How do Stalin, Hitler, and Mussolini (early
fascists and communists) rise to power
In office: 1922-1953
Born: Ioseb Besarionis
Changed name to Stalin
= Man of Steel
Why did he change his
1928 in total control of
Who was Leon
He was forced into
exile (in Mexico)
In 1940 Stalin’s
agents killed him
in Mexico with an
A government that
takes total control over
EVERY aspect of public
& private life.
the government make
all economic decisions.
Union of Socialist Soviet Republics (USSR)
1921 decreasing industry
Low agricultural output
• created by the government to crush Ukrainian nationalist
• killed 5 million people!
Russia was 50-100 years behind
industrialized countries (like Britain and
Germany) and if the Soviet Union did not
catch up they would be conquered!
What is the solution to all of these
5 year plans
High quotas to increase steel, coal, oil &
It worked, industrial output skyrocketed
But government limited production of consumer goods to meet quotas
• = Shortages in housing, food, clothing
Another solution…Collective Farming
USSR seized 25
Combined them into
100s of families were living in
one large farm
No privacy, easier for
government to control
5-10 million died •Kulaks (wealthy peasants)
They were executed
Weapons of Totalitarianism
1. Police Terror
Secret police arrested & executed
MILLIONS of so-called traitors
Gulags-Hard labor camps in Siberia
2. Great Purges
Eliminate anyone who threatened Stalin’s
Showed “Court Trials” to trick the public into
thinking things were fair and necessary
Killed 8-13 millions people by 1939
• It is estimated that about 25 million were killed during Stalin’s
3. Censorship & Propaganda
Socialist Realism (art)
Artistic style that praised Soviet life
& Communist Values
4. Religious Persecution
Religion was labeled the “opium of the masses” and
Stalin had statues erected of himself, he became like a
god to the people
Churches=Museums of Atheism
Discuss with your neighbor: Why were the Soviets unsuccessful in
destroying religion all together?
Mussolini’s Rise to Power
What was Italy like during the 1920s & 1930s?
Democracies had been weakened by WWI and Great
Many workers are crippled by WWI or unemployed
Italy feels cheated by Versailles Treaty
Many businessmen are worried about the communists
Led by a King-Victor Emmanuel III
Who was Benito Mussolini?
Son of a Communist
blacksmith and a school
Named after Mexican
Communist Newspaper editor
WWI veteran (wounded himself
with a hand grenade)
(against war 1911, then pro-Allies in
How does he become Il Duce (“the Leader”)?
founded the Fascist
Party in 1919
What is Fascism?
What is Fascism?
Political Party that advocates:
• Extreme Nationalism
• The State is more important than the
individual like Communism
-but doesn’t call for state ownership
Action: Human beings find meaning and purpose by acting, not by reasoning
Community spirit: People need to be part of a community. Individualism is
dangerous because it turns people away from their community.
The future: Fascists love the speed and power of technology. They look
optimistically to the future.
One party: The nation must be unified and speak with one voice. Therefore,
only one political party is allowed, and that party rules with absolute power.
Violence: The government rules its people through violence or the threat of
Italian Nationalist Slogans:
“Believe, Obey, Fight”
“The Country Is Nothing Without
What changes did Mussolini promise?:
He promised :
1. To revive the economy and
rebuild the Armed Forces
Wanted to rebuild Italy into the
Industrialist picked him as the lesser of
Monarch or Fascist?
Created the “Black Shirts” (Fascist Thugs)
Mussolini’s private army (thousands)
• beat & sometimes killed communists and political rivals.
How does he seize power?
30,000 to 40,000 Fascists march
from Milan to Rome and
demanded that Mussolini be
named Prime Minister of Italy.
The King of Italy was worried
that the Fascist would start a
civil war so he agreed
Mussolini therefore took power
What did Mussolini do while in power?
Censored the press
Allied with industrialists and large land owners
Built a strong military
Started public works project to help during the Depression
Secret police jailed opposition leaders
(Summarize 2 or 3 of these facts in your notes)
The road from Vienna to
the Führer of Germany
Adolf Hitler, the youth
Son of an abusive Austrian official.
Dropped out of high school and
moved to Vienna.
Wanted to be an artist.
Was denied entry into the Imperial Art
Lived off of his dead fathers
Listened to many Anti-Semitic
Adolf Hitler, the soldier
WWI, moved to Munich,
Germany and joined the
Was a runner and achieved
the rank of corporal.
received two Iron Crosses for
Feels cheated at
Germany’s loss and
blames the Weimar
Adolf Hitler, the leader of the Nazi Party
Hired as an internal spy by the
Hitler spies on then joins the National
Socialist German Workers’ Party
Nazi’s mimic much of the ideas of
High unemployment rate and sky
Hitler took rocketing inflation made Hitler’s
the party ideas very appealing to the middle
from a few and lower middle classes.
members Established the SA or Brown
to 55,000 Shirts, Nazi thugs used to beat up
(15,000 SA) foes
Beer Hall Putsch, 1923
Inspired by Mussolini’s march on Rome
Hitler orders the Nazi to seize control of
Munich, the plan fails
Hitler catches national attention at his trial.
Hitler is sentenced to 5 years in low security
He only serves 9 months
Mein Kampf (My Struggle)
This book set forth Hitler’s beliefs and
Mein Kampf (My Struggle)
Aryans = “master race” those of Germanic decent, blond
hair and blue eyes
non-Aryans = “inferior or subhuman races” = Jews, Slavs
Denouncement of the Versailles Treaty
living space, Hitler called for an invasion of Russia to allow
the German race to grow
The twin evils:
Communism and Judaism, and he stated that his aim was
to eradicate both from the face of the earth
Released from jail in 1924 but ignored because the
economy was getting better
New Plan: Legal Revolution, work with the Right
against the Left
Nazi’s became a national party in 1929 and had 800,000
members by 1932
• Great Depression at it worse,
• Germany 30% unemployment (6 million)
• Hitler’s Nazi Party won greatest # of seats in the government
• Hitler is named Chancellor (Prime Minister)
Adolf Hitler, the Chancellor
1933 Hoping to increase his number
of seats in the Parliament, Hitler calls
a new election.
Six days before the elections the
Reichstag (House of Parliament) is
set on fire,
the Nazis blame the communists
(many historians think that the Nazis
set the fire) and the Nazis win a slim
Enabling Act 1934
With a majority Hitler asks to be given
total control of the country for 4 years
only one deputy spoke out against it.