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					          WATER CONSERVING
       TECHNOLOGY OPTIONS FOR
           INSTALLATION USE

                Richard Scholze and Annette Stumpf
                   U.S. Army Corps of Engineers
                           ERDC-CERL
                          Champaign, IL


US Army Corps
of Engineers                        Engineer Research and Development Center
                Water Conservation

      Why Do It?
      Delay or Avoid Expensive Water Supply and
        Wastewater Treatment Capital Projects
      Helps Protect Fundamental Natural Resources
        Through Ecosystem Protection, Protect Current
        Quality of Life and Provide for Future
        Generations
      Minimize Effects of Drought




US Army Corps
of Engineers                     Engineer Research and Development Center
                  Federal Sector

      Executive Order 13123

      Requirements
      Water Management Plan
      Implementation of FEMP BMPs




US Army Corps
of Engineers                   Engineer Research and Development Center
                Selected Conservation
                    Opportunities
      •   Domestic Use
      •   Administrative/Commercial/Institutional




US Army Corps
of Engineers                        Engineer Research and Development Center
                              Toilets
                Current Lowflow Designs Much Better
                Dual Flush Toilets
                Waterless Urinals




US Army Corps
of Engineers                          Engineer Research and Development Center
                Dual Flush Toilet




US Army Corps
of Engineers              Engineer Research and Development Center
                Dual Flush Toilet Fixtures
                Only Recently Actively Marketed in U.S.
                4 New Manufacturers in 2004, Others Watching Marketplace
                Costs Becoming Competitive
                Do They Save water?
                3 Study Summary
                   20-30% Savings in Water
                Weighted Average Flush 1.1 to 1.3 gpf vs 1.6
                Customer Satisfaction Positive, Liked Option
                Advantage – Seldom Clogs
                Disadvantage – Smaller Water Spot, Possible Streaking
                Payback - 8.5 Years for $300 Toilet, 10 Flushes/day,
                   Combined W/WW Cost of $3.79/1000 gallons




US Army Corps
of Engineers                               Engineer Research and Development Center
                Waterless Urinals




US Army Corps
of Engineers              Engineer Research and Development Center
                      Waterless Urinals
                Becoming Widespread (Thousands in Use)
                Several Manufacturers
                Focus on Non-Residential Installations
                   Concern Over Proper Maintenance
                Ex. Presidio of Monterey
                173 Urinals Replaced – Classrooms, Administrative
                  and Recreational Facilities in 48 Buildings
                Expected Savings - 11,500 gal/day or 3 million
                  gallons per year



US Army Corps
of Engineers                           Engineer Research and Development Center
                   Food Service
      • Pre-Rinse Spray Valves
      • SOMAT System
      • Boilerless Food Steamers
      • Air-cooled Icemakers
      • Water Conserving Dishwashers




US Army Corps
of Engineers                   Engineer Research and Development Center
                Pre-Rinse Spray Valves
      Typical Restaurant/Food Service – Up to 50% of Dishwashing
         Water Consumed by Pre-rinse Spray Valve to Remove
         Food From Dishware, Utensils and Pans
      Newer Units 1.6 gpm
      Over 3.0 for Non-efficient Valves
      Usually Use Heated Water
      Traditional “Showerhead” Type Spray Pattern
      Orifices Become Restricted with Time
      New “Knife-like” Continuous Spray – More Efficient, Less
         Mineral Buildup

