The Amritsar Massacre by 5O41QET2


									                                   Post WWI – Pre-WWII – The Allies

United States
Isolationism is when a country strives to focus on their own domestic affairs, and not get involved in foreign
conflict and wars. Congress does not pass Treaty of Versailles in 1919 and rejects American membership in
the League of Nations despite the fact that the idea was created by an American President and its
headquarters were centered in San Francisco. Woodrow Wilson works hard to get America to join the
League. America ultimately lets him down and rejects membership that significantly weakens the clout the
League would have had.
Xenophobia is fear of foreigners. The country, worried about the rise of Communism in Russia goes through
a period of Red Scare in which all foreigners are persecuted. The US Congress passed the espionage act
which limited free speech in the US as an attempt to weaken socialist and communist ideas within the
United States.
There is an economic boom in the US as a result of the War.
Crash of Stock Market: In 1929 bank loans are called in and The Great Depression begins. By 1933 there are
30 million people unemployed in the United States. The role of the federal government becomes the
important issue. Government-run programs, such as Franklin D. Roosevelt’s New Deal reconstruct the
United States’ economy. This depression spreads abounds the globe
Disarmament: In 1928, the Americans and French sign the Kellogg-Briand Pact that denounces war as a
means of settling disputes. Although other countries sign this pact, it eventually becomes meaningless in
the avoidance of war.

Great Britain
The country, which before the War had been a creditor nation, becomes a debtor nation. Her industry is
outdated. The United States and Japan out produce her. Britain barely had enough money to fund WWI.
By 1921, Britain had 2 million people out of work. In 1926, A General Strike is called for by the coal miners
union. On May 4th there is a walkout but by 1927 the effect was over. The government changed the laws so
that general strikes were illegal. However, the Labour Party, within the UK rises to power at this time and
remains a powerful party within the UK to this day.

Some regional areas of the UK seek independence in the 1920’s. These dominions become more
independent. Ireland is one of the first and becomes the Irish Free State and Northern Ireland that is under
British control.

The country is dramatically affected by WWI. Approximately ½ of all the males between the ages of 18 and
32 are killed. The country is financially ruined. The government is politically fractured with differing
political factions and ideologies.

France dramatically wanted to avoid a war at all costs. She joined the League of Nations. The defense from
the German threat was to build a reinforced border. A system of bunkers was called the Maginot Line.
What they did not account for was the German entrance to France through the lowlands of Belgium.
                                             Post WWI – Pre-WWII – The Fascists

   The Fascism – Fascism is a political philosophy that advocates the glorification of the state, a
   single –party system with a strong ruler, and an aggressive form of nationalism. Like
   communism, fascism gives the state absolute authority. But fascism defended private
   property, although with some government regulation and class structure.
   Elements of fascisms…
       1. Totalitarianism, which means a single ruler with complete power.
       2. Censorship of media, academic thought, and political speech
       3. The state or country’s needs overshadow the needs of individuals
       4. Intense nationalistic feelings and the belief that one’s own country is superior to all
          other nations.
       5. Racism and discrimination of religious or ethnic groups within the nation that either
          do not completely buy into the goals of the leader or stand out because they are in
          some way different.
Benito Mussolini- originally a schoolteacher ends up as the leader of the Italians.
1919- Mussolini joins the Fascist party. Fascism is defined as a political philosophy that has at its center
the glorification of the state. It is a single party system with a strong ruler and is considered an aggressive
form of nationalism.
1920- General strikes occur to attempt to protest the situation in Italy.
1921- Fascist party supported by the Blackshirts who are a private police force for Mussolini
October 1922- The Fascists march on Rome- Emmanuel III names Mussolini to the post of Prime Minister.
1924 election- Fascists win majority and Mussolini becomes leader (IL Duce, which means the boss)

