the human body body systems by qnbYDMHx

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									       The Human Body
• There are over 100 trillion cells
  in your body. Those cells are
  organized into tissues.
  Different tissues are organized
  into organs. Groups of organs
  make organ systems. Organ
  systems make up an organism.
    There are four basic types of tissues:


__________ tissue -
protects
     There are four basic types of tissues:


Epithelial tissue -
protects
One kind of epithelial tissue is the
 skin. Epithelial tissue also lines
the gut and lungs. Many glands
  are made of epithelial tissue.
    There are four basic types of tissues:


__________ tissue –
supports and defends
    There are four basic types of tissues:


Connective tissue -
supports and defends
Connective Tissue supports and defends.
Cells of the immune system –
Macrophages and lymphocytes
Connective Tissue supports and defends.
Cells of the skeletal system –
fibroblasts, cartilage, bone
Connective Tissue supports and defends.
Adipose tissue (fat) , Erythrocytes
(red blood cells)
    There are four basic types of tissues:


__________ tissue –
sends signals
    There are four basic types of tissues:


Nervous tissue - sends
signals
     Nervous tissue sends signals.
Made up of neurons and support cells
(also called glial cells)
    There are four basic types of tissues:


__________ tissue –
permits movement
    There are four basic types of tissues:


Muscle tissue - permits
movement
    Muscle tissue permits movement.
There are three types of muscle
tissue: smooth, skeletal and cardiac.
   Homeostasis- the
maintenance of a stable
 internal environment
The body fluid not inside
your cells is called
extracellular
fluid.
Because so much exchange
occurs across the
membranes of cells,
extreme changes in the
composition or volume of
the extracellular fluid can
have very serious effects
on the cells.
To maintain homeostasis, the
central nervous system
gathers information about
what is going on in the body,
evaluates this feedback, and
issues commands to
counteract any change from
normal.
Most things are controlled by
_________ __________.
Most things are controlled by
negative feedback.
Things such as blood
pressure, body temperature
and pH are compared with
their normal values.
Anything that causes a change
away from the normal value
initiates a response from the
body that brings it back to
normal.
An example of negative
feedback: The normal body
temperature is about 98
degrees Fahrenheit. When
you have a fever, your body
temperature is above this
normal level, and the nervous
system detects this change.
The brain will then trigger
mechanisms such as
sweating and dilating the
blood vessels in the skin,
which lower your
temperature back to
normal.
Some things in the body are
controlled by _________
__________, which causes
the body to drive the variable
even farther away form
normal.
Some things in the body are
controlled by positive
feedback, which causes the
body to drive the variable
even farther away form
normal.
This happens in childbirth; the
pressure of the baby’s head
on the lower part of the
uterus increases the frequency
and intensity of uterine
contractions.
The Skeletal System
 There are
__________
bones in the
   adult
 skeleton.
 There are
206 bones
in the adult
 skeleton.
       Skeletal System

• A flexible endoskeleton allows the body a
  wide range of motion while supporting a
  body of considerable size.
• The skeletal system provides a frame work
  against which the muscles can pull.
• It also protects the delicate organs inside
  the body, such as the brain, lungs, heart.
  Etc.
The human skeleton
 has two main parts:
__________ skeleton
   – skull, ribcage,
      backbone
__________ skeleton
    – arms, legs,
shoulders, pelvis,etc.
The human skeleton
 has two main parts:
  Axial skeleton –
    skull, ribcage,
      backbone
__________ skeleton
    – arms, legs,
shoulders, pelvis,etc.
The human skeleton
has two main parts:
 Axial skeleton –
   skull, ribcage,
     backbone
  Appendicular
 skeleton – arms,
 legs, shoulders,
    pelvis,etc.
Type of Bones:




Flat –
ribs,
shoulder
Type of Bones:




Long –
arms,
legs
Type of Bones:




Short –
feet,
wrists
 Type of Bones:




