stalin hitler mussolini

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					How do Stalin, Hitler, and Mussolini (early
 fascists and communists) rise to power
               after WWI?
STALIN
  1879-1953
 In office: 1922-1953
JOSEPH STALIN

 Born: Ioseb Besarionis
  dze Jughashvili
    Changed name to Stalin
     = Man of Steel
       Why did he change his
        name?
 1928 in total control of
  Communist Party
 Who was Leon
  Trotsky?
  Stalin’s competitor
  He was forced into
   exile (in Mexico)
    In 1940 Stalin’s
       agents killed him
       in Mexico with an
       ice pick.
 Totalitarianism

 A government that
  takes total control over
  EVERY aspect of public
  & private life.



 Command Economy—
  the government make
  all economic decisions.
                                 Problems
                                  for the
                                  USSR

 Union of Socialist Soviet Republics (USSR)

  1921 decreasing industry

  Low agricultural output
     Ukrainian Famine
        • created by the government to crush Ukrainian nationalist
        • killed 5 million people!
Russia was 50-100 years behind
 industrialized countries (like Britain and
 Germany) and if the Soviet Union did not
 catch up they would be conquered!



What is the solution to all of these
 problems?
                 Five
                 Year
                 Plans
                 (1928-32,
                 1933-37)




 5 year plans
   High quotas to increase steel, coal, oil &
    electricity
       It worked, industrial output skyrocketed
       But government limited production of consumer goods to meet quotas
        •   = Shortages in housing, food, clothing
 Another solution…Collective Farming

USSR seized 25
 million farms
  Combined them into
   collective farms
      100s of families were living in
       one large farm
  No privacy, easier for
   government to control
  5-10 million died                     •Kulaks (wealthy peasants)
                                         resisted
                                            They were executed
Weapons of Totalitarianism

1. Police Terror

  Secret police arrested & executed
   MILLIONS of so-called traitors

  Gulags-Hard labor camps in Siberia
2. Great Purges
  Eliminate anyone who threatened Stalin’s
   power

  Showed “Court Trials” to trick the public into
   thinking things were fair and necessary

    Killed 8-13 millions people by 1939

       • It is estimated that about 25 million were killed during Stalin’s
         rule!
More Weapons
of Totalitarianism


3. Censorship & Propaganda
   Communist Newspaper


   Socialist Realism (art)
      Artistic style that praised Soviet life
       & Communist Values
4. Religious Persecution

  Religion was labeled the “opium of the masses” and
   banned
      Stalin had statues erected of himself, he became like a
       god to the people

  Churches=Museums of Atheism
 Discuss with your neighbor: Why were the Soviets unsuccessful in
  destroying religion all together?
Il Duce
  Mussolini’s Rise to Power
What was Italy like during the 1920s & 1930s?

   Democracies had been weakened by WWI and Great
    Depression

   Many workers are crippled by WWI or unemployed

   Italy feels cheated by Versailles Treaty

   Many businessmen are worried about the communists
    seizing power

   Led by a King-Victor Emmanuel III
Who was Benito Mussolini?
                   Son of a Communist
                    blacksmith and a school
                    teacher

                   Named after Mexican
                    Revolutionary
Continued…

     Communist Newspaper editor




     WWI veteran (wounded himself
      with a hand grenade)
         (against war 1911, then pro-Allies in
          WWI)
How does he become Il Duce   (“the Leader”)?




                        Politician who
                         founded the Fascist
                         Party in 1919



                        What is Fascism?
What is Fascism?

Fascism:
 Political Party that advocates:
      • totalitarianism
      • Extreme Nationalism
      • The State is more important than the
        individual like Communism
          -but doesn’t call for state ownership
            of property
    Fascism emphasizes:

 Action: Human beings find meaning and purpose by acting, not by reasoning
  or thinking.

 Community spirit: People need to be part of a community. Individualism is
  dangerous because it turns people away from their community.

 Nationalism

 Militarism

 The future: Fascists love the speed and power of technology. They look
  optimistically to the future.

 One party: The nation must be unified and speak with one voice. Therefore,
  only one political party is allowed, and that party rules with absolute power.