The Weimar Republic is the government that is formed after the Treaty of Versailles and govern the
country following the war from 1919-1933. This government is responsible to administering the terms of
the Treaty of Versailles.
1920, Nationalist attempt at overtake of the Weimar government. National Socialist Worker’s party is the
Nazi Party. Adolph Hitler eventually becomes the leader of this party.
1923, Munich Beer Hall Putsch, (little takeover) which was a failed coup. In an effort to make his point
heard, Hitler stages a protest and is arrested for disturbing the peace. Hitler imprisoned and writes Mein
Kamph. After he is released through political connections, Hitler continues to run the Nazi party.
1932 Nazi party becomes largest party in the Reichstag.
Jan. 30, 1933 President Paul von Hindenburg names Hitler as Chancellor or head of the Reichstag. When
the Reichstag burns to the ground, Hitler accuses the Communists of setting the fire. To protect the              Hitler was born in 1889 into a
country he bans political parties and eliminates civil rights.                                                    poor Austrian family. He was
1935 Nuremberg Laws stripped Jews of their citizenship and their right to hold public office, barred Jewish       interested in art but fails to
students from schools, and forced Jews to wear yellow badges.                                                     get into art school. During
November, 1938- Kristallnacht- Nazi party members attacked Jews in the streets and vandalized Jewish              WWI, Hitler, becomes
businesses. This was in retaliation for a 17 year old Polish Jew killing a Reich official. 7500 Jewish shops      decorated and becomes a
were destroyed, as were 119 synagogues.                                                                           lance corporal. Angered by
                                                                                                                  the failure of the war and
                                                                                                                  Weimer Republic he gets
Hitler’s motto: Ein Volk, Ein Reich, Ein Fuhrer (One People, One Empire, One Leader)
                                                                                                                  involved in politics.
                                      Pre WWI – The Communist Soviet Union
During the struggle of the Civil War (1918), Communist leader Vladimir Lenin and the Bolsheviks introduced war communism that
carried out a policy of nationalism that allowed all major industry to be under state control. To eat at this time, a person had to
have a job. Every one between 16 and 50 had to work. To administer this, the country created a huge bureaucratic machine that
was very ineffective.

1921 Lenin’s NEP - Lenin tried to bring order to the system by announcing his policy of NEP (New Economic Policy). This was a
program to keep government control of major industries such as railroads and steel-making plants and allow some private
business to operate to stimulate the economy.

1922 Socialist State formed. The United Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) is created. Also at this time, a constitution is created
which made the USSR a socialist state, which means that the government controls the means of production. In theory, the
workers control the State, but in practice, the leaders of the Communist party controlled the workers.

1924 Lenin suffers two heart attacks and dies at the age of 54. The countries leadership is fought over by Leon Trotsky who had
been close to Lenin and had built the Red Army and Joseph Stalin who had become the secretary general of the Communist party
also vied for power after Lenin died.

Trotsky vs. Stalin
Trotsky thought that the government should inspire socialist revolutions in other countries. Stalin thought that it was more
important to build socialism in one country and then carry on permanent revolutions throughout the world. Stalin
outmaneuvered Trotsky and banished him, first to Siberia and then out of the country. In 1940, Trotsky, living in Mexico City, was
assassinated under orders from Stalin. Joseph Stalin takes over the Communist party.

Stalin rules as Dictator from 1922 to 1953
There was a secret police force that was given great power. There were purges when political opponents of Stalin were
eliminated. The Bolsheviks, who had been his allies, were persecuted and forced from the Communist party beginning in 1936.
Often they were imprisoned, exiled or executed. The arts were put under the Communist party’s control. In 1934, Stalin put
Maxim Gorky in charge of all soviet culture. The new policy, Socialist realism, made all artists vehicles of the communist party,
glorifying Soviet heroes and achievements.

Stalin’s Five-Year Plans
In 1928, Stalin announces the end of the NEP and the beginning of the Five Year Plans. The first of these plans concentrates on
heavy industry and produces only small amounts of shoddy consumer goods. The central bureaucrats in Moscow were unable to
do a good job administer the plan. Collectivization occurs in the farms. Stalin thought that the farms would be more efficient if
they were state owned and farmed by the peasants. However, that the Kulaks, or well-off peasants, were allowed to grow sell
and make profit under the New Economic Policy of Lenin and they severely resented the new Five Year Plans. They were over 10
five year plans for industrialization with differing results. However, ultimately, Stalin realizes his goal of industrialization for
Russia mainly because of WWII and the need for military equipment.
                                                  Pre – WWII Middle East
  Out of the Treaty of Versailles came the idea of self – determination, which means the right of national groups to set
  up independent nations. This leads countries around the world to attempt to achieve independence from European
  Imperialistic influence. As you read and study these countries, you should consider how the events in the 1920’s and
  30’s effect how these countries interact in a global community today.

Turkey sided with Germany and Austria during WWI as the old Ottoman Empire.
After their defeat in World War I, the Ottomans have lost most of their empire
except for present day Turkey. In 1919, the Greeks, their neighbors, invade Turkey
sensing weakness. Mustafa Kemal leads a political and military group known as the
Young Turks and defeat the Greeks in 1922. Capitalizing on his military victory,
Kemal forces the Sultan or Turkish king to abdicate the throne and he becomes
Turkey’s first President setting up a Democratic Republic. The capital is moved from
Istanbul to Ankara. President Kemal sets about modernizing Turkey by establishing
within Turkey a western calendar, a Latin alphabet, and the Metric System. In
addition, men are asked to stop wearing the Fez, or traditional Ottoman hat.
Women are encouraged to unveil in public. Men are encouraged to change their
name to western ones. Turkey to this day remains one of the most “Westernized”
Islamic nations in the Middle East and has been a long ally to the United States and
its allies.