Irregular –
vertebrae
• Bone is made of calcium-hardened fibers that make it strong
  yet flexible. It is a living tissue and receives oxygen and
  nutrients by blood vessels that pass through hollow channels
  in the bone called
  ______________________________.
• Bones also contain nerve fibers. Bones are surrounded by a
  tough white membrane called the
  ________________.
• Bone tissue can either be in the form of compact bone or
  spongy bone.
• Bone is made of calcium-hardened fibers that make it strong
  yet flexible. It is a living tissue and receives oxygen and
  nutrients by blood vessels that pass through hollow channels
  in the bone called Haversion canal.
• Bones also contain nerve fibers. Bones are surrounded by a
  tough white membrane called the
  ________________.
• Bone tissue can either be in the form of compact bone or
  spongy bone.
• Bone is made of calcium-hardened fibers that make it strong
  yet flexible. It is a living tissue and receives oxygen and
  nutrients by blood vessels that pass through hollow channels
  in the bone called Haversion canal.
• Bones also contain nerve fibers. Bones are surrounded by a
  tough white membrane called the periosteum.
• Bone tissue can either be in the form of compact bone or
  spongy bone.
Haversion canals
     Two substances that can be found inside bone:




• ___________ marrow – produces red blood cells.
• ___________ marrow – stores fat.
      Two substances that can be found inside bone:




• Red marrow – produces red blood cells.
• Yellow marrow – stores fat.
• ____________ is a type of connective tissue that is
  softer and more flexible than bone. It is the main
  component of embryonic skeletons. During development,
  much of it hardens into bone. In adults, cartilage can still be
  found in the ear, nose, trachea, and at the end of bones to
  keep them from grinding against each other.
• Cartilage is a type of connective tissue
  that is softer and more flexible than
  bone. It is the main component of
  embryonic skeletons. During
  development, much of it hardens into
  bone. In adults, cartilage can still be
  found in the ear, nose, trachea, and at
  the end of bones to keep them from
  grinding against each other.
__________ - bone tissue is broken
 down faster than it is replaced.
  Bones become less dense and
   brittle. Osteoporosis occurs
 primarily in females due to the
     loss of calcium and sex
  hormones during menopause.
Osteoporosis - bone tissue is
  broken down faster than it is
   replaced. Bones become less
 dense and brittle. Osteoporosis
occurs primarily in females due
  to the loss of calcium and sex
 hormones during menopause.
• A __________ is the place at which two
  bones meet. They can either be immovable
  (skull), slightly moveable (vertebrae), or freely
  moveable (knee).
• A joint is the place at which two bones meet.
  They can either be immovable (skull), slightly
  moveable (vertebrae), or freely moveable (knee).
Immoveable joints – (sutures)
Slightly moveable – (vertebrae)
Freely moveable - (knee)
• _____________ - connect bone to bone




• ____________ - connect bone to muscle
Ligaments – connect bone to bone




            Tendons – connect bone to muscle
http://srs.dl.ac.uk/OTHER/OW/MUSCLE/page2.html




                      Muscular System
 •
                There are three kinds of muscles:

• ____________ - Appears striated,
  voluntary movement

• ____________ - Walls of internal organs such as the stomach and blood
  vessels, involuntary movement

• ____________ - Only in the heart, appears striated, involuntary
                  There are three kinds of muscles:

• Skeletal - Appears striated,
  voluntary movement

• ____________ Walls of internal organs such as the stomach and blood
  vessels, involuntary movement

• ____________ Only in the heart, appears striated, involuntary
                  There are three kinds of muscles:

• Skeletal - Appears striated,
  voluntary movement

• Smooth - Walls of internal organs such as the stomach and blood vessels,
  involuntary movement

• ____________ Only in the heart, appears striated, involuntary
                  There are three kinds of muscles:

• Skeletal - Appears striated,
  voluntary movement

• Smooth - Walls of internal organs such as the stomach and blood vessels,
  involuntary movement

