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					Food Water
    and
lnanEmergency
I




                                        I
    How to Storc Water                                                    winter stormor other disaster
                                                                 hurricane,
                                                  f an earthquake,
Storeyour water in thoroughly
                                                                                                 to
                                                  strikesyour community,you might not haveaccess food,
washedplastic,glass,fiberglass          I         waterandelectricityfor days,or evenweeks. By taking
or enamel-linedmetalcontain-            some time now to store emergency food and water supplies, you
ers. Never usea containerthat
                                        can provide for your entire family. This brochure was developed
    hasheld toxic substances.
    Plasticcontainers.suchas soft           by the FederalEmergencyManagement
    drink bottles, best. You can
                 are                        Agency in cooperationwith the American
    also purchase food-gradeplas-
                                                                           of
                                            Red Crossand the U.S. Department
    tic bucketsor drums.
                                            Agriculture.
    Sealwatercontainers  tightly,
    label them and storein a cool,
    dark place. Rotatewaterevery            Havingan amplesupplyof cleanwateris a
    six months.                                                         A
                                            top priority in an emergency. normally
                                            activepersonneedsto drink at leasttwo
    Emergency Outdoor                       quartsof water eachday. Hot environments
    Water Sources                           candoublethat amount. Children,nursing
    If you needto find rvaterout-           mothers  and ill peoplewill needevenmore.
    sideyour home.you can use
                                            You will also needwater for food preparation hygiene. Storea
                                                                                       and
    thesesources.Be sureto purify
    the wateraccording the
                       to                                                       per
                                            total of at leastonegallonper person, day. You shouldstoreat
    instructionson page3 before             leasta two-weeksupply of waterfor eachmemberof your family.
    drinkingit.

    I Rainwater                             If suppliesrun low, neverration water. Drink the amountyou
    I Streams,rivers and other              needtoday,and try to find more for tomorrow. You can minimize
      moving bodiesof water                 the amountof wateryour body needsby reducingactivity and
    I Pondsand lakes                        stayingcool.
    I Natural springs