 Violence: The government rules its people through violence or the threat of
  violence.
Italian Nationalist Slogans:

 “Believe, Obey, Fight”




 “The Country Is Nothing Without
  Conquest”
What changes did Mussolini promise?:
                 He promised :

                 1. To revive the economy and
                    rebuild the Armed Forces
                    Wanted to rebuild Italy into the
                     Roman Empire



                 2. Anti-communist

                 3. Anti-democracy
 Industrialist picked him as the lesser of
  two evils
   Monarch or Fascist?




 Created the “Black Shirts” (Fascist Thugs)
     Mussolini’s private army (thousands)
       •   beat & sometimes killed communists and political rivals.
How does he seize power?


          1922-
            30,000 to 40,000 Fascists march
             from Milan to Rome and
             demanded that Mussolini be
             named Prime Minister of Italy.

          The King of Italy was worried
           that the Fascist would start a
           civil war so he agreed
            Mussolini therefore took power
             “legally.”
What did Mussolini do while in power?

 Outlawed strikes

 Censored the press

 Allied with industrialists and large land owners

 Built a strong military

 Started public works project to help during the Depression

 Secret police jailed opposition leaders

         (Summarize 2 or 3 of these facts in your notes)
Adolf Hitler
The road from Vienna to
 the Führer of Germany
Adolf Hitler, the youth

Son of an abusive Austrian official.
Dropped out of high school and
 moved to Vienna.
Wanted to be an artist.
  Was denied entry into the Imperial Art
   Academy(twice).
  Lived off of his dead fathers
   inheritance.
Listened to many Anti-Semitic
 (anti-Jewish) speakers
Adolf Hitler, the soldier

              WWI, moved to Munich,
               Germany and joined the
               Army.
                Was a runner and achieved
                 the rank of corporal.
                   received two Iron Crosses for
                    bravery.
              Feels cheated at
               Germany’s loss and
               blames the Weimar
               Republic
Adolf Hitler, the leader of the Nazi Party
                        Hired as an internal spy by the
                         Army
                           Hitler spies on then joins the National
                            Socialist German Workers’ Party
                            (Nazi)
                              Nazi’s mimic much of the ideas of
                               Fascist Italy



                         High unemployment rate and sky
            Hitler took   rocketing inflation made Hitler’s
            the party     ideas very appealing to the middle
            from a few    and lower middle classes.
            dozen
            members  Established the SA or Brown
            to 55,000     Shirts, Nazi thugs used to beat up
            (15,000 SA) foes
            in 1923.
  Beer Hall Putsch, 1923
Inspired by Mussolini’s march on Rome
Hitler orders the Nazi to seize control of
 Munich, the plan fails
  Hitler catches national attention at his trial.
  Hitler is sentenced to 5 years in low security
   prison
    He only serves 9 months
Mein Kampf (My Struggle)

  This book set forth Hitler’s beliefs and
                   goals
                 Mein Kampf (My Struggle)
Hitler’s goals/ideals:
    Racial Purity
       Aryans = “master race” those of Germanic decent, blond
        hair and blue eyes
       non-Aryans = “inferior or subhuman races” = Jews, Slavs
        and Gypsies

    Denouncement of the Versailles Treaty

    Lebensraum:
       living space, Hitler called for an invasion of Russia to allow
        the German race to grow

    The twin evils:
       Communism and Judaism, and he stated that his aim was
        to eradicate both from the face of the earth
New Plan

 Released from jail in 1924 but ignored because the
  economy was getting better

 New Plan: Legal Revolution, work with the Right
  against the Left
  Nazi’s became a national party in 1929 and had 800,000
   members by 1932
      1932,
        •   Great Depression at it worse,
        •   Germany 30% unemployment (6 million)
        •   Hitler’s Nazi Party won greatest # of seats in the government
        •   Hitler is named Chancellor (Prime Minister)
  Adolf Hitler, the Chancellor
 1933 Hoping to increase his number
  of seats in the Parliament, Hitler calls
  a new election.
 Six days before the elections the
  Reichstag (House of Parliament) is
  set on fire,
  the Nazis blame the communists
   (many historians think that the Nazis
   set the fire) and the Nazis win a slim
   majority.
 Enabling Act 1934
  With a majority Hitler asks to be given
   total control of the country for 4 years
   only one deputy spoke out against it.

				
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posted:7/27/2012
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