• Cardiac - Only in the heart, appears striated, involuntary
• The skeleton provides a framework against which the
  muscles can pull. One end of the muscle, the
  _______, is attached to a bone that remains stationary
  during the contraction. The other end of the muscle, the
  _____________, is attached to a bone that moves
  during the contraction.
• The skeleton provides a framework against which the
  muscles can pull. One end of the muscle, the origin is
  attached to a bone that remains stationary during the
  contraction. The other end of the muscle, the
  _____________, is attached to a bone that moves
  during the contraction.
• The skeleton provides a framework against which the
  muscles can pull. One end of the muscle, the origin is
  attached to a bone that remains stationary during the
  contraction. The other end of the muscle, the insertion,
  is attached to a bone that moves during the contraction.
• _____________ cause the limbs to bend at a
  joint




      _____________ cause the limbs to
               straighten
Flexors cause the limbs to bend at a joint



     •




          Extensors cause the limbs to straighten
• Within each muscle are bundles of smaller muscle fibers
  called myofibrils. Those myofibrils contain many protein
  filaments called ________ and __________.
• Actin and myosin filaments are arranged into sacromeres,
  which are the functional unit of contractions.
• Within each muscle are bundles of smaller muscle fibers
  called myofibrils. Those myofibrils contain many protein
  filaments called actin and myosin
• Actin and myosin filaments are arranged into sacromeres,
  which are the functional unit of contractions.
• When a muscle fiber contracts,
  adjacent myosin and actin filaments
  slide along one another so that they
  overlap a great deal and shorten each
  sarcomere. This explanation of
  muscle contraction is called the
  _____________________ theory.
• When a muscle fiber contracts, adjacent
  myosin and actin filaments slide along one
  another so that they overlap a great deal
  and shorten each sarcomere. This
  explanation of muscle contraction is called
  the Sliding filament theory.
      The Skin
(The Integumentary System)
• Skin protects the body from injury,
                  The Skin
  provides defense against disease, helps
  regulate temperature, and prevents the
  body from drying out.
The skin is composed of three layers:
                               The Skin
• __________-outermost layer of skin; these skin cells are
  dead and are continually being replaced
• __________-middle layer; has many nerve ending, blood
  vessels, hair follicles and sweat glands
• __________ __________-inner layer; stores fat,
  provides insulation
The skin is composed of three layers:
                               Skin
                          The skin; these skin cells are dead and
• Epidermis-outermost layer of
  are continually being replaced
• __________-middle layer; has many nerve ending, blood
  vessels, hair follicles and sweat glands
• __________ __________-inner layer; stores fat,
  provides insulation
The skin is composed of three layers:
                               Skin
                          The skin; these skin cells are dead and
• Epidermis-outermost layer of
  are continually being replaced
• Dermis-middle layer; has many nerve ending, blood vessels, hair
  follicles and sweat glands
• __________ __________-inner layer; stores fat,
  provides insulation
The skin is composed of three layers:
                               Skin
                          The skin; these skin cells are dead and
• Epidermis-outermost layer of
  are continually being replaced
• Dermis-middle layer; has many nerve ending, blood vesse bfhls,
  hair follicles and sweat glands
• Subcutaneous tissue-inner layer; stores fat, provides insulation
Some skin disorders:
        Carcinoma
 A basal cell carcinoma is a form of skin cancer.
Some skin disorders:
               Acne
  For reasons no one completely understands,
   follicles, often called pores, sometimes get
 blocked. Sebum (oil) which normally drains to
the surface gets blocked and bacteria begins to
                         grow.
    Some skin disorders:
    malignant melanoma
Malignant melanoma is a cancer which usually starts in
  the skin, either in a mole or in normal-looking skin.
Although the number of people who develop melanoma
    is rising, it is still an uncommon type of cancer.
       Some skin disorders:
                       Psoriasis
Psoriasis is an immune-mediated, genetic disease manifesting in the
skin and/or the joints. It is a non-contagious and life-long skin disease
 that has different forms. Some people may have a spot or two, while
          others may have extensive coverage on their body.
Immune System
  Immune System