  Iran / Persia
Iran had a monarchy, their king name was shah. In 1921, Nationalist forces, led by Reza Khan,
overthrew the Shah and changed the country. Iran objective was just the opposite of Turkey’s
revolution. The new leader, Reza Khan wanted to decrease foreign influence. When political factions
inside Iran challenged some of Reza Khans ideas, he made himself a dictator and eventually in 1925,
declaring himself the new Shah or king. During the 1930’s, Khan align himself with Germany and
Hitler, but when British and Soviet forces entered the country, the deposed him and named his son the
new Shah because Khan’s son allowed their forces to remain within the country. The map on the left
shows where oil reserves are located in the Middle East. How does these actions explain why the US
and Britain to this day have a bad relationship with Iran?

  Palestine / Israel
This strategically located country came under control of the
British at the end of WWI. As part of the Ottoman Empire, it
was divided in the Treaty of Versailles. The two major groups in
the country were the Arabs and the Jews. In the late 1800’s,
European Jews began to move into this British protectorate as
European conditions worsened in many countries. This
movement was called Zionism, which sought self-determination
for the Jews. This was led by Theodor Herzl. During WWI, the
British made conflicting promises for assistance in the war: To
the Arabs, they promised independence and to the Jews a
homeland. The promise of a homeland was in a document
called the Balfour Declaration, but has never been honored.
This document stated that it was necessary to preserve the civic
and religious rights of others. As the number of Jews increased
in the region, tensions increased between them and the
majority Arabs, including but not limited to the attempted
limitation of Jewish immigration. By the 1930’s the situation
had only worsened.
                                                      Pre WWII – Asia

 Indians wanted home-rule from the British. The two groups who wanted this were the Indian National Congress and the Muslim
 League. The British following WWI promised “eventual” self-rule for India.

 The Amritsar Massacre
 As WWI came to an end, the Indian National Congress staged many protests. These were not effective as the protestors were
 divided religiously, the majority Hindu and minority Muslim. In addition, the British were not interesting giving up control of this
 colony. In April 1919, the protest met opposition from the British troops. 10,000 unarmed protesters, 400 plus are killed when
 the British troops open fire. There was no remorse on the part of the British that further strengthened the Indian resolve to fight
 for independence.

 Gandhi’s Campaign
 The leader who emerged was Mohandas K. Gandhi. He was a pacifist who opposed to the use of violence. His method was the
 use of civil disobedience that is the refusal to obey laws that are considered unjust. Gandhi worked with the Indian National
 Congress to persuade the Indians to give up western ways. As a result, he challenged the control of the Europeans directly, and
 without violence. His name for this force was Satyagraha or “truth force”. In addition, Gandhi advocated the use of the Boycott
 or the refusal to purchase British products in an effort to hurt the British financially. In an attempt to stop his influence, the
 British arrested and imprisoned Gandhi in 1922 for the rest of the decade. Gandhi, after his release, leads thousands on a march
 to the salt fields in India to protest British tax on Salt. The British government responded by beating and killing the protesters.
 The British Parliament fearing a bad image and more violence in 1935 passed the Indian Act which gave India limited self rule.
 However, Muslim and Hindu relations continue to struggle.

                                    Dr. Martin Luther King, American civil rights leader, was inspired by Gandhi’s
                                    work in India. What elements of Dr. King’s Civil Rights Movement do you see
                                    as similar to Gandhi’s movement in India?


 1914- China did not have the respect of European nations. Following WWI, the Treaty of
 Versailles granted Japan control of the Chinese province of Shandong.
 January 1912- Sun Yat-sen declares China to be a democratic society.
 March 1912- Military leader Yuan Shikai ousts Sun and turns China into a dictatorship.
 Sun forms the Kuomintang party.
 1916- Yuan dies and the country slips into chaos. Local warlords divide the country
 among themselves.
 1917- Sun returns from Japan to rework the Kuomintang party but he fails.
 1923- With help from the Soviet Union and a young officer named Chiang Kai-shek, takes
 over the army and the Kuomintang party rises in power.
 1928- The army takes power from the warlords and establishes a government in Nanking.
 However, Communists led by Mao Zedong resist Chiang Kai-shek leadership. Mao’s Red
 Army in the southern province of Jiangxi fights Chiang Kai-Shek’s forces in a Civil War.
 1931- Seeing opportunity during the Chinese Civil War, The Japanese take northern
 Chinese province of Manchuria. Mao offers to make peace with Kuomintang leader
 Chiang, combine forces and resist the Japanese.
 1939- Japan controls most of eastern China and both Chiang and Mao wait for a good
 time to retaliate. Before this happens, WWII breaks out in Europe.
                                                           Pre WWII – Asia

When the Americans and Commodore Perry visit Japan in 1854 and uses heavy handed tactics to get the
Japanese to trade with the United States, the Japanese respond by imitating Western ways by quickly
industrializing and modernizing their military. Within three decades, the Japanese navy emerges as one of
the world’s strongest. In order to fuel this growth, Japan begins to look beyond their borders. During WWI,
Japan expanded her influence in the Asia. In 1915, she forced China to accept the 21 Demands that brought
a good deal of China under the control of Japan. After WWI, Japan received Germany’s Pacific Islands as
part of the Treaty of Versailles, but they wanted more.

