CODE OF ETHICS OF PROFESSIONAL ENGINEERS & CONSULTING ENGINEERS by V64xsRZ9

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									                                                          Draft Report of Committee on Ethics

                    Engineering Council of India
          CODE OF ETHICS COMMITTEE DRAFT REPORT




                    Introduction
                    Board of Ethics Organisation (BEPC)
                    Recommended Code of Ethics
                    Violation of Code of Ethics
                    Conclusion




                    Appendix:

                           A:      Composition of Board of Ethics Committee.
                           B:      Minutes of the Meeting held on July 24, 2002
                           C:      Minutes of the Meeting held on August 9, 2002
                           D:      Code of Ethics: List of National and International
                                   Organisation studied
                           E:      Review of Ethics Statement of Selected International
                                   and National Organisations




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                CODE OF ETHICS COMMITTEE REPORT

1. INTRODUCTION

Ethics are the moral principles, governing or influencing conduct of a person, religion,
group or profession. Moral principles distinguish between right and wrong in conduct or
behaviour. Ethics give rise to a set of values. The organisations, through their ‘Code of
Ethics’ define the ethical values and support these with rules or guidelines to guide the
conduct of its members to conform to these values in professional dealings and decision-
makings. Engineers should act in such a manner as to uphold and enhance the honour,
integrity and the dignity of the engineering profession. They must respect the prevalent
Code of Ethics and encourage associates, colleagues and co-workers to act in conformity
with the Code.

The Engineering Council of India (ECI) has constituted an advisory Committee to develop
the structure and framework for the ‘Board for Ethics of Professional Engineers and
Consulting Engineers. The composition of the Committee is reflected in Appendix A, and
its terms of reference are as under:


      To develop the policy, criteria and standards for ethical conduct of professional
       work of the Professional Engineers and Consulting Engineers.

      To develop the Rules and Regulations required for the functioning of Board of
       Ethics for Professional Engineers and Consulting Engineers.

      To develop the method of receiving the application and complaints regarding
       violation of ethical standards by PE’s and CE’s and their disposal.

      To outline programme for propagating the codes on ethics and how to mobilize
       Associations/Institutions for dissemination of information on ethical standards.

      To develop the system for the review of the code of conduct and ethical standards
       that are in force and for recommending the changes therein from time to time.

      To make recommendations on any other aspects related to the formulation and
       implementations of ethical standards of PE’s and CE’s.

      To ensure that the systems evolved for the working of the Board conforms to
       WTO/GATS/Washington Accord / Engineers Mobility Forum (as may be
       recommended by Committee on WTO/GATS)


The Committee held three meetings to deliberate on the tasks assigned (Minutes of the last
two meetings are reproduced in Appendices B and C for ready reference). It studied Code
of Ethics and related matters of number of national and international professional
organizations having licensed professional engineers and consulting engineers. These
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organizations are listed in Appendix D. The ‘Fundamental Principles’ included in Code of
Ethics of some of the selected organizations are reflected in Appendix E.

This Report contains recommendations relating to the ECI’s Code of Ethics supplemented
with conduct-rules for ethical conduct of professional work of Professional Engineers
(PEs) and Consulting Engineering Organisations (CEOs). These recommendations are
covered under the following heads:

   (a) Board of Ethics Organisation. It outlines the Board’s role, functions and
       composition.

   (b) Recommended Preamble and Statement of Code of Ethics. Preamble brings out
       the need for Code of Ethics. The statement details the ‘Ethics’ recommended.

   (c) Strategy for Managing Ethical Behaviour.              It includes guidelines for
       encouraging ethical behaviour, programmes for propagating the codes of ethics and
       the system for the review of the code of conduct and the changes therein from time
       to time.

   (d) Violation of the Code of Ethics. It covers the method of receiving the complaints
       regarding violation of ethical standards, and the procedure for processing till their
       disposal.