The skin and
mucous
membranes provide
the first line of
defense.
   Immune System

The second line of
defense is provided
by several different
patrolling cells:
 __________ kill bacteria
one at a time by ingesting
           them
   Macrophages kill
bacteria one at a time by
     ingesting them
  __________ release
chemicals that kill nearby
bacteria (and themselves)
  Neutrophils release
chemicals that kill nearby
bacteria (and themselves)
The inflammatory response
– expansion of blood vessels at
site of injury (causing swelling
  and redness); Migration of
 macrophages and neutrophils
The temperature response –
fevers inhibit bacterial growth
  Immune System

The third line of
defense is the
IMMUNE SYSTEM!!!!
Macrophages
 – initiate the
    immune
  defense by
  sending an
 alarm signal
Helper T cells – activate
 killer T cells and B cells
Killer T cells – attack and kill
       infected body cell
B cells – use antibodies to label
   invaders for destruction by
 macrophages and killer T cell;
 some become _________cells
B cells – use antibodies to label
  invaders for destruction by
 macrophages and killer T cell;
 some become memory cells
  Autoimmune diseases:
In autoimmune
diseases, the body cannot
distinguish normal body
cells from foreign invaders,
and the body attacks its
own cells
Prominent autoimmune diseases afflicting 22
           million people in the US,
  costing more than $100 billion annually to
 Anemia
                     treat Chronic Fatigue Immune
Autoimmune Hepatitis
                          Fibrosis        Dysfunction Syndrome
Crohn's Disease
Graves' Disease (1.5M)                           Ulcerative Colitis
                         SCLERODERMA (300K)
 SARCOIDOSIS (25K)            Raynaud's Phenomenon (1-10% general
      PSORIASIS (5M)          pop, 25% young women)

 GUILLAIN-BARRÈ (1/100,000)          MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS (200K - 350K)
   INSULIN DEPENDENT DIABETES (1 M)            LUPUS (500K)
                              RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS (2M)
Allergies are caused by
an immune response to a
  harmless substance.
 HIV attacks and cripples
  the immune system by
destroying the white blood
          cells.
Endocrine System
Endocrine System
The
endocrine
organs
secrete
_______
Into the
blood stream
Endocrine System
The
endocrine
organs
secrete
hormones
into the
blood stream
 Endocrine System
Pineal Gland
secretes the
hormone:
Melatonin-
circadian
rhythms
   Endocrine System
 Pituitary
 Gland secretes
 the hormones:
•Vasopressin-
water reabsorption
•Oxytocin-uterine
contractions during
labor
   Endocrine System
 Pituitary
 Gland secretes
 the hormones:
•Growth
hormone-bone and
muscle growth
•Prolactin-milk
production
   Endocrine System
 Thyroid
 secretes the
 hormones:
•Thyroid
hormones (T4 &
T3)-metabolic
activity
•Calcitonin-
decreases blood
calcium level
   Endocrine System
 Parathyroid
 secretes the
 hormone:
•Parathyroid
hormone-
increases blood
calcium
   Endocrine System
 Adrenal-
 secretes the
 hormone:
•Epinephrine-
increases heart
rate
   Endocrine System
 Pancreas-
 secretes the
 hormones:
•Insulin-lowers
blood glucose
•Glucagon-
increases blood
glucose
   Endocrine System
 Ovary- secretes
 the hormones:
•Estrogen-
female
characteristics
•Progesterone-
maintenance of
endometrium
 Endocrine System
Testis- secretes
the hormone:
•Testosterone
-male
characteristics
Reproductive System
    Males: The male gonads, called the
__________, contain two components:
the seminiferous tubules and the interstitial
                   cells.
Males: The male gonads, called the testes,
contain two components: the seminiferous
      tubules and the interstitial cells.
     Sperm are produced in the
   seminiferous tubules, while the
interstitial cells secrete testosterone
         and other hormones.
  The testes are located in an external
    pouch called the scrotum, which
 maintains a temperature 2-4oC lower
than the body temperature, a condition
     essential for sperm survival.