Japan’s population exploded from 35 million in 1872 to 60 million in 1925. In 1924 America stopped
Japanese immigration. These people now had nowhere to go. This spurred a rise in industrial production to
provide jobs for the population. This in turn caused a rise in the demand for raw materials which also
fueled imperialistic motives.

Politically, the Japanese were a constitutional monarchy led by Emperor Hirohito. He is backed by a strong
military led by Hashimoto Kingoro. In 1931, the Japanese military invaded Manchuria and although the
action was opposed by the League of Nations, the Japanese quickly wins the conflict. In 1932, the Japanese
military assassinates their prime minister and a new military leader Hashimoto Kingoro.

We have already said that there are only three ways left to Japan to escape from the pressure of surplus population. We are like a great crowd
of people packed into a small and narrow room, and there are only three doors through which we might escape, namely emigration, advance
into world markets, and expansion of territory. The first door, emigration, has been barred to us by the anti-Japanese immigration policies of
other countries. The second door, advance into world markets, is being pushed shut by tariff barriers and the abrogation of commercial treaties.
What should Japan do when two of the three doors have been closed against her?

It is quite natural that Japan should rush upon the last remaining door.

It may sound dangerous when we speak of territorial expansion, but the territorial expansion of which we speak does not in any sense of the
word involve the occupation of the possessions of other countries, the planting of the Japanese flag thereon, and the declaration of their
annexation to Japan. It is just that since the Powers have suppressed the circulation of Japanese materials and merchandise abroad, we are
looking for some place overseas where Japanese capital, Japanese skills and Japanese labor can have free play, free from the oppression of the
white race.

   How does Kingoro’s words relate to the coming war? Did the United States create a monster in 1854 with its visit to Japan?
                                                   Path to War

Collective Security: Concept of keeping the peace through mutual support for Peace Initiatives. With the
failures of the League of Nations, collective security begins to breakdown.

Japan’s expansion into China

Japan is the first to reveal its territorial ambitions. Its government is not democratic but military.

In 1932, Manchuria becomes Manchukuo with Pu Yi as a puppet ruler lead by Japan.

League of Nations condemns Japan’s actions. Eventually Japan withdraws from the League. This action
shows that the League is powerless to stop aggression and Italy and Germany are watching.

Italy’s conquest of Ethiopia

In 1934, Italy seeks a conquest of Ethiopian. Benito Mussolini sees this as an opportunity. The League of
Nations eventually orders sanctions on Italy. Sanction are meant to economically punish a country by deny
other countries from trading with Italy. Many raw materials were exempted from the sanctions and
because of this, Italy was never truly punished.

In May 1936, Mussolini formally annexes Ethiopia.

                    Sanctions are still used by the United Nations today. The US and the UN currently has
                    sanctions against Iran, North Korea, and Cuba. Do you think sanctions are effective?
                    Could civilians be punished? How might a country circumvent the punitive effects of
                    sanctions? Would sanctions work against rulers like Hitler and Mussolini? What are the
                    alternatives of sanctions?
Spanish Civil War

In 1931, King Alfonso XIII abdicates the throne and Spain becomes a republic. The new government begins
to make changes in Spanish society. There is reform in the church in censorship of the church in education
and redistribution of land.

In 1936 the Conservative Right wing organizations will begin to oppose the new government. Spanish
Nationalists, led by Francisco Franco begin to battle the Left wing Loyalists or Republicans. The Soviets as
well as the International Brigade support the Republicans. The Fascist and Nazi parties support the
Nationalists. Germany begins to field test her Luftwaffe, code name the Condor Legion. By the end of the
summer of 1936, the Nationalists had taken most of Spain. In 1938, The Loyalists had stopped sending
supplies so Franco makes a final push. In March of 1939, Franco enters Madrid, the last of the Republican
held cities and takes over Spain.

                         Some historians say that the Spanish Civil War served as the training ground for WWII.

                                                     What do they mean by this?
                                                 Path to War

Hitler’s offensive in Germany

Hitler, like Japan claims to have the goal of obtaining more lebensraum or living space for his people.

In March 1936, Hitler sends German troops into the Rhineland, a DMZ created by the Treaty of Versailles.
France and Britain were unwilling to risk war and took no action.

In October 1936, Hitler signed a political and military pact with Mussolini called the Rome-Berlin Axis.