2. BOARD OF ETHICS ORGANISATION

   2.1 Board of Ethics for Professional and Consulting Organisations (BEPC) will be a
       standing Board for ethics in ECI. It shall be responsible for interpreting, promoting,
       enforcing and reviewing Code of Ethics. It shall lay down systems and procedures
       relating to the assigned role and will be the deciding body for taking action against
       “Professional Engineers and Consulting Engineering Organisations”, for violation
       of ethical standards.

   2.2 Functions of BEPC will include the following:

       -      Lay down a policy, criteria and standards for ethical conduct of professional
              work of “Professional Engineers and Consulting Engineering
              Organisations”.

       -      Frame rules and regulations for the work of the Board.

       -      Receive all complaints regarding violation of ethical standards by
              “Professional Engineers and Consulting Engineering Organisations”.

       -      Decide whether to investigate or reject the complaint.

       -      Take decisions regarding punishment in case of defaulters and communicate
              it to all concerned as per the regulations.


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       -       Develop specially designed programmes and encouraged by
               Associations/Institutions to organize there programmes for dissemination of
               information on ethical standards.

       -       Review code of conduct and ethical standards being followed and
               recommend changes therein from time to time.

       -       Make recommendations to the ECI on aspects related to the formulation,
               implementation and review of ethical standards of “Professional Engineers
               and Consulting Engineering Organisations”, when necessary.

   2.3 BEPC will have a Chairman and up-to 7 members including the Chairman. All the
       members, including the Chairman, will be nominated by the Board of Governors of
       ECI for a period of 3 years. It will be serviced by the secretariat of ECI. No
       member shall be eligible to continue as Member / Chairman for more than six
       years. Two members will retire every year but they will be eligible for re-
       nomination up to the maximum period specified.

3. RECOMMENDED PREAMBLE & STATEMENT OF CODE OF ETHICS

“Preamble

Engineering is a profession that puts scientific knowledge to practical use. Professional
Engineers and Consulting Engineering Organisations , in the pursuit of their profession,
affect the quality of life of all people in the society and the quality of all sectors of the
economy. Therefore, ethics are fundamental to the values of the profession. Accordingly,
the services provided by professional and consulting engineering organisations should
adhere to a code of ethics while dealing with the public, clients, employers, employees and
the associates.

This, ECI ‘Code of Ethics’, aims at maintaining high standards of personal and
professional conduct, developing professional competency and integrity, ensuring ethical
conduct in fulfilling social responsibility to the society, the nation and the global
community. It is mandatory that all registered Professional Engineers (PE) and registered
Consulting Engineering Organisations (CE), hereafter referred as “engineers” conduct their
professional practices and their individual behaviour in an ethical manner, as stated below:

Article 1. Social Responsibility to Uphold Ethical Values of the Society:

     1.1   Public Safety: Engineers shall ensure the safety, health and welfare of the
           public in the performance of their professional duties. Safety of the people must
           always come first. They should promptly disclose to all concerned the factors
           that might endanger the public safety or the environment.

     1.2   Compliance with Social Order: Engineers shall abide by the laws of the land
           in which the work is performed, respect the local customs, uphold the human
           rights, safeguard public property; abjure violence and acts of terrorism.


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     1.3   Impartiality and Fairness. Engineers shall treat fairly all persons regardless of
           such factors as race, caste, religion, state, gender or national origin.

     1.4   Environment Protection & Improvement. Engineers shall strive to maintain
           clean, healthy and safe environments and comply with the statutory
           requirements.

     1.5   Environment Safeguards. Engineers shall disclose any factor that endangers
           the environment.

Article 2. Responsibility to Maintain High Standards of Professional Quality. These
           professional responsibilities include the following:

     2.1   Development of Technical and Managerial Skills: Engineers shall maintain
           state-of-the-art professional skills, continue professional development and
           provide opportunity for the professional development of those working under
           their command.

     2.2   Undertake Assignment where Professionally Competent. Engineers shall
           perform service only in the area of their technical competence or after full
           disclosure to their employers or clients of their own limitations.