                     Scrotum
Sperm pass from the seminiferous
            tubule…
Sperm pass from the seminiferous
  tubule into the epididymis…
 Sperm pass from the seminiferous
tubule into the epididymis then the
          vas deferens…
 Sperm pass from the seminiferous
tubule into the epididymis then the
   vas deferens and then to the
             urethra…
 Sperm pass from the seminiferous
tubule into the epididymis then the
   vas deferens and then to the
urethra and out through the penis.
 Puberty is between 13-15 years old.
 Females: The female gonads, called the
_______, produces eggs and secrete the
  hormones estrogen and progesterone.
Females: The female gonads, called the ovaries,
produces eggs and secrete the hormones estrogen
               and progesterone.
Once a month, an immature egg is released from
 the ovary into the abdominal cavity and drawn
             into the fallopian tube.
The egg then travels to the __________ ,
    which is the site of fetal development.
The egg then travels to the uterus , which is the
           site of fetal development.
The lower end of the uterus is called the cervix,
 which is connected to the vagina. Puberty is
             complete by age 13.




                               cervix
During ovulation, the wall of the uterus thickens to prepare
for pregnancy. If the egg is not fertilized by a sperm, then
 this thickened layer is shed and blood vessels are broken,
               which is called menstruation.
  Human
Development
 The fusion of a sperm and
egg is called a __________.
The fusion of a sperm and
 egg is called a zygote.
After fertilization the zygote
 rapidly divides into more
cells and continues to travel
 down the fallopian tube.
    Around the sixth day after
fertilization, the embryo implants
   in the tissue of the uterus.
   The growing fetus receives
  oxygen and nutrients directly
   from its mother through the
__________ and umbilical cord.
  The growing fetus receives
oxygen and nutrients directly
 from its mother through the
placenta and umbilical cord.
Circulatory System
   The circulatory system transports
nutrients, wastes, oxygen, carbon dioxide
             and hormones.
It also distributes heat and maintains
          body temperature.
The circulatory system is composed of
 blood vessels, lymphatic vessels,
        blood and the heart.
     Blood leaves the heart through
 __________, which branch into many
smaller arterioles, and then to capillaries.
Blood leaves the heart through arteries,
    which branch into many smaller
  arterioles, and then to capillaries.
In the capillaries, food and oxygen are
 transferred from the blood to the body
cells, and carbon dioxide and wastes are
      picked up and carried away.
Blood returns to the heart through
       venules and veins.
 The cardiovascular system is VERY leaky.
Fluids are forced out of the thin walls of the
    capillaries by pressure. This fluid is
 picked up by the lymphatic tissues and
               returned to veins.
 Components of blood:


   The __________ contains water,
metabolite (like glucose and vitamins),
wastes, ions (sodium, chloride, etc) and
                proteins.
  Components of blood:


The plasma contains water, metabolite
(like glucose and vitamins), wastes, ions
   (sodium, chloride, etc) and proteins.
  Components of blood:


The cellular portion of the blood is made
   up of three different types of cells.
   __________ blood cells
(erythrocytes)- shaped like a
  float disk, carry oxygen,
     replaced frequently.
      Red blood cells
(erythrocytes)- shaped like a
  float disk, carry oxygen,
     replaced frequently.
Anemia is caused
 by a decrease in
the number of red
   blood cells.
 ________ blood cells
  (leukocytes)- used in the
immune system for defense.
   WHITE blood cells
  (leukocytes)- used in the
immune system for defense.
Leukemia is caused by an
 overproduction of white
       blood cells.
__________ - play a key role
     in blood clotting.


                       Red blood cell




                     White blood cell
Platelets (blue)- play a key
   role in blood clotting.