In November 1936, these two and Japan sign the Anti-Commintern pact, forming the complete Axis alliance.
This treaty was directed against the Communist and the Soviet Union in particular.

In March 1938, with Italy as an ally, Hitler invades Austria and annexes the country. (Note: 1936- Rome-
Berlin Axis Treaty)

Czechoslovakia was created by the Treaty of Versailles. This country was clambering for more self-
determination. Hitler’s presumed goal is to unite German-speaking Czech’s with the rest of Germany. On
Sept 12th, 1938, Hitler demands Germany be given Sudetenland, an area in Northwestern Czechoslovakia
with a high ethnic German population. British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain meets with Hitler on
Sept 15, 1938. The product of this meeting is a policy of appeasement. Give Hitler Sudetenland and avoid
war. Chamberlin promises “peace in our time” Churchill calls this a defeat. “Given the choice between
dishonor and war, we have chosen dishonor. Now we will have war.” They meet again in Munich (Munich
Conference) and sign an agreement to allow Germany to take part of Czechoslovakia. On March 15th, 1939
Hitler’s armies move into the western part of Czechoslovakia.
                        “We should seek by all means in our power to avoid war, by analyzing possible
                        causes, by trying to remove them, by discussion in a spirit of collaboration and
                        good will. I cannot believe that such a program would be rejected by the people
                        of this country, even if it does mean the establishment of personal contact with
                        the dictators.”

                                                    Can appeasement ever work?

 Stalin does not trust the West because he views the Munich Agreement as an attempt by the West to turn
 Hitler’s attention toward the Soviet Union. On August 23rd, Stalin signs a non Aggression treaty with Hitler
 called the Nazi-Soviet Pact. This brings into the war, the country of Poland which lies in between Germany
 and Russia and which both countries want a piece of. On September 1st, 1939, using the Blitzkrieg style of
 warfare, Germany invades Poland from the west and Russia invades from the East moving their border 70
 miles east. The Germans move 1.5 million troops into Poland Starting WWII.
The 5 Causes for WWII –

     1. Failures of the Treaty of Versailles. Reparations breeds resentment within the former
        axis powers. In addition, the new states that were created through self-determination
        were easy prey to any country that wished to expand.
     2. Failures of the League of Nations. The United States Senate refuses to allow the US to
        join the League of Nations. The League itself becomes powerless in keeping Japan out
        of Manchuria or making Hitler obey the Treaty of Versailles. Its inability to enforce its
        own resolutions makes the institution irrelevant and spurs on not only Germany, but
        other nations like Japan and Italy to flex its muscles by breaking international laws.
     3. Isolationism and appeasement. Countries involved in WWI were horrified by the
        death and destruction as well as the economic loss. A movement emerged in Europe
        and in the US that said countries should worry about their own affairs and not get
        involved in others. Neville Chamberlin, the Prime Minister of Great Britain allows
        Hitler and Germany to take over the Sudetenland in Czechoslovakia during the Munich
        Conference in 1938 thinking that this act would satiate Hitler’s and the Nazi’s want of
        land and conquest.
     4. Fascisms and totalitarianism. These groups fully endorse using military conquests to
        achieve their goals. These groups also foster hyper-nationalism which calls for intense
        patriotic feelings and also advocates that other countries are inferior. Hitler and the
        Nazi’s were intent on conquering Europe and establishing German superiority around
        the globe.
     5. Economic Depression and turmoil. Economic turmoil will often lead to political and
        governmental turmoil. Without the depression of 1929, there might not have been
        the failures of the Weimer Republic, and therefore Hitler might not have gotten a
        foothold of power in Germany.
Elements of Blitzkrieg
Armor concentrations - the dense concentration of strong firepower, the high mobility, and the survivability of rapidly advancing large groups of tanks were far
more than anything seen before it in any ground battlefield in history. It made Cavalry totally obsolete.
Massive precise air support - the effective precision destructiveness made possible by precise aerial bombardment left common artillery far behind. Artillery was
also too slow to follow the rapidly advancing tank groups.
Radio - while the French High Command in 1940 was not even equipped with radio, it was radio communications in each tank each aircraft and each unit which
allowed the German commanders to control their forces so effectively, and to utilize their air support so destructively and efficiently.
Flexibility - the German armor commander didn't have to follow a particular road or path. Their tactical freedom, provided by their superior mobility and quick
response air support, allowed them to rapidly advance along the path of least resistance, much like water do in a flood, or to produce one, with the superior
firepower of their tank guns and air support. This also allowed them to press on with little casualties, allowing them to maintain their thrust and effectiveness and
advance further.
Initiative and surprise - the sheer speed and power of rapidly advancing forces and heavy bombardment in its territory, especially when it comes without warning,
can easily shock every enemy. Persisting with that is even more devastating, and that's what the Germans did. They rapidly encircled massive enemy forces, cut
supply lines, and made other large units collapse and lose their morale.
Simplicity - there was nothing complex in Blitzkrieg. It was a simple tactic made possible thanks to revolutionary modern weapons which made this type of warfare
possible - the tank, the aircraft, and the radio.
Air superiority - is a supporting element, but a critical one. If the enemy has it, Blitzkrieg becomes impossible, as Rommel and other German commanders found out
later during the war.
Logistics - is another critical supporting element which the Germans neglected, and it was the element which eventually crippled their military. A relatively short-
range and short-time Blitzkrieg in good weather, as the invasions of Poland, France, Yugoslavia and Greece were, is one thing, and the Germans excelled there. But
when they invaded Russia in 1941, the logistical needs they knew before were dwarfed by Russia's huge distances, terribly bad roads, and extreme winter
conditions. Source

