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					Cells
7th Grade Biology
But not these kinds of cells
Leeuwenhoek
           Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
              of Holland became very
              interested in lenses while
              working with magnifying
              glasses in a dry goods store.

           Made over 500 microscopes

           (1632-1723)

           "Father of Microscopy“

           Discovered many microscopic
            creatures
Hooke

 Robert Hooke, an Englishman also
  spent much of his life working with
  microscopes and improved their
  design and capabilities.

 (1635-1703)

 Hooke named the “Cell”

    The word cell comes from the Latin
    cellula, meaning, a small room.

 Monks used to live in cells.
Matthias Schleiden                  (SHLY dun)




  Born in Hamburg (Germany)

  April 5, 1804 - June 23, 1881

  All plants are made from cells
Theodor Schwann

 Neuss (Germany)

 December 7, 1810 - Jan. 11, 1882

 All animals are made from cells
Rudolf Carl Virchow                 (FUR Koh)




 Schivelbein, Pomerania (Poland)

 Oct. 13, 1821 - Sep. 5, 1902

 “All cells come from cells”
  Cell Theory


3 parts

           All living things are made up of cells

           Cells are the basic unit of structure and
            function in all living things

           Cells are produced from cells
Cells are the Building Blocks of Life
Prokaryote and Eukaryote


 Prokaryote cells
  Simple structure
  No nucleus
  Unicellular (most are single celled)
 Eukaryote cells
  More complex (many complex organelles)
  Contain a nucleus
  Can be single or multi-cellular
Oraganelle

   Organelle means little organ
Oraganelle




  But not this kind of little organ!
Oraganelle

  An organelle is a specialized subunit
   within a cell, having a specific function,
   and separately enclosed within its own
   lipid membrane.
Cell Anatomy
    (The parts of the cell)
Cilia
Cilia   Cilia

         Cilium (plural cilia)

         is an organelle found in
          eukaryotic cells.

         Cilia are short, thin, tail-like
          projections

         Motile cilia constantly beat in a
          single direction

         Non-motile cilia, which typically
          serve as sensory organelles
Flagella



           Flagella
            flagellum (plural: flagella)

            A long, slender projection from
             the cell body, composed of
             microtubules and surrounded
             by the plasma membrane
Plants / Animal Cell Parts




                Cell Membrane
Plants / Animal Cell Parts

               Cell Membrane

                The “skin” of the cell
                Protects the cell
                Regulates substances
                 that enter or leave the
                 cell
                Separates the cell’s
                 contents from the rest
                 of the world
Plants / Animal Cell Parts




                Cytoplasm
Plants / Animal Cell Parts


            Cytoplasm

             Gel like fluid that is between
              the cell membrane and the
              nucleus

             Mostly water

             Contains the cell’s
              organelles
Plants / Animal Cell Parts




                      Nucleus
                      Nucleolus
Plants / Animal Cell Parts




       Nucleus
        Contains the Nucleolus and the Chromatin
       Nucleolus
        Located in the nucleus it makes ribosomes
Nucleus
          Nucleus

           Contains the
            Nucleolus and the
            Chromatin.

           Often called the
            “brain” of the cell.

           It houses the DNA
            (the blue prints of
            the cell)
Chromatin
            Chromatin

             The complex
              of DNA and
              protein that
              makes up
              chromosomes.
DNA
 Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)

 A nucleic acid that contains the genetic instructions used in the
  development and functioning of all known living organisms.

 The main role of DNA molecules is the long-term storage of
  information and DNA is often compared to a set of blueprints,
  since it contains the instructions needed to construct other
  components of cells, such as proteins and RNA molecules.

 The DNA segments that carry this genetic information are
  called genes, but other DNA sequences have structural
  purposes, or are involved in regulating the use of this genetic
  information.
Chromosome
 A chromosome is a single large macromolecule of DNA

 It constitutes a physically organized form of DNA in a cell.

 It is a very long, continuous piece of DNA (a single DNA molecule)

 It contains many genes, regulatory elements and other
  intervening nucleotide sequences.
Gene


 A gene is located on a region of a strand of DNA

 The total complement of genes in an organism or cell is
  known as its genome

 It corresponds to a unit of inheritance, which is
  associated with regulatory regions, transcribed regions
  and/or other functional sequence regions.
Plants / Animal Cell Parts




                     Ribosome
Plants / Animal Cell Parts

                Ribosomes

                 Make proteins

                 Sometimes found on
                  the ER sometimes
                  found free floating.
Plants / Animal Cell Parts




               Endoplasmic Reticulum
Plants / Animal Cell Parts




          Endoplasmic Reticulum
           A network of passageways used for
            transport inside the cell.
Plants / Animal Cell Parts




               Golgi Body / Apparatus
Plants / Animal Cell Parts

              Golgi Body / Apparatus

               Receives materials from
                the ER.

               Packages materials

               Sends materials to other
                parts of the cell.
Plants / Animal Cell Parts




                Vesicles / Lysosome
Plants / Animal Cell Parts

               Vesicles

                Containers / packages

               Lysosome

                Break down food

                Break down and recycle
                 old worn-out cell parts
Plants / Animal Cell Parts




                Mitochondria
Plants / Animal Cell Parts




        Mitochondria
         The “Powerhouse” of the cell
         Releases most of the energy for the cell
                      (in an animal cell)
Plants / Animal Cell Parts




                Vacuole
Plants / Animal Cell Parts

                Vacuole

                 Storage Depot

                 Food, Water, Waste
                  and other materials
                  are stored here.

                 Some cells have highly
                  specialized vacuoles
Plants / Animal Cell Parts




                     Cytoskeleton
Plants / Animal Cell Parts

                Cytoskeleton

                 Framework for the cell

                 Supports the cell
Plants Cell Parts




          Cell Wall
    Plants Cell Parts




Cell Wall
 Rigid outer wall that surrounds the cell membrane.
 Made of cellulose
 Often has a box like shape
Plants Cell Parts




         Chloroplast
Plants Cell Parts
Chloroplast

 Capture energy from the Sun

 Use the Sun’s energy to make food
               Trivia


  Did you know that your body is made up of
  around 50 trillion cells? (10-100 trillion)

That is 50,000,000,000,000 little cells
               Trivia


The biggest cell on earth is the Ostrich Egg.
I am just here to
study cells…
Did you take
   notes?
Last updated Oct. 22 2009
 2009

				
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