PROJECT INFORMATION DOCUMENT (PID)
Report No.: AB4584
Project Name Basic Education Project
Sector Primary education (100%)
Project ID P112096
Borrower(s) SUDAN - GOVERNMENT OF NATIONAL UNITY
Implementing Agency Federal Ministry of Education. Sudan
Mrs. Ibtissam Hassan Tel:+256-09.125.66433
North Kordufan State MoE. Sudan
Mr. Al Nour Abdelwahid. Tel: +256-09125-64839
Blue Nile State MoE. Sudan
Mr. Albadri Hashim Alsadiq Tel: +0913331811
Red Sea State MoE. Sudan
Mr. Mohamed Ezz Eldin. Tel: +249-09122.56748 Fax: +249-
South Kordufan State MoE. Sudan
Mr. Mansoor Katrang Tel: +256-09247.67630 & 09154.07113
Community Development Fund
Mr. Omer Hajjam. firstname.lastname@example.org
Environment Category [ ] A [X] B [ ] C [ ] FI [ ] TBD (to be determined)
Date PID Prepared March15, 2009
Date of Appraisal March 30, 2009
Date of Oversight April 30, 2009
A. COUNTRY AND SECTOR BACKGROUND
1. The 21 year conflict between north and south Sudan ended with the establishment of the
Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA) in 2005. Much needed resources for improving the
education sector was unavailable during the war period. The CPA provided an environment
for the Government of National Unity (GoNU) to focus on reconstruction and rebuilding the
social sectors in the northern states. The international community represented is supporting the
consolidation of the peace process by the two Multi Donor Trust Funds; the MDTF-N and the
MDTF-S. The MDTFs are set-up to deal with the impact of the war on the local population
and consolidate the peace process in Sudan.
2. The Sudan education system consists of three levels: two years of pre-school; eight years
of compulsory basic education; followed by three years of general or technical secondary
education. GoNU is the largest provider of education responsible for over 95% of the schools
in the northern states.
3. The educational system in Sudan operates within a framework of decentralization.
Directorates of Education in Localities are responsible for pre-school and basic education
including school infrastructure, teacher recruitment and management. Education Councils,
similar to Parent Teacher Associations (PTAs) are important institutions at the school level
ensuring community participation in areas such as school supervision, maintenance, and
housing for teachers. State Governments are responsible for secondary education while higher
education comes under the purview of the federal government.
4. Although, human development indicators for Sudan have improved in the last few years,
when compared to countries with similar income levels, education sector outcomes are low.
According to GoNU’s Baseline Survey (2008)1, the average Gross Enrollment Rate (GER) in
basic education is 71.7% and the Net Enrollment Rate (NER) is 65.3%; for males and females
it is 65.7% and 58.8%, respectively. In order to ensure an efficient system of basic education
it is important for the decentralized framework to be fully functional. Fiscal decentralization
and building local-level capacity are important objects of the country’s Interim National
Constitution (INC), the CPA, and GoNU’s Five-Year Plans.
5. While there is a strong commitment to decentralization in Sudan, sub-national
governments especially in the weaker states often lack the capacity to utilize funds and to
ensure adequate service delivery. This situation is portrayed in the differences in outcomes as
well as physical infrastructure and education quality between the more developed and weaker
states in northern Sudan. The River Nile state has the highest GER of 88.7% and the highest
NER of 82.4%. This is in contrast to the four states included in this project namely, Red Sea,
North Kordofan, SouthKordofan and Blue Nile. The GERs for these four states range from
51.9% in South Krodofan to 67.2% in the Red Sea. Similarly, the range for NERs in these four
states is between 43.7% in the Blue Nile to 63.4% in the Red Sea. Within states certain
localities, nomadic populations and returnees from the civil war are particularly
6. In terms of physical infrastructure about half the classrooms in the four states selected for
this project are in poor condition without a chalkboard and furniture. Classrooms in poor
condition are basically built of tree branches and hay. As a result during the rainy season,
students are unable to continue their education. In two of these fours states, schools are
classified as group A and group B schools. Group A schools have an average school year of
around 210 days, while for group B it is 140 days. Group B mainly runs in the non rainy
season given the quality of infrastructure which makes it impossible for children to attend
schools while it is raining.