     2.3   Performance Responsibility. Engineers shall seek work through fair and
           proper methods, and shall take full responsibility for the task undertaken by
           them.

     2.4   Proper Verification of Documents and Production Processes. Engineers
           shall approve only those designs, which safely and economically meet the
           requirement of the client and shall not approve any engineering document,
           design, materials, stages of work which they consider it to be unsound.


Article 3. Obligation to Maintain High Standard of Personal Behaviour in a
           Responsible Manner.

     3.1   Honesty and Integrity in Professional Dealing. Engineers shall maintain high
           degree of honesty and personal integrity in all their professional dealings. They
           shall not accept or give bribes in any form.

     3.2   Compensation for Services Rendered. Engineers shall not engage in
           unhealthy competition.

     3.3   Professional Opinion. Engineers shall seek and offer honest criticism of
           technical work, acknowledge errors, and give credit properly for the
           contribution of others. Where necessary, engineers shall issue public statements
           in an objective and truthful manner.



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     3.4   Professional Relationship with the Employer. Engineers shall act faithfully
           as trustee of the employer / client on professional matters.

     3.5   Information Communication with Employers. Engineers shall keep their
           employer and client fully informed on all matters relating to progress of
           business including financial aspects, which may affect the assigned work.

     3.6   Mutual Obligation & Trust. Engineers shall not, maliciously or falsely, injure
           the professional reputation of another engineer or organisation.

     3.7   Self Promotion. Engineers shall build their reputation based on the merits of
           services to the customers and shall not falsify or misrepresent their
           contribution.

     3.8   Employers’ Business Secrets. Engineers shall not disclose by any means,
           confidential information of the employer or client, unless otherwise authorized.

     3.9   Personal Conflict. Engineers shall disclose real or perceived conflicts of
           interest to affected parties and avoid these where possible.

4. VIOLATION OF THE CODE OF ETHICS

     4.1   All individuals and organisations applying for registration shall commit
           themselves to this code of ethics prior to registration. After registration, the
           Professional Engineers and Consulting Engineers Organisations must undertake
           to abide by this Code of Ethics.

     4.2   In case of any complaint, the Board has the power to investigate, and award
           punishment, if considered fit. The Board will frame rules and regulation for this
           purpose.

     4.3   Any aggrieved engineer shall have the right to appeal against any decision of
           BEPC to an Appellate Body to be constituted by ECI. This body will consist of
           three eminent persons. It may be the same Body set up for looking into
           grievances at the time of registration. The Body will evolve its own procedures,
           etc.


5 CONCLUSION

   It is imperative that all the member associations / organisations of the ECI must adopt
   this ECI Code of Ethics, and make it binding on the conduct of their members and the
   organisations. However, where necessary, the organizations may supplement the
   fundamental ethics with supporting rules, if needed to amplify and / or meet the
   organizational requirements.

   The Code of Ethics may be amended by the Board in consultation with member
   organizations.
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                                                                               Appendix A


                 Composition of Board of Ethics Committee


        Committee for Ethics for Professional Engineers & Consulting Engineers

      Name of the Chairman            Name of the Members
      Prof. P.V. Indiresan            Prof. S.C. Dutta Roy
      B-57, Hill View Apartments      Deptt. of Electrical Engineering
      Vasant Vihar                    IIT Delhi
      New Delhi 110 057               Hauz Khas
      Tel. 6145091                    New Delhi 110 016
      Email indiresan@bol.net.in      Email: scdroy@ee.iitd.ernet.in

                                      Brig. SVS Chowdhry
                                      410, Sector 29
                                      Arun Vihar
                                      Noida 201 301
                                      91-4450094
                                         4450240
                                      Email: svschowdhry@hotmail.com

                                      Prof. S.K. Mullick
                                      85, Sector 17,
                                      Panchkula 134 109
                                      Haryana