                         Red blood cell




                       White blood cell
   The heart is divided into
  ___________ chambers-
left atrium, right atrium, left
  ventricle, right ventricle.
 The heart is divided into four
          chambers-
left atrium, right atrium, left
  ventricle, right ventricle.
A small cluster of cells in the right
atrium,called the sinoatrial node
 (SA node), initiate contraction of
            the heart.
     The SA node acts as the
    ___________ of the heart,
spontaneously starting contractions
      with a regular rhythm.
     The SA node acts as the
   pacemaker of the heart,
spontaneously starting contractions
      with a regular rhythm.
  After initiation, the wave of contraction
spreads across both atria, is delayed for an
instant, and then spreads to the ventricles
by the atrioventricular node (AV node)
              and Bundle of His.
♫  Pump your Blood
       song ♫
 From Happy Days
     Sang by the
   character Potsie
       Webber
http://www.sitcomso
nline.com/happydays.
        html
♪Pump, pump, pumps your blood
♫The right atrium’s where the process
begins, where the CO2 blood enters the
heart.
 ♫ Through the tricuspid valve, to the
right ventricle, the pulmonary artery, and
lungs.
 ♫ Once inside the lungs, it dumps its
carbon dioxide and picks up its oxygen
supply.
 ♫ Then it’s back to the heart through the
pulmonary vein, through the atrium and
left ventricle.
 ♪ Pump, pump, pumps your blood
♪Pump, pump, pumps your blood
 ♫ The aortic valve’s, where the Blood
leaves the heart, then it's channeled to
the rest of the bod
 ♫ The arteries, arterioles, and capillaries
too bring the oxygenated blood to the
cells
 ♫ The tissues and the cells trade off
waste and CO2, which is carried through
the venules and the veins
 ♫ Through the larger vena cava to the
atrium and lungs, and we're back to
where we started in the heart
 ♪ Pump, pump, pumps your Blood
   Blood flows through the heart
      in the following order:
vena cava-right atrium-
tricuspid valve-right ventricle-
pulmonary valve-pulmonary
artery-lungs-pulmonary veins-
left atrium-bicuspid valve-left
ventricle-aortic valve-aorta-
body
•Blood pressure is a measure of
cardiovascular function.
•During the fist part of the
heartbeat, the atria are relaxed and
filling with blood.

This is called the
__________ pressure.
•Blood pressure is a measure of
cardiovascular function.
•During the fist part of the
heartbeat, the atria are relaxed and
filling with blood.

This is called the
diastolic pressure.
•The second part of the heartbeat is
when the ventricles contract,
pushing blood out into the body.

This is called the
__________ pressure.
•The second part of the heartbeat is
when the ventricles contract,
pushing blood out into the body.

This is called the
systolic pressure.
Another way to monitor the
heart is through measuring the
tiny electrical impulses
produced by the heart when it
contracts.

A recording of this
is called an
 __________.
Another way to monitor the
heart is through measuring the
tiny electrical impulses
produced by the heart when it
contracts.

A recording of this
is called an
electrocardiogram.
Hypertension is high blood pressure and can lead to
heart damage, stroke, or kidney
failure.
Atherosclerosis is a buildup of
fatty deposits on the inner walls
of arteries.
Respiratory System
Respiratory System

          Provides your
           body with a
             constant
        supply of oxygen
__________