7. In northern Sudan for Grades 1-5, average dropout is about 8% and repetition is about
2%. Though dropout and repetition are not high there are indications that quality is low.
During Bank missions (July, 2008 and January, 2009) to northern Sudan, the reading ability of
students was randomly tested. The majority of students in grade 4 were unable to easily read a
full sentence. While the system seems to have an adequate number of teachers, their
knowledge and capacity to instruct students are low. There is also no system of providing in-
service training to improve teachers’ subject content knowledge and instructional skills.
Conducted by the MoGE, the survey was financed by the European Commission (EC) with technical inputs from
the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF), and the World Food Program (WFP).
8. On the one hand, subject content knowledge is weak especially for those teachers (73%)
with only secondary education. On the other hand, teachers with Bachelors degree (B.ed) in
education are not sufficiently aware of the issues related to instruction in primary schools. This
group represents about 15% of the primary school teachers in northern Sudan. This assessment
of the B.ed program is reiterated in a recent study (2008) on pre-service education in the northern
states.2 The study found that the curriculum followed in the pre-service degree program was
strong on theory and content, but weak at providing practical teaching skills for instruction in
primary schools. A similar evaluation has repeatedly been made by state and federal officials
responsible for managing basic education at the state and central levels, respectively. The study
recommends a review of the pre-service training methodology in place at the university level and
in terms of its appropriateness for instructing students in basic education, especially taking into
account the reactions of the state authorities.
9. One of the requirements of the CPA is to develop a national curriculum framework that
could apply to both north and south Sudan. This activity has not yet commenced and will involve
reviewing the curriculum to identify issues and areas that are not applicable to the southern
states. For example, the present curriculum does not take into account the diversity in religion,
ethnicity and language that the states of southern Sudan represent. The development of a national
curriculum framework that takes into account the diversity both within northern Sudan as well as
Southern Sudan is an important task that needs to be undertaken before the referendum in 2011.
10. Though Sudan’s public spending on education is low when compared to other countries in sub-
Saharan Africa at less than 1.5% of GDP3 and less than 3% of public expenditures, state governments’
expenditure on education is high. States receive block grants from the federal government. However, the
rationale or the process in place for the allocation and proportionate distribution between recurrent and
development expenditures are not clear. Over 90% of public expenditure is for recurrent costs and less
than 10% for development projects. In addition to receiving block grants from the federal
government, states mobilize resources locally. Private spending on education (locality, parents,
educational councils and the civil society) is also large as demonstrated by the case studies on
costs and financing of education in two states, Khartoum and Blue Nile States”.4
11. The GoNU is committed to developing its education sector and to providing universal
access to quality education in both primary and secondary education. The Government also
realizes that this cannot be achieved without a considerable increase in public resources allocated
to the education sector. The Five year (2007-2011) Education Sector Strategic Plan (ESSP) based
on the 2001 Education Act of the GoNU directs activities in the sector. The Plan expresses the
country’s commitment to the EFA goals and outlines activities to meet the MDG targets by 2015.
Closing the gender gap and reducing regional imbalances;
Ensuring universal primary education and improving quality;
This assessment was done in partnership amongst UNICEF, ISETI, and Education Action International (EAI).
Level of spending in Sub-Saharan Africa ranges from 3% to 5% of GDP and in MENA is around 5% and 20% of
The study, financed by Oxfam and Save the Children, looks at education finance issues in the two states as
representative of states with high and low education indicators, respectively. The study illustrates the multiplicity in
the financing of basic education and the need for putting in place a system of financial management at the localities
Improving quality and relevance by revising the national curriculum;
Improving efficiency; and
Expanding the role of the private sector in education.
12. Though the ESSP sets clear targets within a specific time frame, the detailed strategies or
financial implications for achieving these targets are not fully analyzed. Reaching the ESSP
goals are further complicated by the decentralized set-up that is relatively new in Sudan. A recent
study (MoGE, 2008) on the costs and financing of education across the northern states of Sudan
portrays the need for analyzing the financial implications for implementing the ESSP and
achieving the targets outlined, especially those related to gender equality by 2015.