In April 1940 Hitler took Denmark and Norway. This caused the resignation of Neville Chamberlain and the installation of
Winston Churchill as the Prime Minister of England on May 10th, 1940. On the same day, Germany invaded the Netherlands by
parachuting troops into the battle zone. Also on

In May 1940, German troops invaded France and without being stopped. The Maginot Line was worthless because it did not
extend into Belgium. The German forces rolled westward through the Arden Forest and into France, trapping the French in the
NW corner of the country in Dunkirk where for some reason, Hitler stopped. On May 26th, the Allies began to evacuate their
troops to Britain. This event became known as the Miracle of Dunkirk.

In June 1940, Nazi took Paris and on June 22nd, France was surrendered to Germany with an armistice signed on the 28 of June.
Fascists collaborators established the Vichy Government in Southern France.

As soon as France surrendered, Germany began to plan to invade Britain. Beginning on August 24th, 1940 Herman Goering, in
charge of the Luftwaffe, began to bomb England. This continued through September 6th. From September 7th through
November 3rd, the Germans bombed London every night. This is known as the Blitz. The British Air Force fights back with planes
called Hurricanes and Spitfires.

 Hitler knows that he will have to break us in this Island or lose the war. If we can stand up to him, all Europe may be free and the
 life of the world may move forward into broad, sunlit uplands. But if we fail, then the whole world, including the United States,
 including all that we have known and cared for, will sink into the abyss of a new Dark Age made more sinister, and perhaps more
 protracted, by the lights of perverted science.

 Let us therefore brace ourselves to our duties, and so bear ourselves that if the British Empire and its Commonwealth last for a
 thousand years, men will still say, 'This was their finest hour.'

 Winston Churchill - June 18, 1940

 We shall not flag nor fail. We shall go on to the end. We shall fight in France and on the seas and oceans; we shall fight
 with growing confidence and growing strength in the air. We shall defend our island whatever the cost may be; we shall
 fight on beaches, landing grounds, in fields, in streets and on the hills. We shall never surrender and even if, which I do
 not for the moment believe, this island or a large part of it were subjugated and starving, then our empire beyond the
 seas, armed and guarded by the British Fleet, will carry on the struggle until in God's good time the New World with all its
 power and might, sets forth to the liberation and rescue of the Old.

 Winston Churchill – June 4, 1940
U.S. Response
The United States attempts to remain neutral writing the Neutrality Acts of 1937 which stipulated no arms, no
loans, and no credit to belligerent nations. However, Roosevelt, beginning with the Dunkirk evacuation, began
to realize that the British were going to need help resisting Hitler. Roosevelt began a program to aid the British
called Cash and Carry, then the Lend-Lease Program that allowed the British to obtain ships and food to supply
their military but did not enter the United States into the War. On August 9th, 1941, Churchill and Roosevelt
met on a boat near Newfoundland and drafted an agreement called the Atlantic Charter. This agreement,
while not an official declaration of war, stated that the Americans were going to fight against the Nazis to
preserve the right of self-determination.

                      Mussolini declares war on France and Great Britain on June 10th, 1940. He is attempting to build a Mediterranean
                      empire. The Italians are surrounding Egypt and the Sudan. However, the British attack the Italians and drive them
                      back to Tripoli by mid-February of 1941. At this point, Churchill moves many of the troops to Greece to stop the
                      southward move by the Nazis in Europe. This mistake causes British loses in both Greece and, with the installation of
                      Erwin Rommell, the Desert Fox, in northern Africa.

Despite an earlier treaty, On June 22nd, 1941, Hitler launches a massive attack on Russia called Operation
Barbarossa. The German invasion at first was very effective. Stalin advised a scorched earth policy to avoid
                                                                                                                                            Is this the biggest
giving Hitler raw materials like oil and wheat. By November 1941, the Germans were 600 miles inside the Russian                                 mistake of
border and December German troops assault Moscow and are close to taking it. However, the Soviet troops
fought bravely and slowly Russian military industry began to get on its feet. Stalin moved most industry east of                                  WWII?
the Ural Mountain so that the factories could continue to produce. German forces were ruthless on the Russian
Civilian Population killing millions of Russians especially Jews and Communists.