      Ex. Water savings 77,050 gal/year
      Gas Savings 335 therms/year; 7600 kWh




US Army Corps
of Engineers                           Engineer Research and Development Center
                SOMAT Disposal System
                What is It? Food Waste Pulping and Dewatering System to Replace Scraping
                    Trough and Garbage Disposal System in Kitchens
                Uses Water to Move Material Scraped Off Plates to a Pulper Which Cuts Solid
                    Waste into a Slurry
                Slurry Flows From Pulper to Water Extractor Unit Which Removes Water to
                    Produce Odor-Free, Semi-dry pulp
                Extracted Water Returned to Feed Tray to Complete Closed-loop Cycle
                Water Level Automatically Controlled
                Small Amount 1-3 gpm Bled Off and Replaced
                System Eliminates Need to Separate Food Scraps, Paper and Plastic Waste
                Reduces Staff Time by Half
                Ex. POM 2 Systems, 2 Bldgs. – Cuts Daily Water Consumption from 9,240 to
                    1680 gallons
                Savings 2.76 Million gal/year




US Army Corps
of Engineers                                       Engineer Research and Development Center
                     SOMAT System
                Pulper and Hydra-Extractor




US Army Corps
of Engineers                   Engineer Research and Development Center
            Boilerless Food Steamers
      •   Atmospheric Compartment Food Steamers – Connected to an
          Incoming water Line and Utilize a Steam Boiler or Generator That
          Injects Steam at a Constant Rate During the Cooking Event
      •   To Maintain Atmospheric Pressure, Rejected Steam Goes into
          Drain Requiring Additional Cooling Water
      •   Boilerless Steamers Use a Water Reservoir in Bottom of Cooking
          Compartment in Lieu of a water Connection – Manual Fill and
          Drain. No Steam Leaves.
      •   Better Energy Performance and Water Efficiency
      •   Easier Cleaning
      •   Now About 10 Different Manufacturers
      •   Estimate of Savings – 500-1000 gallons per day plus Energy
          Savings, 3 gph vs. 20 to 40 gph




US Army Corps
of Engineers                                 Engineer Research and Development Center
                Boilerless Food Steamer




US Army Corps
of Engineers                 Engineer Research and Development Center
                High Efficiency Washers
      • Most Are Front – Loaders
      • A Few Top Loaders
          Marginally Meet Standard
          CEE (Consortium for
          Energy Efficiency)
      •   Toploaders ½ to 1/3 Price
          of Front Loaders
      •   36% Less Water
      •   60% Less Energy




US Army Corps
of Engineers                          Engineer Research and Development Center
      Common Area Laundry Rooms
          Study
           – In-Unit Washer – 11,800 gal/year
           – Common Area Laundry Rooms 3600 gal/year per
             Apartment
           – 3.3 Times as Much Water
           Why? Residents with In-Unit Washers Tend to Operate
             Equipment More Often and Less Efficiently
           Advantages – Savings in Gas, Electricity and Sewage,
             Reduced Construction Expense, Increased Space in
             Units




US Army Corps
of Engineers                            Engineer Research and Development Center
                            Hospitals
      • Steam Sterilizers
      • Example – University of Washington
      • Why – Steam Sterilizers Use Cold Water to Temper
          Condensate from Steam (212 F) to Keep Water Entering
          Drain at or Below 140 F
      •   Older Units – Constant Bleed of 1 gpm to Mix While Unit is
          Hot Including Idle Time
      •   Install Water Saving Kit – Device or Components That
          Sense Effluent Temperature and Only Apply Water When
          Necessary to Reduce Effluent Temperature
      •   Evaluation – Payback Less Than 3 months
      •   Tests Resulted in 68 to 98% Reduction



US Army Corps
of Engineers                              Engineer Research and Development Center
                         Condensate
      Local Example – San Antonio
      Use Air Conditioning Condensate
      Free Resource – High Quality, Distilled Water
      If You Can Get to the Pipe, Catch It
      Typical Home 5-10 gal/day
      Larger Buildings Rule of Thumb 0.1 to 0.3 gallon per ton-hour
      Collect – Residential Bucket Under Drain Line
      Rout to Rain Barrel or Other Collection System
      Use Gravity flow




US Army Corps
of Engineers                            Engineer Research and Development Center
                 Condensate – Cont.