13. Realizing the complexity of the situation and the magnitude of the task ahead, the MoGE
has recently decided to embark into a partnership arrangements with the international community
represented by donors who are active in the education sector. The plan is for the donor group to
support a process of developing an implementable strategic plan that includes all sub-sectors in
education. This task would build on the recent analytical work and research conducted in north
Sudan and provide a diagnostic of the sector. The conclusions would assist MoGE in the
preparation of a fully costed and prioritized strategic plan. To begin this process, the MoGE has
expressed its commitment to joining the Education For All/Fast Track Initiative (EFA/FTI)
14. The Project Development Objective (PDO) is to increase access to improved basic education
in four selected states in northern Sudan. The main indicators through which the project’s
principal outcomes will be measures are:
Students enrolled in primary education in selected schools. (number of boys and girls).
Average number of days operational for schools supported.
Percentage of teachers evaluated positively following in-service training in the four states
15. The project contributes to achieving universal basic education by 2015, one of Sudan’s
main goals in the education sector. By providing direct support to four of the states with low
enrollment rates in Sudan, the project contributes to moving the enrollment rates in these to close
their gap with the national average. The Project also supports the capacities in these states by
financing teacher training which contributes to the quality of education.
16. The project is fully in line with the Sudan Interim Strategy Note (ISN)5. The project
contributes to the overall objectives of helping to sustain peace and reduce conflict. This
contribution is done through helping to provide higher quality and better education services, one
of the most demanded services in Sudan as indicated by private expenditures. The project also
supports the pro poor expenditure emphasis of the ISN by channeling resources directly to the
war affected and marginalized states. The project also helps in supporting and consolidating the
5 Report No. 40051-SD
federal system in Sudan by building technical and administrative capacities in the SMoE to better
manage the service delivery of basic education in the states.
17. The project is also fully in line with Sudan’s overall National Strategic Plan (NSP) by
supporting the overall goal of providing quality education in an equitable manner. The project is
also in line with the ESSP which calls for meeting the full basic education enrolment by 2015.
C. RATIONALE FOR BANK/MDTF INVOLVEMENT
18. The importance of developing the social sectors is highlighted in the Joint Donor
Assessment Mission report (March 2005) and since the CPA, a number of donors and NGOs are
involved with developing of the education sector in northern Sudan. The Bank’s commitment to
assist Sudan in the education sector is restated in the Bank’s Interim Strategy Note for the
Republic of Sudan (Report No. 43036-SD, March 20, 2008).
19. The EC is assisting MoGE in developing a comprehensive Education Management
Information System (EMIS). The Baseline and EMIS will assist in better targeting interventions
and in assessing impact overtime. UN agencies and NGOs support the GoNU with school
feeding programs, reproductive health education, building government capacity and providing
education services to vulnerable groups using alternative education and informal education
20. The MDTF support further consolidates and expands on donor funding for this sector by
providing substantial resources to undertake critical activities to improve sector performance.
This support is focused on inequality in the system by targeting four states with some of the
lowest education indicators amongst northern states. The project supports Sudan’s efforts to meet
education for all targets. The Initial Project Proposal (IPP) for this project was approved by the
MDTF’s Oversight Committee (OC) in January 19, 2009.
21. Component (1): Enhancing Access to Basic Education (US$5.006 million) will support the
rehabilitation, additions of classrooms, offices or teachers’ housing to existing schools, and the
construction of new schools in selected localities in the four states. The component will focus on areas
that will boost girls’ education by using criteria that favors areas where interventions will enhance girls’
access. The physical upgrading of these education facilities, as well as contributing to motivating teachers
to stay in remote areas by constructing or upgrading some teacher housing facilities should have a
positive impact on retention rates on the medium and long term.
22. Three localities in each state (except for North Kordufan where the component will work in only
two localities) have been identified. The schools where the component will work have been finalized. It
is important to note that interventions will not necessarily be in the form of a full school construction. In
some cases, classrooms will be added, teachers housing, toilets…etc. A full list of the types of
interventions in every school has been compiled.