                                      Email: skmullick123@sify.com

                                      Prof. S.K. Chakraborty
                                      Center for Human Value
                                      Indian Institute of Management Calcutta
                                      Diamond Harbour Road
                                      Joka
                                      Kolkata – 700104

                                      Email: sitangsu@iimcal.ac.in
                                      Lt. Gen. S.K. Jain, PVSM, AVSM, VSM
                                      (Retd.)
                                      Chairman
                                      Institution of Engineers India
                                      Delhi State Centre
                                      “Engineers Bhawan”
                                      2, Bahadur Shah Zafar Marg
                                      New Delhi-110002
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                               Tel.011-23379052 / 23379948(O)
                                       3792439/3375521 (R)
                               Email:jainsurendrak@hotmail.com

                               Mr. V.K. Agarwal
                               Former Chairman
                               Railway Board
                               Flat No.17/2A, Sector 56
                               Gurgaon – 122 003
                               Mr. Jagman Singh
                               Past President IEI
                               58, Sector 27A,
                               Chandigarh 160019

                               Tel.® 0172 656743
                               Fax 0172 540133
                               Email: ieichd@satyam.net.in
                               Ms. Lakshi Swaminathan
                               J 29, South Extension Part I
                               New Delhi 110 049

                               Tel.(O)4642269/4634980
                               Fax 4619083
                               Email: witt@nde.vsnl.net.in

                               Member Secretary ECI-Ex-Officio Member




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                                                                               Appendix B
                                Minutes of the Meeting

              1st Meeting held on 24th July at CDC, New Delhi

                                 Summary of Discussions

A.    Persons Present

1.    Prof. P.V. Indiresan -         Chairman of the Committee
2.    Prof. S.C. Dutta Roy -         Member
3.    Brig. S.V.S.Chowdhry-          Member
4.    Prof. S.K. Chakravarti-        Member
5.    Lt.Gen. S.K. Jain     -        Member
6.    Mr. V.K. Agarwal      -        Member
7.    Prof. Ashoka Chandra -         Chairman, ECI
8.    Dr. Uddesh Kohli      -        Member Secretary ECI and Ex.Officio Member of
                                     the Committee
9.    Mr. P.K. Singh        -        Director, ECI

B.    Issues raised

      i)     Is there any statutory authority vested in ECI to implement a code of ethics,
             what is the locus standi?
      ii)    Are there any specific requirements in this regard under GATS/Washington
             Accord/EMF?
      iii)   Issue of double jeopardy i.e. no one should be punished twice, once by the
             legal authorities and again by the Board of Ethics for Professional and
             Consulting Engineers.
      iv)    How to define what is ethical and what is not?
      v)     What would be the nature of the ECI with organisations employing
             professional engineers and the extent to which is would like to intervene in
             matters of ethics?

C.    Views expressed

      i)     Committee should study codes already adapted by other organisations and
             the member organization of the Council.
      ii)    The Board of Ethics for Professional and Consulting Engineers should
             concentrate on organisations only, as it is the organisations who tend to
             protect its individual members when a person committees an unethical act.
      iii)   Decision making process in India, particularly in Government Departments
             is such that it is impossible to fix responsibility on any one individual or a
             functionary.
      iv)    Ethics begins with an individual, organisations just follow it.

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      v)      Unethical behaviour has the characteristic of scheming against society for
              fleecing it and holding it at ransom. This is often done by those who are
              otherwise competent and brilliant in their professional ability.
      vi)     Deriving mileage out of defencelessness of people against machinations too
              is unethical behaviour and the question of ethics should be seen from this
              point of view as well.
      vii)    Ethical behaviour develops through three distinct levels.
              a. Compliance level
              b. Cognitive level
              c. Consciousness at being level.

      viii)   ECI would acquire legal authority only after an Engineers Bill is adapted by
              the Parliament. For the time being, ECI has to evolve a method of
              improving ethical standards of the profession mainly through peer pressure.

      ix)     Accreditation of educational programmes is with AICTE. ECI’s interest is
              primarily in the professionals and therefore it has to concern itself with
              issues related to experience and competence gained by engineers and their
              working environment.

