????? Introduction to Anglo-American Law by 1176i1

VIEWS: 6 PAGES: 60

									United States: History
 Indians/native Americans
 1492 Christopher Columbus
     Spanish,   Southwestern
     French, Great Lakes
     Dutch, Province of The Netherlands – New
      York
     British (religion) – 13 colonies
   Tension: American colonials & British
     Taxation
   1775 First Continental Congress 大陸會議
   1775-1781 King George III: American
    Revolutionary War
   1776 Second Continental Congress
     Declaration of Independence 獨立宣言
     Drafted by Thomas Jefferson
     July 4, 1776: Independence Day
   1778 Articles of Confederation 邦聯條款
     No National Government
     Only Congress (from 13 states)
       action 9/13
       Amendment 13

     Result:
       Externally: International Treaties
       Domestically: Trade; Taxation
   1788 The United States Constitution
     1787 Constitutional Convention 制憲會議
     Federalist

   1789 The new public
     Senate 參議院
     House of Representative 眾議院
     President: George Washington
United States: Federal Government

   Legislative (Congress; US Capitol)
     Senate
          100 members; 2/state
          Term: 6 years
     House     of Representative
          435 members; 7 states: 1, California: 53
          Term: 2 years
     Function:    make federal law, declare war, approve
      treaties
   Executive
     President
     Term: 4 Years
     Function: Commander-in-Chief 三軍統帥;
      appoints Cabinet 內閣 (Q: Secretary of State)
      and other officers
     Current President: Jan. 20, 2009, Barack
      Obama (44th, Democrat)
   Judicial
     Supreme   Court and lower federal courts
     Judges: appointed by the President with
      Senate approval
     Supreme Court: 9 members (Chief Justice)
     Functions: interpret law, overturn law
      (unconstitutional law)
Election (two-party system)
   Republican (Red)
     Conservative

   Democrat (Blue)
     Liberal

   2008 Election
States
   50 states (including original 13 states)
     Alaska,   Hawaii
   District of Columbia
     Washington,  DC
     Taxation Without Representation
     Federal law
   5 Overseas Territories
     Guam, Puerto Rico, Virgin Islands, Samoa, Northern
      Mariana Islands – US citizenship (except for Samoa)
     Recent federal case: Taiwan? US Passport?
          2/5, DC Circuit Court
   State government – modeled on the
    federal government
     Legislative: Senate, House of Representative,
      sate legislature, general assembly
     Executive: Governor (Q: CA Governor?)
     Judicial: State Supreme Court
Foreign Relations
 Cuba, Iran, N. Korea, Bhutan, Sudan,
  ROC (Taiwan)
 Taiwan Relations Act
     Notaffected by derecognition
     Arms sale
Your thoughts
 Movies, TV…
 American/US Law?
 Differences?
US Law: Origin
   1066 William I, Duke of Normandy
     Common    Law 普通法 (customary law, cases)
   1154 Henry I
     Apply to Britain
     Binding

   1776 US Declaration of Independence
     Anglo-American  Legal System, Common Law
     Continental Legal System, Civil Law
   Common Law
     Writ 命令狀
     Chancellor 法官
     Forms: Contract, Tort, Property
     Incorrect writ: Defendant – dismiss the action
      for procedural mistake
 Equity 衡平法
 Reform
     Procedure
               成文化/法典化 (enacted law >
     Codification
     common law)
Enacted Law/Legislative System

   1. The Constitution of the United States
     “supreme law of the land”
     Preamble + Articles I to VII
     Amendments I to XXVII
   2. Treaties
     Same   authority with federal statutes
     Under the Constitution
     Conflict? The latter prevails
   3. Federal Statutes
     Constitution:   Congress has broad power
   4. Federal executive orders and
    administrative rules
     President
     Federal   agencies
   5. State Constitutions
     Subjectto federal legislation
     Paramount authority within the state
     “enumerated power”

   6. State statutes
     State   Parliament
 7. State administrative rules and
  regulations
 8. Municipal ordinances, rules, and
  regulations
Common Law
   Stare Decisis 判決先例拘束原則
     Precedent  - Later Cases
     Appellate courts
         Federal/State Courts
   Case
     Opinion (Holding & Obiter dictum 附帶意見)
     Concurring Opinion
     Dissenting Opinion
   Holding – example
     Cantwellv. Denton (last name, Plaintiff v.
      Defendant)
        Faulty wiring – resident sustained injuries
        Owner/Defendant – defense: voluntary assumption
         of the risk
        Court ruled – this doctrine did not apply
              Reason: father rescued his daughter
   Holding:
     Assumption   of the risk applies only to voluntary
      conduct
     And a father’s choice to enter a burning building is not
      voluntary if
     He must choose between entering the building and
      failing to save his child’s life
   Questions:
     Childtried to save his mother?
     Save a dog?
   Adversary System 司法對立制度
     Judge   – neutral
     Plaintiff v. Defendant
     Lawyer & Witness
        Direct Examination
        Cross Examination 交叉詰問