23. Component (2): Contributing to enhancing the quality of basic education (US$ 7.49
million). Under this component, the project will have three main sub-components:
24. Component 2:1. Curriculum review (US$0.325million). The first sub-component of
component two will support two activities. Firstly, funds will be provided for the evaluation of
the basic education curriculum in the light of the CPA. As the time frame for this project is short,
funding will be provided for the initial steps in this process, which is to review the existing
curriculum for each subject and identify the extent of changes necessary to include the multi
religious, multi ethnic and multilingual reality of south Sudan. Eventually, based on this review,
the government of Sudan will develop a draft national curriculum framework that takes into
account the post conflict environment in Sudan for discussion by both north and south Sudan.
This sub-component will support the evaluation of the existing curriculum by establishing
subject specific committees and a steering committee to head this effort. . Support will be
provided for producing reports outlining changes in the curriculum that will be required to
address the post conflict environment in Sudan for each subject area.
25. Secondly, the component will provide support for a forum to discuss the relevance of the
pre-service teacher training curriculum. According to the policy introduced in the early 1990’s,
primary school teachers in Sudan are expected to have a Bachelor of Education (B.ed) degree.
The curriculum used by the Faculties of Education to train teachers in the B.ed program is
inappropriate for instruction in primary education. Finance will be provided for a workshop to
bring together deans of FoEs, professors in education, primary school teachers, state federal
officials, and experts in basic education and teacher training. This group will discuss the
perceived strengths and weaknesses of the pre-service B.ed curriculum and outline a process for
developing a new pre-service training curriculum focused specifically on primary education
26. Component 2:2 In-service teacher training (US$3.097million). The second sub-
component of the second component will provide in-service training in Arabic, English,
mathematics, and core programs to about 12,300 primary school teachers in the four states.
Training modules in the four subjects were developed by the “In-service Education Training
Institute (ISETI)” of the MoGE. The modules are organized with about four hours of training per
day. The purpose of the in-service training is to improve the knowledge and abilities of teachers
to analyze the curriculum and to better instruct students in listening, reading, speaking and
writing in the subject areas. Training is to be provided to teachers with only secondary education
as their subject content knowledge is weak and university trained teachers without significant
exposure to instructing young children. The length of the training varies from 15 to 21 days
across the states. A pre and post training questionnaire will be administered to understand and
measure the effectiveness of the training.
27. Component 2-3 Physical upgrading to a number of TTIs in the four states
(US$4.067million) to increase the capacity of training and enhance the learning environment in
these institutes. The TTIs to be supported by the project have been identified. Those are Al-
Dalang TTI in South Kordufan (rehabilitations and additions), Ganoub Al-Roseirus TTI in Blue
Nile (new), Al-Obied TTI in North Kordufan (additions and rehabilitation), and Port Sudan TTI
in Red Sea State (new). These institutes are the main and only in-service teachers training
institutes in the states. They are usually staffed with a director and a teaching staff or around 6-8
trainers. The trainers’ force in each state includes more trainers who usually have other jobs in
the education system (like instructors or head teachers). Those are normally mobilized whenever
a training event is organized. These trainers are trained by the ISETI in Khartoum and are
familiar with the training modules available, each in his/her subject matter.
28. Component 3: Monitoring, Evaluation and Project Management (US$2.35million).
This component will support a mechanism to ensure that a baseline is collected in the areas of
interventions, and project’s monitoring and outcome indicators are assessed. The component will
also finance the project coordination teams at the central and states’ level as well as operational
costs related to project implementation.
29. Operational Costs. The component will also finance the implementation structures at the central
and states’ levels. Those financed will all be out of the public service and recruited on competitive basis.
Each state has its share of the operations cost added to its total budget. Operational costs will also cover
the management costs of the CDF and the Engineering Office in Red Sea States, operational travel
expenses and the costs of workshops during the project. A compensation structure for project staff will be
developed as part of the OPM for the project.
Multi-donor Trust Fund for North Sudan 15
30. The project will be 100% financed from the MDTF-N. However it is expected that the
federal government will support the states covered with parallel funds to allow states to
contribute to scaling up some of the activities under the project. States are also expected to cover
non eligible expenses like taxes from their own resources.
