Define industrialization by kwOG2B



  Industrialization was a process not an
  Occurred in Eastern Canada between
  During this period manufacturing grew,
   new social groups emerged and the
   railway tied the country as a political and
   economic unit.
   Pre-industrial society was largely rural
   It had very little:
 1. Manufacturing
 2. Technology: based on muscle power
 3. Merchants were in trade instead of
 4. Crafts people worked in their own shops-
    attached to home
 5. Most people were self-employed
  application of mechanical power on a large
  scale to the process of production

  (ie. Steam engine applied to production as
  opposed to human power)
What four conditions made
industrialization possible?
  Population Growth
    Creates a need for manufactured goods (ie.
     Building mat’ls, textiles, industrial
     equipment, etc)
    Also, supplies labour force
What four conditions made
industrialization possible?
  Transportation
    Required for linking together growing pop’n
    New technology, ie. Railway needs factories
     to produce rail ties, steel for rails
What four conditions made
industrialization possible?
  Wealth
    Needed to invest in industry to build
       Some were made wealthy enough through fish,
        fur, and shipping trade
What four conditions made
industrialization possible?
  Government policy
    Governments encouraged industrialization to
     stimulate the economy
       Confederation – canal building and railway
    Governments install high tariffs to protect Canadian
       National Policy (J.A. Macdonald)
           Tax on goods from other countries
Effects of
  The factory?
    – loss of skilled labour – more repetitive
    much more being made much quicker
    factories seen as “dark satanic mills”
       6 days/week and 10-12 hours/day
Effects of
  The farm?
    Railway – eliminates isolation, oil lamps, iron
     stoves, sewing machines, farm machines.
     All made life easier
    Good land disappears quicker because farm
     machinery makes it possible to farm more
       Drives people to cities
Effects of
  The mining frontier?
    Huge demand for raw mat’ls
    During railway building many minerals are
    creates the birth “boom towns”
Effects of
  Cities?
    Huge growth
    Jobs in factories, transportation hubs
    Growth of suburbs and the “inner-city”
Define social class.
  3 ways:
    Society is divided into different groups
     characterized by style of living,
     influence on society and how it is
     organized as well as opinion
    The place people occupy in society
     (income, lifestyle, status)
    Let people decide themselves
What social classes were
prevalent during the
  business class
  working
How did industrialization
treat children? Women?
  women – played major role in factories
   but made less money and without rest
  children – important role – less children
   going to school
    more working in factories to support their
     families working in deplorable conditions
Response to

  “there is no time or energy left in the
   day for culture and education”
   Hamilton worker 1883
  safety regulations non-existant
  cost of living rose because of WWI
   demands but the wages did not keep
   pace (low wages, or dropping wages)
       Purpose:
      protect against times of financial disaster,
       against times of illness, against working
       conditions and protect jobs and wages
      earn the right to exist (union were illegal before
      TLC list of objectives:
           Free compulsory education
           Legal working day of 8 hours and six days a week
           Government inspection of all industries
           Minimum wage based on local conditions
           Abolition of child labour under the age 14

  Tools:
    Collective Bargaining: union leaders
     negotiate with employer, on behalf of all
     employees, for better wages or working
    Strike
       Winnipeg General Strike 1919
Business Associations

  Background:
    threat of American competition (U.S.
     larger market = lower prices on goods)
    cost to build factories
    labour unions demanded higher wages
Business Associations

  Purpose:
    control the price of goods they produced
     and the cost of materials they used to
     produce them (control = stable
     profits),set wages
Business Associations

  got the Conservative elected in 1911
   to stop Laurier from signing a
   reciprocity treaty with the U.S.
  Cartels and Mergers set prices and
   controlled wages
  Board of Governors VS NHLPA

  organizations owned and operated by
   the people who belonged to them
  Purpose:
    consumer co-ops - provide goods to
     consumer at lower prices than retail
     outlets ie. stores and housing projects
     (Co-op gas station)

   producer co-ops - controlled sale of
    products so that members received the
    best price ie. wheat pools and canneries
    (Canadian Wheat Board)

   financial co-ops loans at fair rates to
    people who could not get credit at a bank
    (Credit Unions)
Reform Movements

  Local governments and individuals try
   to improve urban living conditions
  working conditions horrible
  overcrowded cities
  unsanitary living spaces (typhoid,
   gastrointestinal disease)
  Equality of women
Women’s Suffrage
 1917 MB women 1st to get
  the vote provincially
      Nellie McClung leader of the
       movement in Manitoba
 1919 all women get the
  right to vote provincially
  and federally, as well as
  the right to hold a seat in
  the House of Commons
Women’s Suffrage
 1929 Person’s Case
     BNA Act did not define women
      as “persons” therefore could not
      be appointed to the Senate
     Five women (Henrietta Muir
      Edwards, Nellie McClung,
      Louise McKinney, Emily Murphy,
      and Irene Parlby) persuaded the
      Privvy Council of England
      (Canada’s highest court of
      appeal) that women were
     1930 Cairine Wilson became our
      first women senator
Reform Movements

  Churches in the North End (kindergarten,
   English classes, legal-advice clinic, poor
   relief, and Sunday school)
  Better water from Shoal Lake was brought
   to Winnipeg by aqua duct
  City set sewage systems
Reform Movements

  Created green space with in the city
   (ie. parks)
  New political parties (Co-operative
   Commonwealth Federation = NDP)
  Sustainable Development – meet the
   needs of today without sacrificing the
   needs of tomorrow
Post-Industrial Society

  robots do most of the work in
  more importance put on information
   transfer (engineers, computer
   programmers, lawyers, technicians,

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