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					                  UNITED STATES MARINE CORPS
                       MARINE CORPS ENGINEER SCHOOL
                                 PSC 20069
                 CAMP LEJEUNE, NORTH CAROLINA 28542-0069

                             BLUE PRINTS
                           STUDENT OUTLINE

                                                            MAR 11
                What Will I Learn From This Class?

1.   Terminal Learning Objectives.

    a. With construction plans for a building, a list of
plumbing fixtures to be installed, local code requirements and
references, design an interior plumbing system per Uniform
Plumbing Code (UPC). (1171-XENG-2581)

    b. As part of a team, at a structure with an installed
interior plumbing system, with tools, code requirements and
references, inspect an interior plumbing system so ability of
plumbing system to meet code requirements is determined, safety
concerns are addressed and required repairs/upgrades identified.

2.   Enabling Learning Objectives.

    a. With a list of plumbing symbols, a list of definitions
and references, match plumbing symbols to their definitions per
the references. (1171-XENG-2581a)

    b. With a list of construction symbols, a list of
definitions and references, match the construction symbols to
their definitions per TM 5-704. (1171-XENG-2989b)

    c. With metric measurements and references, convert metric
measurements to Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE)
measurements per TM 5-704. (1171-XENG-2989c)

                         Let's Get Started!

                                  SO 1

     a.   Lines.

       (1) Visible Lines. Heavyweight unbroken line that is used
for the primary feature of a drawing that represents the edge,
the intersection of two surfaces, or the surface limit that is
visible from the viewing angle of the drawing. This line is
often called the outline.

                    VISIBLE LINE    EXAMPLE

       (2) Hidden Lines. Medium-weight line of evenly spaced
short dashes represents an edge, the intersection of two
surfaces, or the surface limit, which is not visible from the
viewing angle of the drawing.

               HIDDEN LINE          EXAMPLE

       (3) Center Lines. Thin (light) line composed of alternate
long and short dash lines used to signify the center of a circle
or arc and to divide object into equal or symmetrical parts.

                   CENTER LINE            EXAMPLE

                                   SO 2
        (4) Dimension Lines. Solid continuous line terminated in
arrowheads at each end. These lines are broken to permit
writing in dimension measurements. The points of the arrowhead
touch the extension lines, which mark the limits of the
dimension. The dimension is expressed in feet and inches on
architectural drawings and in feet and decimal fractions of a
foot on engineering drawings.

              DIMENSION LINES             EXAMPLES

        (5) Extension Lines. They are a (light) unbroken line
that is used to indicate the extent of the visible lines of an
object when it is not convenient to draw a dimension line
directly between the visible lines.


        (6) Phantom Lines or Datum Lines. are a medium weight
line made of long dashes broken by two short dashes is called
phantom line and indicates one of three things: the relative
position of an absent part, and alternative position of a part,
or repeated detail which is not drawn.

                PHANTOM LINES          EXAMPLE

                                SO 3
        (7) Break (LONG) Lines. Thin (light) line interrupted by
a z-shaped symbol that indicates the object has been shortened
to save space on drawing. The dimension specified indicates the
true length.

               BROKEN (LONG) LINES                   EXAMPLE

        (8) Break (SHORT) Lines. Varies with shape and material,
the lines indicates that part of the object has been cut away to
show section detail or hidden features.

               BROKEN (SHORT) LINE              EXAMPLE

   b.   Scales.

        (1) Most scales will be located in the title block of
the blue print. This will indicate the scale of the drawing
either as a graphic scale or as a ratio. The two types are
shown below.

                                   RATIO SCALE
          Every 1/8” increment shown on a scale ruler represents one linear foot.

           0’                   Read 1/8” left to right                      41’ - 0”

        1/8”     2   4                                             38   40   1/4”
                      18   16                             4   2

          20’ - 0”              Read 1/4” right to left                      0’

                                             SO 4
                      GRAPHIC SCALE

                0    3”      6”    9”   12”                      1’

                                   1” Scale

        (2) If the same scale is not used on all parts of a
drawing, the scale block may be marked “as noted”. There are
several ratio scales used with a ruler, for example they can
range from 3” = 1’ to 3/32 = 1’. Always follow the dimensions
specified on the drawing first, and use the scale on drawing
where no dimension is given.

       (3) When drawings are reproduced they may shrink or
increase in size. A graphic scale can still be used for
measurement, but a ratio may not be able to be used because of
the different size during reproduction. If this is the case an
architect’s ruler (ratio scale) can be used as a last resort.
Below is an example of how to use an architect’s scale:

                                  SCALE: 1” = 1’

                                              1’ 9”


                                               0             1

                 (Scale) (Fraction of a foot)         (1”)

        (4) Measurements will always be shown as feet and inches
vice the measurements being completely in inches, for example:
30 inches will be stated as 2’ 6”.

                                        SO 5
   c.   Doors, Windows, Walls and Steps.

        (1) Single Hinge Door. The most common type of door is
the single hinge door. This can be an interior or exterior
door. The direction of the swing denotes the operation of the
door. This will be important when selecting the location of

        (2) Folding Doors. Folding doors are represented by two
"V" shaped characters drawn one to each side of a doorway. The
point of the "V" shaped character represents the part of the
door section, which is hinged. The first hinged point of both
door sections is found where the character makes contact with
the frame of the doorway.

        (3) Sliding Doors. Sliding doors are represented by two
sets of parallel lines. One end of each set is drawn meeting
the flanks of the doorway. The parallel lines representing each
of the two sliding doors overlap approximately midway of one

        (4) Swinging Doors. Swinging doors are represented by
two half circles drawn opposite from each other with a line in
the center.

        (5) Double Hung Windows. Three lines drawn parallel with
the sides flanked by one to two lines represent double hung

        (6) Wall. Represented by two lines drawn parallel. The
distance between the two lines relates to the thickness of the
wall. Some walls may also be colored in with a pattern to
denote the material the wall is constructed of.

        (7)   Steps or Stairs. Represented by two parallel lines,
with evenly   spaced lines drawn between them. Sometimes an arrow
will denote   the direction of the stairs and the number of risers
may also be   given.

                                SO 6

      a.   Piping Symbols.

       (1) Above ground drain or waste pipes will be one solid
line and below ground drain or waste will be long lines with a
short space in between each one as shown below:

                               ABOVE GROUND

                ____________   ___________    ____________

                           BELOW GROUND
        (2) Hot water lines will be long lines with two dashes
in between the long lines, cold water lines will be long lines
with one dash in between the long lines and vents will be shown
with equal size dash lines as shown as below:

                ___________ _ _ ________ _ _ _________

                                HOT WATER

                  __________ _ ________ _ _________ _

                                COLD WATER

               ______ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____


      b.   Pipe Fitting and Fixtures Symbols.

        (1) There are too many fitting and fixture symbols to
cover each one in detail. We will cover the basic symbols to
give you an idea of what they are supposed to look like and for
you to be able to draw them if needed:

            (a) Fixtures. Will be shown to show what they
basically look like if you were viewing them from above.

               (b) Valves. Will be shown to indicate what type it

            (c) Elbows. Will be shown to indicate the angle (45%
or 90% are the most common) and that there is a connection with
the pipes.

                                   SO 7
            (d) Y-Branches and Tees. Will shown to indicate the
connection to the pipes and whether it is three connections (Y-
branch) or four connections (tee).

            (e) Risers Drawings. Will be shown as an elevation
to show from the lowest point of the pipes to the highest point
of the pipes.

                              SO 8
REFERENCES:                                 REFERENCE#

Construction Print Reading in the Field     TM 5-704

General Drafting                             FM 5-553

                              SO 9

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