      • Other Buildings
      • Ex. 500 ton System @ 80 % Load (0.2 Factor) Produces 1.3
          gpm or 56,000 Gal/Month
      •   Case Study- San Antonio Library
      •   Produce 1 gpm (43,200 gal/month)
      •   Garden 26,000 square feet
      •   Collection System – 3 Interconnected Concrete Cisterns
          (8400 gal capacity)
      •   Collect from Sump Gravity Fed into Irrigation System
      •   Total Cost $21,500, 1/3 that of Rainwater Harvest System
      •   Another Example - River Center Mall – 12 MG of
          Condensate Used for Cooling Tower Makeup



US Army Corps
of Engineers                             Engineer Research and Development Center
                Condensate – Cont.

      Another Bldg. Captures 6.2 million gallons per year
      Used for Boiler Feed Makeup water
      Cost $19,000 Installed
      Savings $26,000 / year
      Payback – 11 Months

      IOI – Possible Ordinance Mandating Collection
         System in New Large Buildings



US Army Corps
of Engineers                      Engineer Research and Development Center
           Example Supermarket (CA)
      Focus on Cooling
      Average Concentration Ratio 2.45 Baseline
      Cycles of Concentration – Approach 6, Water Reduction Negligible
      Problems
      Scale Prevention in Condensers
         Wide Range of Scale Forming Minerals
         Calcium Carbonate, Calcium Sulfate, Calcium Phosphate,
         Magnesium Silicate
      Biological Fouling
      Corrosion
      Tested 3 Processes
      Only Effective Process was Alkalinity Control
      Operated at 5.5 Cycles of Concentration




US Army Corps
of Engineers                               Engineer Research and Development Center
                 Supermarket Cont.
      Benefits
      Reduced Water Use, Lower Water and Wastewater Charges
      Reduced Electrical Use
      Reduced Acid Washing, Life Extension of Cooling Tubes
      B/C Ratio 2 to 4 for Water and Wastewater
      Other Water Savings
      Use High Efficiency Spray Nozzles and Aerators on All Hand
         Sinks and Spray Tables
      Eliminate Garbage Grinders
      Replace Low Pressure Hoses with High Pressure Sprayers for
         Washing




US Army Corps
of Engineers                          Engineer Research and Development Center
        Options for the Reduction of
      Outdoor Garden/Landscape Water
                     Use
                Management Options                            Potential Savings
                                                                  (Percent)
                Turf maintenance                                      10
                Turf maintenance, irrigation system                   20
                Maintenance, Irrigation Scheduling
                Mulching in Ornamental Gardens                        20
                Soil Amendments (Compost)                             20
                Irrigation Scheduling                                 25
                Irrigation/Soil maintenance                       65 to 75
                Lawn to go Dormant                                    90

                Hardware Options
                AutoRain Shut Off                                     10
                Soil Moisture Sensors; Soil Probes                10 to 30
                Improve Performance                                    40
                Drip/Bubbler Irrigation                                50
                Gray Water                                        Up to 100
                Rain Barrel Catchment                             Up to 100

                Landscape Design Options
                Landscape Design                                    19 to 55
                Turf Reduction                                      19 to 35
                Choice of Plants                                     30 to 80

                From Gleick et al.




US Army Corps
of Engineers                                          Engineer Research and Development Center
           New Faucet Developments




                Hydropower
                Generator to   Uses PV Cell to
                Recharge       Power Optical
                Battery        Sensor

US Army Corps
of Engineers                   Engineer Research and Development Center
                           Summary
      • Variety of Technologies and Techniques to Reduce Water
          Consumption
      •   New Resource Soon Available
           – Army Water Conservation Website
           – Information on Policies, Technical Guidance, Case
             Studies, Best Practices Within Army and Other Sectors
           – Links to Information Sources
           – Further Information Contact Author at 217-398-5590 or
             email Richard.J.Scholze@usace.erdc.army.mil




US Army Corps
of Engineers                            Engineer Research and Development Center

				
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