31. Overall Coordination and Oversight. The project will establish an overall Project Steering
Committee (PSC) at the Federal level. This PSC will be chaired by the MoGE’s Under Secretary.
The PSC will have the overall oversight responsibility for the project and will help solving
implementation issues as the project progresses. The committee will not have executive
responsibilities but will ensure overall guidance and adherence to project objectives and
activities. The committee will meet quarterly, and may have other meetings upon request from
the chair or at least half of the members.
32. The implementation structure will include a Central Coordination Unit (CCU) in
Khartoum that will be headed by the Federal Project Coordinator (FPC). The FPC will be the
overall coordinator for project’s activities. The FPC will be the secretary of the PSC. Duties and
responsibilities of the FPC are presented in Annex 6. Besides the FPC, the CCU will include a
curriculum coordinator who will be responsible for component 2(A) and based in the NCCER, a
M&E Officer, a Finance Officer, and a support staff.
33. A State Coordination Unit (SCU) will be established in each of the four states. The unit
will include a state coordinator, a finance officer6, and a M&E officer. In Red Sea SMoE will also hire a
procurement officer. Terms of Reference for these staff will be included in the OPM.
34. Implementation of components 1 and 2C will work differently in Red Sea and the three other
states. In Red Sea, the entire civil works part (including schools and TTIs construction) will be
implemented by the State Engineering Office (EO). The EO will develop architectural drawings, manage
procurement procedures (with participation from the SMoE), and supervise civil works. In the three other
states, all civil works activities will be contracted to the Community Development Fund (CDF). CDF has
Locality Implementation Units (LIUs) in all localities in the three States.
35. Implementation of component 1A will be done by the NCCER and will be coordinated by
the NCCER’s focal point who will be a dedicated staff member for project’s activities.
36. Implementation of component 1B will primarily be done by the TTIs in the four states
under the supervision of the SMoE’s head of training department. ISETI will be responsible for
providing the training material and the M&E of the sub-component.
37. Sudan’s commitment to achieving EFA at the basic education level is spelled out in a
number of documents including its ESSP, and its EFA plan. Following the signature of the CPA,
in 2005/2006, Sudan developed a twenty-five year National Strategic Plan (NSP) which serves as
an over-arching framework for development of all sectors. The NSP pledges a policy to “allow
equal opportunities to an excellent education”. Sudan is a signatory to the EFA and Millennium
Declarations and has taken steps to work towards the progressive realization of the right to
education. Sudan has also recently expressed its interest in joining the global EFA/FTI. This
commitment is reflected in the country’s overall.
38. The MoGE’s, and SMoEs’ commitment to this project, as part of the tools to reach the
overall EFA target, has been evident during project preparation. Staff governments’ and SMoEs’
commitment has been exemplary at different levels and their full participation at different levels
ensured the project activities are well integrated into the states’ annual plans for 2009-2011.
39. At the schools level, the project has adopted community involvement measures that
increase the likelihood of school facilities’ investments. The project uses the approaches adopted
by the CDF whereby communities are consulted at every step of the project preparation and
implementation, communities contribute to the cost of school construction, and training is
provided to the education councils at the communities’ level. Such approaches have repeatedly
proved, in Sudan and other countries, to be effective in creating ownership at the communities’
level, as well as ensure communities are fully involved in the maintenance of assets to be created
under the project.
40. The support to the physical upgrading to the TTIs ensures that logistical arrangements
and availability of proper facilities does not stand in the way of providing more in-service
Both north and south Kordufan can have one FM officer as indicated below in the FM section.
training to teachers in the four states. The provision of ToR to the Red Sea state also ensures that
the technical expertise is established at the state level to ensure follow-up and repeater training
are conducted after the project closes.
H. LESSONS LEARNED FROM PAST OPERATIONS IN THE
41. There are a number of lessons learned that are reflected in the project design. Some are
lessons learned from similar projects in other countries with similar context to Sudan, others are
lessons learned under other MDTF projects.