The Holocaust
Beginning in July of 1941, Hitler began his plan for eliminating the Jewish people in Europe.
He called this the final solution. Over the next four years, the Germans imprisoned and
killed 6 million Jews and 6 million more gypsies, poles, and Slavs as a part of their plan to
eliminate all but the Aryan race. Using American style mass production, the Nazi’s establish
concentration camps in Dachau, Auschwitz, and Treblinka that became factory like
extermination centers, gassing millions and burning the bodies.
"My first reaction to Maidanek was a feeling of surprise. I had imagined something horrible and sinister beyond words. It was nothing like that. It looked singularly harmless
from outside. 'Is that it?' was my first reaction when we stopped at what looked like a large workers' settlement. Behind us was the many towered skyline of Lublin. There
was much dust on the road, and the grass as dull, greenish-grey colour. The camp was separated from the road by a couple of barbed-wire fences, but these did not look
particularly sinister, and might have been put up outside any military or semi-military establishment. The place was large; like a whole town of barracks painted a pleasant
soft green. There were many people around - soldiers and civilians. And we stopped outside a large barrack marked Bad und Desinfektion II. 'This,' somebody said, 'is where
large numbers of those arriving at the camp were brought in.' The inside of this barrack was made of concrete, and water taps came out of the wall, and around the room
there were benches where the clothes were put down and afterwards collected. So this was the place into which they were driven. Or perhaps they were politely invited to
'Step this way, please?' Did any of them suspect, while washing themselves after a long journey, what would happen a few minutes later? Anyway, after the washing was
over, they were asked to go into the next room; at this point even the most unsuspecting must have begun to wonder. For the "next room" was a series of large square
concrete structures, each about one-quarter of the size the bath-house, and, unlike it, had no windows. The naked people (men one time, women another time, children
the next) were driven or forced from the bath-house into these dark concrete boxes - about five yards square - and then, with 200 or 250 people packed into each box -
and it was completely dark there, except for a small light in the ceiling and the spyhole in the door - the process of gassing began. First some hot air was pumped in from
the ceiling and then the pretty pale-blue crystals of Cyclon were showered down on the people, and in the hot wet air they rapidly evaporated. In anything from two to ten
minutes everybody was dead. . .There were six concrete boxes - gas-chambers - side by side. 'Nearly two thousand people could be disposed of here simultaneously,' one
of the guides said. But what thoughts passed through these people's minds during those first few minutes while the crystals were falling; could anyone still believe that this
humiliating process of being packed into a box and standing there naked, rubbing backs with other naked people, had anything to do with disinfection? At first it was all
very hard to take in, without an effort of the imagination. There were a number of very dull-looking concrete structures which, if their doors had been wider, might
anywhere else have been mistaken for a row of nice little garages. But the doors - the doors! They were heavy steel doors, and each had a heavy steel bolt. And in the
middle of the door was a spyhole, a circle, three inches in diameter composed of about a hundred small holes. Could the people in their death agony see the SS man's eye
as he watched them? Anyway, the SS-man had nothing to fear: his eye was well protected by the steel netting over the spyhole. Then a touch of blue on the floor caught
my eye. It was very faint, but still legible. In blue chalk someone had scribbled the word "vergast" and had drawn crudely above it a skull and crossbones. I had never seen
this word before but it obviously meant" gassed" - and not merely "gassed" but: with, that eloquent little prefix ver, 'gassed out'. That's this job finished, and now for the
next lot. The blue chalk came into motion when there was nothing but a heap of naked corpses inside. But what cries, what curses, what prayers perhaps, had been uttered
inside that gas chamber only a few minutes before?." References: Alexander Werth. BBC Journalist. Eyewitness History
                                                    WWII – US Enters the War