D.    Consensus Emerged

      1)      There cannot be any ethical responsibility without granting autonomy to
              decision makers.

      2)      There are variations in perception of ethical behaviours between different
              social/professional groups and any code that is evolved has to take this into
              account.

      3)      ECI should not be seen as punishing a person who has already been
              punished by some other authority.

      4)      Incompetence, inefficiency and carelessness are not in the perview of the
              committee, as these are dealt with by rules and regulations and code of
              conduct of various organisations.

      5)      The Committee has to evolve not only a code of ethics, but also the
              mechanism by which the general standard of practices in engineering
              profession can be raised to a level higher than what is obtained at present.


E.    Action Decided

      i)      Dr. S.K. Mullick be requested to prepare a theme note on following issues

              a)     Issues related with ethics.
              b)     How to sensitise people on the concept of “ethics”.
              c)     Strategy for building up peer pressure.
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      ii)    ECI Secretariat to distribute the documents sent by Prof. S.K. Mullick
             amongst other members of the Committee.

      iii)   ECI secretariat to decide the date and venue for the next meeting.




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                                                                                Appendix C
                               Minutes of the Meeting

                  2nd Meeting held on 9.8.2002 at ECI, Delhi
                                Summary of Discussions


A.    Persons Present


      1.     Prof. P.V. Indiresan           -       Chairman of the Committee
      2.     Prof. S.K. Mullick             -       Member
      3.     Mr. V.K. Agarwal               -       Member
      4.     Prof. S.K. Chakraborty         -       Member
      5.     Brg. S.V.S. Choudhry           -       Member
      6.     Dr. M.K. Khanijo               -       Special invitee
      7.     Prof. Ashoka Chandra           -       Chairman, ECI
      8.     Dr. Uddesh Kohli               -       Member Secretary, ECI
      9.     Mr. P.K. Singh                 -       Director, ECI

B.    Issues Raised

      1) Whether our scope of work should confine itself to the practical and pragmatic
         aspects of ethical questions or we need to go to a higher level?

      2)     Should ECI be proactive or reactive?

      3)     Where to stop since all engineering activities disturb environment?

      4)     How to formulate a statement which promotes good ethical behaviour?

C.    Views Expressed

      1. Precise conception of what is “ethical” is a must, because it is from this that one
         develops the codes and good practices for do’s and don’t’s to operationalise the
         codes and to determine various levels of ethical/unethical behaviour that one
         may encounter in day to day life.

      2. The content and the phraseology to be used to express our unique concern our
         document and it is also desirable that it should be different from the standard
         documents that have already been developed by other countries.

      3. Rather than confining itself with developing a mechanisms for fixing
         responsibilities and punishments for an unethical conduct, our codes should
         actually promote ethical behaviour in a proactive manner.

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      4. The preamble of the document prepared by Prof. S.K. Mullick should be made
         more comprehensive.


      5. The distinction between code of ethics and code of conduct should be reflected
         in our document.


      6. Ethical behaviour is often perceived as detrimental to the persuit of personal
         goals whereas if one looks deeply, the case is just the opposite. Hence the
         benefits that one derives from ethical behaviour should also be brought out
         clearly.

D.    Consensus Emerged

      1. The document prepared by Prof. S.K. Mullick needs revision to include the
         concerns expressed by the Members of the Committee and, to make it more
         comprehensive.

E.    Decisions


      1.     Brig. SVS Chowdhry was requested to act as the Member Secretary for the
             Committee and he gave his consent for it.

      2.     Prof. S.K. Chakraborty and Prof. Ashoka Chandra has been requested to
             jointly prepare another note on the code of ethics on the basis of the
             concerns expressed by the Members of the Committee for discussions in the
             next meeting.

      3.     Prof. Indiresan, as Chairman of the Committee, would write to some
             government agencies too, to seek their views on the issues of concern to us.

