increase our capacity to react.

   After a stress reaction, the body repairs itself. When
    chronic stress exists, there is no time for the body to
    repair and damage results.
                 Stress Factors
   Lifestyle and Work           Health and Nutrition
•   Too much or too little       Stress eating
•   Time pressure and            Using/Increasing
    deadlines                     Caffeine
•   Lack of clear plans and      Smoking
                                 Increasing Alcohol
•   Inability to complete
    assignments/projects         Lack of Exercise
•   Family changes               Lack of Relaxation
•   Frustration/boredom          Lack of Sleep
    with current roles           No FUN!!
•   Disruptions to Plans
                Stress Factors
   Environmental                 Stress-Building
   Noise                          Beliefs
   Insufficient working and      Do you feel a constant
                                   pressure to achieve?
    living space
                                  Do you criticize yourself
   Pollution                      when you are not perfect?
   Crowding and invasion of      Do you give up
    personal space                 pleasure/relaxation in order
   Lack of light                  to get more done?
   Poorly organized or run       Do you feel you have not
    down environment               done enough no matter how
                                   hard you try?
                   Stress Responses
   Physiological               Cognitive
•   Sleep Deprivation        •   Information: Too much/too
•   Heart palpitations           little
•   Tightness of chest       •   Unpredictability
•   Butterflies in stomach   •   Indecisiveness
•   Dry Mouth/Dehydration    •   Hard Choices VS No Choices
•   Fatigue                  •   Feeling Trapped
•   Sweaty all Over
•   Muscle Aches
•   Impaired Immune
            Stress Responses
   Emotional                   Chronic Stress
•   Panic!!!!
•   Out of control
•   Rejected
•   Keyed up/on Edge
•   Isolated/Lonely
•   Criticized
•   Afraid
•   Feelings of Doom/Gloom
•   Angry
Body’s Response to Stress
   Chronic stress causes physical illness….colds,
    stomach problems, headache, lack of concentration,
    chronic fatigue, depression.
   Extreme stress can lead to the anxiety disorder of
    post traumatic stress disorder.
   PTSD can occur in people of any age, including
    children and adolescents.
   Symptoms of PTSD can include: insomnia, irritability,
    exaggerated startle response, re-occurring thoughts
    about the incident
Risk Factors for Too Much
   Away from support system (family, friends,
   Inconsistent work responsibilities and
   Feeling of lack of control over personal and
    work environment
   Inconsistent or not enough sleep
   Lack of leisure/relaxation time
   Perceived stressful work/living environment
   Boredom, lack of challenge
Stress and Drug Abuse
   Stressful events may increase the use of
    alcohol and other drugs (the 1995 DOD health
    survey reports that military members site “stress” as
    the reason for drinking).
   Stress is one of the major factors known to
    cause relapse to smoking, even after a long
    period of non-smoking.
   Children exposed to severe stress are more
    vulnerable to future drug use.
   Of individuals with substance abuse
    problems, up to 60 % meet the criteria for
    post traumatic stress.
   25% of military personnel use alcohol and
    cigarettes as a coping mechanism for dealing
    with stress
Stress and Substance Use Among
Military Women and Men
   Military men experiencing high workplace stress were
    more likely than those experiencing low stress to be
    heavy alcohol users, illicit drug users, and tobacco
   For women, high levels of stress at work and home
    did not affect alcohol and other drug use. For
    stressors related to being a woman in the military,
    illicit drug use and tobacco use increased.
Stress and Drug Abuse
   Alcohol is a depressant drug.
   It interrupts sleep.
   It inhibits the body’s ability to handle
    the physical responses to stress.
   It dehydrates.
   It prevents development of healthy
    coping habits.
                Drinking Safely
   U.S. Department of Health and Human
    Services recommends that for those who CAN
    safely drink not drink more than:
     1 drink a day for women
     2 drinks a day for men

     1 drink per hour

    Standard Drink: 12 oz of beer, 5 oz of wine, 1.5
        ounces of liquor. These all contain the same
        amount of alcohol…your brain cannot tell the
        difference between a beer and a shot
Factors that Increase Impairment


  As a rule, a small person experiences
    greater impairment from a given
    amount of alcohol than a large person.
    Also, because degree of impairment is
    related to total body fluid
Factors that Increase Impairment
Women are typically more impaired from
 the same amount of alcohol then men
 of the same size. Women have more
 body fat and less blood.
Drinking alcohol with an empty stomach
 causes greater impairment
Factors that Increase Impairment

Someone who is tired, sick, or just getting well
  experiences greater impairment from alcohol.
  Fatigue adds greatly to increased risk,
  especially for shift workers.
This refers to all drugs, legal and illicit. Drinking
  alcohol while taking any drug can intensify or
  weaken the effect of the drug. It can also
  intensify the effect of the alcohol. It is
  dangerous & can be fatal.
            Dealing with Stress
   Be aware of the physical and emotional

   Counteract chronic and severe stress with
    good eating habits, more sleep, choosing
    healthy activities that promote fun and

   Take charge of what you can

   Talk it out
       Stress Serenity Prayer

   Grant me the serenity to accept the
    things I cannot change, the courage to
    change the things I can… and the
    wisdom to know the difference.
For More Information and Assistance

   Visit your Army Substance Abuse
   Vicenza ASAP
   Bldg 138 L, 2nd Floor

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