    •filters particles,
      moistens and
     warms the air
Nose

 •filters particles,
   moistens and
  warms the air
__________
     Upper throat
     (common tract
     for both food
     and air)
Pharynx
   Upper throat
   (common tract
   for both food
   and air)
__________
    Long tube that
    carries air to the
    lungs. (A flap called
    the epiglottis cover
    the trachea when
    you swallow so that
    food and liquids do
    not go into your
    lungs)
Trachea
   Long tube that
   carries air to the
   lungs. (A flap called
   the epiglottis cover
   the trachea when
   you swallow so that
   food and liquids do
   not go into your
   lungs)
__________
    Two branches-
    one goes to the
    left lung, one
    goes to the right
    lung
Bronchi
   Two branches-
   one goes to the
   left lung, one
   goes to the right
   lung
__________
    Millions of tiny
    sacs where
    exchange of
    oxygen and
    carbon dioxide
    occurs
Alveoli
  Millions of tiny
  sacs where
  exchange of
  oxygen and
  carbon dioxide
  occurs
Breathing is the result of
pressure changes that occur
inside the thoracic cavity.
During inhalation, the
__________ contracts and
moves downward and the rib
cage moves upward and
outward.
  During inhalation, the
  diaphragm contracts and
  moves downward and the rib
  cage moves upward and
  outward.

The air pressure
inside the lungs
decreases,
causing air to
rush in.
During exhalation, the
diaphragm and ribs return to their
original position and this
compression forces air out of the
lungs.
As blood flows through the
lungs, oxygen is picked up
by red blood cells, which
contain hemoglobin.
Every breath is initiated by the
respiratory control center in
the brain, which sends signals
to the diaphragm to contract.
Asthma is a
disease in
which the
bronchioles
constrict,
making it
hard to
breathe.
Emphysema is
caused by
cigarette
smoking,
which
damages the
alveoli.
Lung cancer is
caused by
abnormal cell
growth often
due to
cigarette
smoking.
Digestive System
Digestion is
the process
of breaking
 down food
into smaller
 molecules
that can be
absorbed by
 the body.
Mouth:
Saliva moisten
and lubricates the
food
 Saliva contains
the enzyme
__________ ,
which begins
breakdown of
carbohydrates
Mouth:
Saliva moisten
and lubricates the
food
 Saliva contains
the enzyme
amylase ,
which begins
breakdown of
carbohydrates
Esophagus:
Tube that connects
the mouth to the
stomach
__________
contractions push
the food down
 A sphincter
separates esophagus
& stomach,
preventing acid
reflux
Esophagus:
Tube that connects
the mouth to the
stomach
Peristaltic
contractions push
the food down
 A sphincter
separates esophagus
& stomach,
preventing acid
reflux
Stomach:
The stomach
secretes
hydrochloric
acid, which
breaks down
proteins
 The mixture of
food and gastric
juice is churned
and becomes
__________
Stomach:
The stomach
secretes
hydrochloric
acid, which
breaks down
proteins
 The mixture of
food and gastric
juice is churned
and becomes
chyme
Small Intestine:
The small intestine
is wound up-
unwound it would be
20 feet long!
The SI is lined
with fingerlike
projections called
__________ that
increase the surface
area and allow for
faster absorption of
food and water.
Small Intestine:
The small intestine
is wound up-
unwound it would be
20 feet long!
The SI is lined
with fingerlike
projections called
microvilli that
increase the surface
area and allow for
faster absorption of
food and water.
Small Intestine:
Most digestive
enzymes are made in
the pancreas and
secreted into the SI
 The liver makes
bile which is secreted
into the SI and helps
fat digestion.
 The complete
digestion of
carbohydrates, fats
and proteins occurs in
the SI
Small Intestine:
Nutrients that are
absorbed from the
small intestine are
sent to the liver,
which modifies the
nutrients, and
detoxifies alcohol
Large Intestine:
No digestion – just
some absorption of
___________ and
vitamins
 Wastes are
compacted and sent
to the rectum and
then out through
the anus
Large Intestine:
No digestion – just
some absorption of
water and vitamins
 Wastes are
compacted and sent
to the rectum and
then out through
the anus
Excretory System
Humans
eliminate wastes
in a process
called excretion.
Excretion rids the
body of nitrogen
wastes like
ammonia,
excessive water,
salts, etc.
Kidneys:
  Two small
bean-shaped
organs
located in the
lower back
Kidneys:
  Three
main sections
of the kidney:
cortex (outer
layer),
medulla
(inner layer),
renal pelvis
Kidneys:
  The kidneys
form urine and
regulate the
amount of
water and salt
in the blood.
 Kidney
failure is life
threatening.
Kidneys:
  Urine
produced by the
kidneys passes
through the
ureters and into
the urinary
bladder.
  Urine leaves
the bladder and
exits the
__________
Kidneys:
  Urine
produced by the
kidneys passes
through the
ureters and into
the urinary
bladder.
  Urine leaves
the bladder and
exits the
Urethra
The Nervous System
Nerve cells can quickly transmit
messages to the body. A nerve cell,
or _____________, consists of three
basic parts: the cell body, the
dendrites, and the axon. Dendrites
receive information and send it to the
cell body. Then the information
travels along a single axon to other
cells.
Nerve cells can quickly transmit messages to
the body. A nerve cell, or neuron consists of
three basic parts: the cell body, the dendrites,
and the axon. Dendrites receive information
and send it to the cell body. Then the
information travels along a single axon to
other cells.
Impulses, known as action potentials, are passed from one nerve to
the next.
Many nerves are covered by a
myelin sheath, which speeds
the nerve impulse by allowing
________________
conduction. In multiple
sclerosis, the myelin sheath is
destroyed, interfering with nerve
transmission.
Many nerves are covered by a myelin
sheath, which speeds the nerve impulse
by allowing saltatory conduction. In
multiple sclerosis, the myelin sheath is
destroyed, interfering with nerve
transmission.
The _________ Nervous System-
 The Brain & spinal cord
 The central Nervous
System-The Brain & spinal
         cord
Brain Stem (Medulla) –heart rate,
respiration, blood pressure, coughing, sneezing
and digestion.
Cerebellum – responsible for
coordinated movement, balance,
posture and muscle tone
Hypothalamus –       body temperature,
appetite, water balance, thirst and blood
pressure