4.     Next meeting would be held at Delhi around 10th of September 2002. The exact
date and venue to be decided by ECI Secretariat after consulting the Members of the
Committee.




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                                                                            Appendix D


      Code of Ethics: List of National and International Organisation Studied
   1. Code of Ethics Project Management Institute, USA.
   2. Code of Ethics for Engineers, National Society of Professional Engineers, USA,
       1993.
   3. Code of Ethics, The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, USA, 1990
   4. Code of Ethics, American Society of Civil Engineers, 1996.
   5. Code of Ethics, Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology Inc. USA,
       1996.
   6. Code of Ethics, American Institute of Chemical Engineers, 2001
   7. Code of Ethics, Information Processing Society of Japan, 1996
   8. Code of Ethics, The Institution of Engineers, Australia.
   9. Conduct and Ethics in Engineering Practice Related to North American Free Trade
       Agreement, 1995.
   10. The Chemist’s Code of Conduct, American Chemical Society, 1994.
   11. ACEC Professional and Ethical Conduct Guidelines, 1980
   12. The APEC Engineering Manual.
   13. Bangladesh Professional Engineers Registration Board.
   14. The Institute of Engineers India.
   15. Consultancy Development Centre, India.
   16. Consulting Engineers Association of India.
   17. Computer Society of India
   18. The Institute of Marine Engineers (India).
   19. The Institute of Electrical & Electronics Engineers , INC.-India Council
   20. The Aeronautical Society of India




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                                                                                 Appendix E


           REVIEW OF ETHICS STATEMENT OF SELECTED
         INTERNATIONAL AND NATIONAL ORGANISATIONS

In the course of preparation of the proposed Code of Ethics, the ethics established by
number of national and international professional organizations (including members of
Washington Accord) having licensed professional and consulting engineers were studied.
In addition the documents studied included management books on ethics, and Code of
Ethics of renowned professional institutes/societies. The gist of some of the selected
documents are outlined below:

 NATIONAL SOCIETY OF ENGINEERING PROFESSIONALS (NSPE). Fundamental Canons
states that engineers in the fulfillment of their professional duties shall:

1. Hold paramount the safety, health and welfare of the public.

2. Perform services only in areas of their competence.

3. Issue public statements only in an objective and truthful manner.

4. Act for each employer or client as faithful agents or trustees.

5. Avoid deceptive acts.

6. Conduct themselves honorably, responsibly, ethically, and lawfully so as to enhance the
honor, reputation, and usefulness of the profession.

American Society of Civil Engineers. The fundamental Canons of the society’s ethics
are:

  1. Engineers shall hold paramount the safety, health and welfare of the public and shall
strive to comply with the principles of sustainable development3 in the performance of
their professional duties.
  2. Engineers shall perform services only in areas of their competence.
  3. Engineers shall issue public statements only in an objective and truthful manner.
  4. Engineers shall act in professional matters for each employer or client as faithful
agents or trustees, and shall avoid conflicts of interest.
  5. Engineers shall build their professional reputation on the merit of their services and
shall not compete unfairly with others.
  6. Engineers shall act in such a manner as to uphold and enhance the honor, integrity,
and dignity of the engineering profession.
  7. Engineers shall continue their professional development throughout their careers, and
shall provide opportunities for the professional development of those engineers under their
supervision.
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The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, IEEE, members must commit
themselves to the highest ethical and professional conduct and agree:

   1. to accept responsibility in making engineering decisions consistent with the safety,
       health and welfare of the public, and to disclose promptly factors that might
       endanger the public or the environment;
   2. to avoid real or perceived conflicts of interest whenever possible, and to disclose
       them to affected parties when they do exist;
   3. to be honest and realistic in stating claims or estimates based on available data;
   4. to reject bribery in all its forms;
   5. to improve the understanding of technology, its appropriate application, and
       potential consequences;
   6. to maintain and improve our technical competence and to undertake technological
       tasks for others only if qualified by training or experience, or after full disclosure of
       pertinent limitations;
   7. to seek, accept, and offer honest criticism of technical work, to acknowledge and
       correct errors, and to credit properly the contributions of others;
   8. to treat fairly all persons regardless of such factors as race, religion, gender,
       disability, age, or national origin;
   9. to avoid injuring others, their property, reputation, or employment by false or
       malicious action;
   10. to assist colleagues and co-workers in their professional development and to
       support them in following this Code of Ethics.