     Evidence   – Federal Rules of Evidence
          E.g. Hearsay 傳聞證據
Court Structure (Federal)
   Supreme Court
     In   Washington DC
   Court of Appeals (13 Circuits, Circuit
    includes several states)
     1-11   Circuits
        2nd: New York (United States Court of Appeals for
         the Second Circuit)
        9nd: California (?)
 D.C.     Circuit
     Largest caseload: foreign relations
 Federal     Circuit
     U.S. Court of International Trade
          Customs, anti-dumping
     U.S. Court of Federal Claims
          Against US government
     Patent Cases
   District Court (one state has several
    district courts – N, E, S, C)
     United  States District Court for the Southern
      District of New York
     United States District Court for the Central
      District of California
   Citations (Bluebook)
     Marbury     v. Madison, 5 U.S. 137 (1803)
          5. U.S., 137, 138-39 (1803)
     Engel    v. CBS, Inc., 182 F.3d 124 (2d Cir.
      1999)
     Salahuddin v. Coughlin, 999 F. Supp. 526,
      535 (S.D.N.Y. 1998)
Federal Court
   Jurisdiction (protect out-of-state residents)
     Federal    Question
          Federal Law, e.g. labor law
     Diversity   多元管轄
        Citizens of different states (NY v. NJ)
        more than $75,000 in potential damages
   Appeals
     Trial   Court: District Court
        Question of fact
        Jury

     Appellate    Court: Circuit Court & Supreme
      Court
          Question of ;aw
     Supreme      Court: writ of certiorari 上訴許可令
Court Structure (State)
   Similar to federal court – 3 level, with different names
   Commonwealth of Pennsylvania
       Supreme Court
       Superior Court; Commonwealth Court
       Court of Common Pleas
   State of New York
       Highest Court: Court of Appeals
       Intermediate Court: Supreme Court, Appellate Division
       Trial Court: Supreme Court
   Internship/Clerkship
Legal Research
   Primary Sources
     United States Code (U.S.C.)
     Federal Register (F.R.)
     Restatement
     Cases
   Secondary Sources
     UniformCommercial Code (U.C.C.)
     Law Review/Journals
   Westlaw; LexisNexis
Marbury v. Madison
 1803
 Importance
     Judicial
             Review
     Separate of Powers

   Role?
   Presidential Election 1800
     JohnAdam, Incumbent (Federalist)
     Thomas Jefferson (Republican) – Winner
   John Adam
     John  Marshall: Secretary of State – Chief
      Justice
     Federalist Congress: The Organic Act: 42
      justices-of-the peace in DC (William Marbury)
   Thomas Jefferson
     Secretary   of State: James Madison
 Marbury sued Madison in the SC– writ of
  mandamus 任命狀
 Legal Issues?
   1. Right to the commission?
     Signed by the President/Sealed by the
      Secretary of State
     5 years – not revocable
     Vested legal right
   2. Right was violated, legal remedy?
     Head   of government – duty
     Individual right depends on the performance
      of the duty
     Injured – right to ask for a remedy
          Legal Remedy
   3. Legal Remedy? Can the Supreme Court
    issue a writ of mandamus?
     Legal    Basis: Art 13 of the Judicial Act of 1989
         Authorizes the SC to issue a writ of mandamus
     US   Constitution
         Art 3, Sec 2
            Original Jurisdiction
            Appellate Jurisdiction – Congress

         Conflict: Unconstitutional, void
US Law School Programs
 LLM
 SJD/JSD
 JD
Master of Laws (LLM)
   9-12 month program for foreign lawyers
   Business School Certificate
     Northwestern;   Penn
   Application Materials:
     Transcript, GPA (>3.5)
     TOEFL (>600/250)
     Letters of Recommendation
     Personal Statement; Study Plan
   GPA Calculation
     90分以上:   5; 80-89:4; 70-79:3; 60-69:2; 59以
      下:1
     中文 82, Credit 2 (4 x 2); 英美導 77, credit 2 (3
      x 2); 刑總, 63, Credit 3 (2 x 3): Total除以學分
      總數
LLM
   Quota: Different Country and Standard
   Good Candidate
     Grades (GPA & TOEFL)
     Other Performance in School (Moot Court)
     Work Experience (Diverse)