Thalamus     –relays information between
spinal cord and cerebellum.
Cerebrum (Cerebral Cortex)    –



intellect, memory, language,
personality and motor function.
The brain can be divided into four major lobes:
occipital, temporal, parietal, and frontal.
The __________ Nervous System
The Peripheral Nervous System –sensory nerves and
                 motor nerves
Sensory nerves – gather information about your environment
and body conditions and deliver it to the central nervous system.
Motor Nerves – transmit information from the central nervous
system to muscles and glands
Somatic – voluntary muscles   (skeletal muscles)
Autonomic   –   involuntary muscles (cardiac & smooth muscles)
                        __________ -
dominant during times of stress; “fight or flight” – increases blood pressure, heart
rate, breathing rate; decreases digestion
                             Sympathetic -
dominant during times of stress; “fight or flight” – increases blood pressure, heart
rate, breathing rate; decreases digestion
__________ – more relaxed state; conserves energy – decreases heartbeat and
breathing; increases digestion
Parasympathetic – more relaxed state; conserves energy – decreases heartbeat and
breathing; increases digestion
Special
Senses
          Ear = hearing and equilibrium
• Sound waves enter the ear canal and hit the eardrum,
  causing it to vibrate.
• Behind the eardrum are three small bones called
  ossicles which transmit the vibration to the cochlea.
• The cochlea is a fluid-filled chamber with hair cells,
  which bend and send nerve signals to the brain.
Eyes
Eyes   Sclera –
       tough outer
       layer (white
       of the eye)
       Cornea –
       bends and
       focuses light
       rays
       Pupil –
       where light
       enters the
       eye
Eyes   Iris – controls
       the amount of
       light entering
       the eye (colored
       part of eye)
       Lens – focuses
       light on the rear
       of the eye
       Retina – light
       sensing portion;
       generates nerve
       impulses; rods
       and cones
  Taste – Taste buds are connected
 to nerves that send information to
              the brain.

There are
four basic
taste
sensations:
salty, sour,
sweet,
bitter
Smell – olfactory receptors line the
                nose
Skin – senses touch, temperature,
            pain, etc.
The End

								
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