Japanese Expansion
In July 1941, the Japanese government had announced its plans to create a new world order in greater East Asia. Asia had been
under colonial control of the European powers. In the 1930’s, Japan had been on the move in China. Now the Japanese began to
concentrate on the European colonies in South East Asia. The fall of the Netherlands allowed Indonesia to be unprotected. The fall
of France caused French Indochina to be unprotected. The withdraw of the British fleet to protect against a German invasion of the
homeland allowed Singapore to be unprotected. On Sept. 27 1940, the Tripartite Pact is signed between Japan and Italy and
Germany creating the Axis Alliance. This pact affirms the right of every nation to “receive the space to which it is entitled.” And
pledged cooperation. On July 24th, 1941, Japan invades southern Indochina. Roosevelt demands withdraw and places an embargo
on oil and freezes Japanese assets in the U.S. On December 7, 1941, Japanese fleet launches a surprise attack on Pearl Harbor under
the command of Isoroku Yamamoto. 19 American ships were sunk, and the US looses 188 airplanes, with 2400 people died and
1100 wounded. On December 8th, 1941, Roosevelt asks for declaration of war from Congress. On December 11, 1941, Germany and
Italy declare war on the U.S. Britain declares war on Japan. Russia, now an ally wants a second front in Europe to help with their
defense against Germany. However, Churchill and FDR thought it best to start in North Africa.
                                                                                                     Is this the biggest mistake of the
The Turning Point of WWII – The Russian Offensive                                                                   war?
In August 1942, the Nazis attack Stalingrad in Russia. At first they take 1/3 of the city leaving only a small pocket of the Volga River
in the hands of the Soviets. However, the Russians prove stubborn and despite all odds hold out leaving time for the Russian winter
to take hold. The Germans supplies begin to run out and the Luftwaffe had difficulty resupplying their forces. In the mean time,
Russian forces begin to prepare for a surprise attack to free Stalingrad and surround the German army. In February 1943, the Nazis
surrender in Stalingrad. This is a major turning point in the war because of the high German losses. The German 6 Army is
completely destroyed with 100,000 killed, 80,000 captured and much equipment seized.

                                           Northern Africa - Rommell vs. Bernard Montgomery

                    In May 1942, Germans are stopped at El Alamein in Egypt. In January 1943, British push west
                    and capture Tripoli. In October- December 1942, Allied troops mass at Morocco and Algeria and
                    begin the push east under the command of Dwight D. Eisenhower. In May 1943, Allies had taken
                    all of northern Africa. At this point Hitler removed Rommel and would not allow him to return.

                                          Allied Invasion of Italy

 In July 1943, Attacks on Sicily begin and continue through the month. After the Allies take Sicily,
 Mussolini is removed from power. In July 25th, 1943, Mussolini is fired by King Emmanuel III and was
 arrested. In September 3rd, 1943, New Prime Minister, Marshal Peitro Badoglio dissolved the Fascist
 party and signed an act of surrender. In June 4th, 1944, Allied Army enters Rome.

                                                      Western European Theater

 In June 6th, 1944, Operation Overlord or D-Day started. The assault by air and sea established a foothold in Northern Europe.
 In August 25 De Gaulle enters Paris. This is the first time it has been occupied by the French in four years.
 In December 1944, Hitler stages the Battle of the Bulge that is his last ditch effort to keep Germany from being invaded. The
 Allies, suffering massive loss of men, defeat the Germans and move into Germany. In March 1945, the Allies cross the Rhine River.

                                                        The End of European War

Eastern European Theater
On January 1944, Russians break the German siege of Leningrad.
On July 1944, Russians are attacking German held Warsaw, Poland.
On October 1944, Russians control most of East-Central Europe.
On April-May 1945, Allies enter Berlin and Germans surrender on May 7th
On May 8 V-E Day – Victory in Europe

Plans for After the War
On February 1945, Roosevelt, Churchill and Stalin meet in Yalta to plan the end of the war.
                               The overall topic is the division of Germany
                                  1. Disarm and disband the armed forces
                                  2. Remove and destroy military equipment
                                  3. Provide swift and just punishment for the Nazis
                                  4. Allows Russia to invade and conquer Berlin.

On July 1945, Potsdam Conference was attended by Truman, Churchill and Stalin.
Topic of discussion is still the division of Germany but this conference is different from Yalta in that there is tension between the U.S. and
Russia and Churchill has been voted from power. This is the beginning of the Cold War.

                                                 The Pacific Theater
After the Pearl Harbor attack, Admiral Yamamoto was to have said, “I fear we have awakened a sleeping giant.”

The Japanese military philosophy calls for honor, discipline, and respect and asked their soldiers to put their country
before their own lives. This will lead to Kamikaze pilots who will fly their planes into American ships in the Pacific killing
themselves to destroy the enemy.

In June 1942, The Battle of Midway is fought which is the turning point of the Pacific campaign.
In August 1942, the US wins the Battle of Guadalcanal, which is the first of the island hopping campaigns.
In February 1945, The American win the battle of Iwo Jima and then in April the Americans win the battle of Okinawa.
These victories allow for airbases to strike the Japanese homeland.
                                                                                                  Did the United States
                                                                                                 make the right decision
                                                                                                 using the atomic bomb
                                                                                                    on the Japanese?

On August 6th 1945, the first atomic bomb is dropped on Hiroshima.
On August 8, Russia declares war on Japan and invades Manchuria.
On August 9, the second atomic bomb is dropped on Nagasaki
On August 14, Emperor Hirohito and the Japanese surrender
On August 15, V-J Day Victory over Japan

Post WWII World
1. European countries have lost their empires
2. U.S. and Russia have become both powerful and enemies
3. The Atomic bomb has been introduced.

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