FUNDAMENTAL DUTIES OF AN INDIAN CITIZEN

It shall be the duty of every citizen of India –

   (a) to abide by the Constitution and respect its ideal and institutions, the National Flag
       and the National Anthem;
   (b) to cherish and follow the noble ideals which inspired our national struggle for
       freedom;
   (c) to uphold and protect the sovereignty, unity and integrity of India;
   (d) to defend the country and render national service when called upon to do so;
   (e) to promote harmony and the spirit of common brotherhood amongst all the people
       of India transcending religious; linguistic and regional or sectional diversities; to
       renounce practices derogatory to the dignity of women;
   (f) to value and preserve the rich heritage of our composite culture;
   (g) to protect and improve the natural environment including forests, lakes, rivers and
       wild life, and to have compassion for living creatures;
   (h) to develop the scientific temper, humanism and the spirit of inquiry and reform;
   (i) to safeguard public property and to abjure violence;
   (j) to strive towards excellence in all spheres of individual and collective activity, so
       that the nation constantly rises to higher levels of endeavour and achievement.

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JAPAN APEC ENGINEER

Code of Ethics Professional Engineers

Dignity
1.     Professional Engineers shall always behave with dignity and perform works with a
       strong sense of responsibility.

Professional Competence
2.     Professional Engineers shall continuously strive to improve their professional
       competence, and conduct according to engineering conscience. Professional
       Engineers also shall not undertake any services beyond an area of their competence
       or any services in which the Professional Engineer lacks confidence.


Impartiality
3.    Professional Engineers shall strictly be impartial, fair and just, in performing their
      service.

Fees
4.     Professional Engineers shall not accept, except compensation for their services, an
       unreasonable commission, gift or otherwise from the third interested party.

Contract
5.    Professional Engineers, before undertaking work for others, should enter into a
      positive agreement clearly disclosing their circumstance and the scope of the work,
      and make efforts to avoid any conflicts between the parties in performing their
      services.

Secrecy
6.    Professional Engineers shall always intend to defend the interests pertaining to their
      services, and shall not reveal or abuse information that the Professional Engineer
      has gained through the services.

Fair and Free Competition
7.     Professional Engineers shall make effort to maintain a free and fair competition.

Mutual Trust
8.   Professional Engineers themselves shall have a relationship of mutual trust; one
     Professional Engineer shall respect the situation of the other and not to harm the
     reputation of or disturb the work of the other.

Restrictions on Advertising
9.     Professional Engineers shall not make representation of matters beyond their
       professional qualification nor make an exaggerated advertising.

Cooperation with other Professionals

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10.       Professional Engineers should make efforts to cooperate with professionals of other
          areas or special engineers, if advantageous to their services.

INSTITUTION OF ENGINEERS INDIA

A corporate member shall-

      1. practice his profession with integrity, conscience, dignity and honour and follow
          the best traditions of the profession.
      2. be aware that the principles of ecosystemic interdependence, diversity maintenance,
          resource recovery and inter-relational harmony form the basis of our continued
          existence and that each of these poses a threshold of sustainability that should not
          be exceeded.
      3. hold paramount the safety, health and welfare of the people and the protection of
          the environment and promote health and safety within the work place.
      4. offer services, advise on or undertake engineering assignments only in the areas of
          his competence and furnish information of his qualifications and experience to
          concerned clients.
      5. uphold and maintain confidentiality and respect for secrets confided in him by the
          clients, employers and employees in connection with any professional work
          undertaken by him.
      6. keep informed and updated in his area of professional activity and strive to provide
          opportunities for professional development of his subordinates.
      7. conduct without consideration of caste, creed, sect, social status and shall not
          perform and act against the interest of the nation.
      8. present clearly to all concerned the possible consequences of ignoring, overruling
          or discarding technological and engineering decisions or judgments without proper
          justification.
      9. not directly or indirectly injure the professional reputation of another Corporate
          Member.
      10. not accept any unoutherised commission, discount, allowance or profit direct or
          indirect to himself in connection with any work under his charge or for any
          professional business entrusted to him.
      11. not act in a manner which may injure the reputation or the image of the Institution
          or may cause damage to the Institution financially or otherwise.