   Career: New York Job Fair
     Opportunitiesin the US Limited
     Taiwan: Law Firms, Foreign Banks
US Bar Exam
   International Students
     New   York (LLM) (60%)
     California (LLM & Bar) (40%)
   Exam (twice an year; 2 days)
     Professional Responsibility (Multistate Professional
      Responsibility Examination, MPRE ) (60 questions)
     Multistate Bar Examination, MBE (200 questions)
     State-Specific
   BarBri, Expenses
Doctor of Juridical Science
(SJD/JSD)
   Research program; mostly international students
   Career: academia in Taiwan
   Different Schools
     Requirement
     Specialization
   Application
     Accept LLM
     Proposal
     Supervisor
Juris Doctor (JD)
   Standard 3-year US Program
     US Law Professors, Judges, Lawyers
     Foreign Students (<5%)
   Different from International Programs
     No quota for each country
     Compete with top US students and others (UK,
      Canada, Germany, China, Korea)
     High Standard for English (legal writing)
   Ranking (US News): T14
JD
   Career
     US   Law Firms; International Organizations
     Academia: US, Hong Kong, Singapore, Taiwan (LLM,
      fields: Intellectual Property, Corporate)
          Publications Essential
     Return    to Asia
          Firm: Partner
          Tech Company: In-house Counsel
JD
   Application
       LSAT (170)
       GPA
       Letters of Recommendation
       Personal Statement
   Transfer (highly competitive): Columbia, Penn, Duke,
    Virginia, Washington in St. Louis
       May waive LLM
   Standards
       Grades (> A-)
       Strong Recommendation
1L
   Compulsory (demanding, strict curve)
        Civil Procedure
        Constitution
        Contracts
        Torts
        Property
        Legal Writing; Moot Court
   Elective
        International Law (except Michigan, Harvard)
        Intellectual Property
   Socratic Method (int’l students may waive)
   Exams (open book, 24 hours)
2L, 3L
 Corporations, Securities, Evidence
 Seminar
 Journal Work
 Moot Court Competition
 Clinic (Mediation)
 Teaching/Research Assistant
     Legal   Writing Fellow: 1L & LLM
1L Summer Internship;
Post-graduation Clerkship (Court)
   Difference
     Internship (unpaid, 8-12 weeks)
     Clerkship (paid, 1 year)
     Court: Circuit Court; Supreme Court
     Clerkship bonus
   Work
     Memo
     Court Proceedings
     Draft Opinions
Intern/Clerk Applications
   Qualifications
     Competitive  Schools
     Law Review Editors
     Federal Courts (US Citizens, PR, Treaty)
     State Courts
Law Reviews & Journals
   Editing/Selecting Process
     Referred/Professional Journals   (Europe)
     Student-Edited Journals (US)
   Prestige, Purpose
     Law Review: General Purpose (1st choice)
        Harvard Law Review, Yale Law Journal

     Journals: Specialized, e.g. International Law
        Harvard International Law Journal

   Number of Articles Received
     US   Academia - Publications
Writing Competition
 Editing Test: 3 days
 Essay: 7 days
 Personal Statement




Then . . . Expect a call . . .
2L Law Firm Interviews (summer
associate)
   On Campus Recruiting Interviews
     Selection,   bidding process
     20   mins
   Call Back Interviews
     Meet 4-6 partners and junior associate
     Morning Session: Lunch
     Transportation, Hotel Expenses
Law Firms
   Practice Area
     Corporate     Law
          Merger & Acquisition, Capital Market & Securities,
           Banking, Finance, Bankruptcy
     Litigation
        Domestic Law: Business, Labor, Constitution
        International Law
Associate
   Salary (top 50 firms)
        Summer Associate: USD3,000/week
        First-Year Associate: USD160,000/year (Pre-tax)
   Number of Summer Associates (out of 10,000 Candidates)
        NY: 80-100
        DC: 5-10
   Length: 10-12 weeks
   Rotation
        Practice Areas
        International Offices: London, Hong Kong
   Offer?
      Bar Expenses
      Relocation
Professional Responsibility
 ABA – Model Code of Professional
  Responsibility
 Qualification
     Exam
     Differentstates: Reciprocity
     (5 years; not CA); Pro hac vice (p. 355)
 Disciplinary Board
 Malpractice and other ways (p. 355)
 Pro bono
 Continuing Legal Education (CLE)
   Solicitation
     No:In person, Phone
     Yes: Advertisement
          Cannot be misleading
               Eg. 100% win; Harvard-trained

   Fee: Hourly; Contingent Fee 附條件
     reason?
   Termination of attorney-client relationship
       Civil (p. 361)
       Criminal (p. 362)
   Fiduciary Duty
       Strategy; not decision, e.g. Appeal, plea bargain
   Confidentiality
       Exceptions (p. 369)
   Conflict of interests
       Written consent
   Sex

								
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