Given the dispersed nature of the many challenges the GoNU is facing in the education
sector (private spending, nomadic population, war-torn regions, curriculum load,
malnutrition, teacher qualification, teacher deployment, low quality, low capacity),
experience indicate that a selected focus on the lowest GER states with specific
intervention is the way to go. Focusing on these states will assist in increasing the
national average of GER while the many other challenges get prioritized and sequenced.
Other countries experiences also show the importance of keeping a balance between
service delivery and quick impact interventions on one hand, and introducing structural
reform elements on the other. The project has tried to keep to this balance by including
the curriculum sub-component, the forum to discuss the future of the FoEs curriculum
besides the service delivery interventions.
Based on lessons learned on other projects in Sudan and elsewhere, the preparation
activities for the project were done in close collaboration and with many inputs from the
SMoEs as well as the state governments in these states. It is evident that this increases the
level of ownership for the project and the commitment level of entities on the ground.
Earlier experiences under the MDTF show that most projects face initial delays of 6-12
months in their implementation because of the time it takes to set-up implementation
units and get these units familiar with WB procedures. The project tries to use existing
structures that are familiar with the WB procedures to shorten this initial delay.
Earlier experiences under the MDTF also indicate that delays are also caused by the time
taken up in preparing bidding documents for first year civil works activities. The project
is working on preparing those to be ready by the time of signature of the grant agreement.
I. SAFEGUARD POLICIES (INCLUDING PUBLIC CONSULTATION)
42. Most of the project’s activities are classified as Category C. Few activities are classified
as Category B which triggers OP 4.01. For those, the development of an Environmental and
Social Management Framework (ESMF) that describes measures to mitigate negative project
impacts and environmental monitoring arrangements is required. The ESMF constitutes one of
the documents of the project and includes detailed list of mitigation activities as well as a budget
plan and schedule for the implementation of the ESMF.
Safeguard Policies Triggered by the Project Yes No
Environmental Assessment (OP/BP 4.01) [X ] 
Natural Habitats (OP/BP 4.04)  [ X]
Pest Management (OP 4.09)  [X ]
Physical Cultural Resources (OP/BP 4.11)  [ X]
Involuntary Resettlement (OP/BP 4.12)  [X ]
Indigenous Peoples (OP/BP 4.10)  [X ]
Forests (OP/BP 4.36)  [ X]
Safety of Dams (OP/BP 4.37)  [X ]
Projects in Disputed Areas (OP/BP 7.60)*  [X ]
Projects on International Waterways (OP/BP 7.50)  [X ]
Environmental Assessment (OP 4.01): An Environmental and Social Assessment has to be prepared
that includes an Environmental and Social Management Plan as well as an environmental monitoring
program. Furthermore a number of site specific EMPs will be carried out at the project level as well as a
number of EIAs if required.
Cultural Property (OP/BP 4.11): The project will not have activities that may trigger this policy.
Nevertheless, the Cultural Heritage Offices in the States will be asked to confirm that there are no
valuable cultural and religious properties in the areas of the project.
Natural Habitats (OP 4.04): In application of safeguards, the most frequent concerns include:
Environmental damage from small investments in sensitive areas;
Use of hazardous materials (e. g. pesticides, medical waste, asbestos);
Local conflicts (e. g. herders vs. farmers) or misrepresentation;
Proper monitoring of environmental and social safeguard indicators and reporting of new concern for
Project activities will not be located in any official Natural Habitat or Protected Area. Therefore the
project will not trigger this policy.
Involuntary Resettlement (OP/BP 4.12) the project activities will not finance any activities that
may require and voluntary or involuntary settlement.
Forests (OP/BP 4.36) No project activities will be located in any forest reserves.
J. CONTACT POINT
Contact: Yasser Aabdel-Aleem Awny El-Gammal
Title: Sr Operations Off.
Tel: (905) 901-2854
K. FOR MORE INFORMATION CONTACT:
By supporting the proposed project, the Bank does not intend to prejudice the final determination of the parties' claims on the
The World Bank
1818 H Street, NW
Washington, D.C. 20433
Telephone: (202) 458-4500
Fax: (202) 522-1500