CONSULTANCY DEVELOPMENT CENTRE

Responsibility to the Society
Each CDC member shall :

         Ensure that his professional services safeguards and enhances health, happiness and
          safety of the Society.
         Ensure that his professional service upholds the principles of environmentally
          sustainable development
         Refrain from expressing in Public an opinion on a professional subject unless he is
          sufficiently informed on the facts relating to the subject.

Ref: Committee/Ethics/3/2003
- 18 -
                                                               Draft Report of Committee on Ethics

Responsibility to Profession
Each CDC member shall :

      Uphold at all times, the dignity, standing and reputation of the profession.


Competence
Each CDC member shall :

      Maintain knowledge and skill at levels consistent with the development in
       technology, legislation and management, and apply due skill, care and diligence in
       the services rendered to the client.
      Refrain from performing any service unless competent to perform these.

Integrity
Each CDC member shall :

      Act at all times in the legitimate interest of the client and perform professional
       services with integrity and faithfulness.
      Act with fairness and justice between his client and the contractor in all matters
       pertaining to contracts / supplies and will not accept commissions or allowances
       directly or indirectly from the contractor / supplier.

Impartiality
Each CDC member shall :

      Be impartial in his professional advice, judgement or design.
      Not accept remuneration which prejudices independent judgement.
      Inform the client of any potential conflict of interest that might arise in the
       performance of the work.


Relation with other Consultants
Each CDC member shall :

      Not directly or indirectly injure or attempt to injure the professional reputation or
       practice or prospects of another fellow professional.
      Not associate in work with a professional who does not conform to the ethical
       practices laid down in the code.
      Not try to supplant another member in any particular employment nor attempt to
       intervene in work of any kind which to his knowledge has already been entrusted to
       another professional.
      Not review or take over the work of another member for the same client, except
       with the consent of the other member, unless he has been notified in writing by the
       client that such engagement or the work which is the subject of review has been
       terminated.


Ref: Committee/Ethics/3/2003
- 19 -
                                                               Draft Report of Committee on Ethics

Relation with Employees
Each CDC member shall :

      Subscribe to the principle of appropriate and adequate compensation for those
       engaged in engineering work, including those in subordinate positions.
      Endeavor to provide opportunity for the professional development and
       advancement of professionals in his employment.

Relations with Clients
Each CDC member shall :

      Not disclose confidential information concerning assignments or technical
       processes of client without his consent.

Job Procurement
Each CDC member shall :

      Not misrepresent his qualifications and experience to a client or to the profession or
       to the public.
      Not advertise in self laudatory manner or in any other manner derogatory to the
       dignity of the consultancy profession.


CARDINAL PRINCIPLES OF MOST OF THESE ORGANIZATIONS.

The cardinal principles of most of the organizations are as under:

Common Cardinal Principles
Social responsibility towards the community
Safety, health and welfare of the public and protection off the environment
Acceptance of responsibility in making decisions
Avoiding conflict of interests.
Maintaining and improvement of technical skills
Performing service in area of competency
Fair treatment to all persons
Professional developments of self, colleagues and co-workers
Act as faithful agent of the employer / client and shall avoid conflict of interests.
Uphold and enhance the honour, integrity and dignity of the profession


Note. None of the organization has laid stress on human rights and prevention of terrorist
activities.




Ref: Committee/Ethics/3/2003
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