    Avoid water with floating mate-
    rial, an odor or dark color. Use
    saltwater  only if you distill it
    first. You shouldnot drink flood                   FederalEmergency
    water.                                             ManagementAgency
                                           Hidden Water Sources in Your Home
                                         f a disaster
                                                    catchesyou without a stclred suppll of clean\\ater.)ou can usethe
Short-Term Food                        I
                                         waterin your hot-watertank.pipesand ice cubes. As a lastresort,  you can use
Supplies                               I
                                       I waterin the reservoir
                                                             tank of your toilet (not the borvl;.
Even though it is unlikely that an
emergency   would cut off your food    Do you know the locationof your incoming water valve? You'll needto shut it off to
supply for two weeks,you should        stop contaminatedwater from enteringyour home if you hearreportsof brokenwater
preparea supply that lvill last that   or sewage lines.
long.
                                       To usethe waterin your pipes.let air into the plumbingby turningon the faucetin
The easiestway to developa two-        y o u r h o u s e the hi ghestevel .A smal lamount \\ater* i l l tri ckl eout.Thenobt ain
                                                        at          l                   of
week stockpileis to increase
                           the         water frclm the lorvestfhucetin the house.
amountof basicfoods   you normal-
                                       To usethe waterin your hot-rvater   tank.be surethe electricitl()r sas is otf. and open
ly keepon your shelves.
                                       the drain at the bottom of the tank. Startthe water florvin-e turning off the water
                                                                                                   by'
Storage Tips                           intakevalve and turning on a hot-waterfaucet. Do not turn on the gasor electricity
I Keep food in a dry. cool spot-a      when the tank is empty.
  dark areaif possible.
I Keep food coveredat all times.                When Food Supplies Arc Low
I Open food boxesor canscare-
                                                              healthypeoplecan surviveon half their
                                         f activity is reduced,
  fully so that you can closethem      I
                                         usualfood intakefor an extended periodand without any food
  tightly after eachuse.               I
                                       I for many days. Food, unlike water,may be rationedsafely,
I Wrap cookiesand crackersin           exceptfor childrenand pregnantwomen.
  plasticbags,and keep them in
  tight containers.                    If your water supply is limited, try to avoid foods that are high in
                                       fat and protein,and don't stock salty fbods,sincethey rvill make
I Empty openedpackages       of
                                       you thirsty. Try to eat salt-freecrackers, whole grain cereals  and
  sugar,dried fruits and nuts into
                                       cannedfoods with high liquid content.
  screw-top  jars or air-tightcansto
  protect them from pests.             You don't needto go out and buy unfamiliarfoods to prepare emergency
                                                                                                     an           food
I Inspectall food for signsof          supply.You can usethe cannedfoods.dry mixes and other staples your cupboard
                                                                                                         on
  spoilagebeforeuse.                   shelves.In fact, familiar foods are important. They can lift moraleand give a feeling
                                       of securityin time of stress.Also, cannedfoods won't requirecooking,water or spe-
I Use foods before they go bad, and
                                       cial preparation.Follorvingare recommended   short-term  food storageplans.
  replacethem with freshsupplies,
  dated with ink or marker. Place
  new items at the back of the stor-                   Special Gonsiderations
  ageareaand older onesin front.
                                               s you stockfood, take into accountyour family's uniqueneedsand tastes.
Nutrition Tips                                 Try to includefoods that they will enjoy and that are also high in caloriesand
                                 it
During and right after a disaster,             nutrition. Foodsthat requireno refrigeration, preparation cooking are best.
                                                                                                          or
will be vital that you maintainyour
                                       Individuals   with special                                   attention. will
                                                                                  will needparticular
                                                                 dietsand allergies                          as
strength.So remember:
                                       babies,  toddlersand elderly people. Nursing mothersmay needliquid formula, in
I Eat at leastone well-balanced        casethey are unableto nurse. Canneddieteticfoods,juices and soupsmay be helpful
  meal eachday.                        for ill or elderly people.
I Drink enoughliquid to enable
                                                                                        utensils. And don't forget
                                       Make sureyou have a manualcan openerand disposable
  your body to function properly
                                                   foods for your pets.
                                       nonperishable
  (two quartsa day).
I Take in enoughcaloriesto enable
  you to do any necessary
                        work.              How to Gook lf the Power Goes Out
I Includevitamin, mineral and                or emergency   cooking you can use a fireplace,or a charcoalgrill or camp stove
  protein supplements your
                     in                      can be usedoutdoors. You can also heatfood with candlewarmers,chafing
  stockpileto assureadequate                 dishesand fonduepots.Cannedfood can be eatenright out of the can. If you
  nutrition.                           heatit in the can, be sureto open the can and removethe label first.
            Thrce Ways to Purify Water
                                                        water can contain
    n additionto having a bad odor and taste,contaminated                                   Shelf-life of Foods for
I                                                                                           Storage
  microorganismsthat causediseases  suchas dysentery, typhoid and hepatitis.
I                                                                                           Here are somegeneralguidelines
I You shouldpurify all water of uncertainpurity beforeusing it for drinking, food
                                                                                            for rotating common emergency
preparation hygiene.
          or
                                                                                            foods.
Thereare many ways to purify water. None is perfect. Often the bestsolutionis a
                                                                                            I Use within six months:
combinationof methods.
                                                                                               - Powderedmilk (boxed)
Two easypurificationmethodsare outlinedbelow. Thesemeasures will kill most
                                                                                               - Dried fruit (in metal
                                            suchas heavy metals,saltsand
microbesbut will not removeother contaminants
                                                                                                 container)
                                                      particlessettleto the
                    Before purifying, let any suspended
most other chemicals.
bottom, or strain them through layers of papertowel or clean cloth.                            - Dry, crisp crackers
                                                                                                 (in metal container)
BOILING. Boiling is the saf-est  methodof puriff ing rvater.Bring waterto a                    - Potatoes
rolling boil for 3-5 minutes,keepingin mind that somewater will evaporate.Let the
watercool beforedrinkine.                                                                   I Use within one year:
                                                                                               - Cannedcondensed  meat
Boiled water n'ill tastc bcttc-rif rou put oxygen back                                           and vegetablesoups
into it by pouring the n ater back and forth betrveentwo                                       - Cannedfruits, fruit juices
clean containers. This s ill also inrprove the taste of                                          and vegetables
stored water.
                                                                                               - Ready-to-eat cerealsand
                                                                                                 uncookedinstantcereals
DISINFECTION.                             liquid bleachto kill microorganisms.
                       You can usehousehold                                                      (in metal containers)
                        liquid bleachthatcontains
Use only regularhousehold                       5.25 percent
                                                           sodium                             - Peanutbutter
                             bleaches,
hypochloritc.Do not usescented               bleaches bleaches
                                     colorsafe      or       with
                                                                                              - Jelly
addedcleanc'rs.
                                                                                               - Hard candy and cannednuts
                         .\dd l6 drops of bleach per gallon of water, stir and let stand      - Vitamin C
                         lirr .l(l nrinutc's. If the rvater does not have a slight bleach
                         odrrr. rcp!.at thc-dosase and let stand another 15 minutes.
                                                                                            I May be storedindefinitely
                        Thc-onlr asL'ntu\!'d t() purif,l rvater should be household           (in proper containersand
                         liquid bleach. Othcr chcmicals. such as iodine or water treat-       conditions):
                         rncnt procluctssolcl in canrping or surplus storesthat do not
                                                                                              - Wheat
                                     percent sodium hypochlorite as the only active
                        eontain -5.1-5
                         inurcdicnt. are not recommended and should not be used.              - Vegetableoils
                                                                                              - Dried corn
                     \\'hilc-the trvo methodsdescribedabovewill kill most
microbesin water,distillationn'ill removemicrobesthat resistthesemethods. and                 - Baking powder
heavy metals,saltsand most other chemicals.                                                   - Soybeans
                                                                                              - Instant coffe, tea and cocoa
DISTILLATION.         Distillationinvolvesboiling waterand thencollectingthe
vapor that condenses
                   back to water. The condensed
                                              vapor will not include salt and                 - Salt
other impurities. To distill, fill a pot halfway with water. Tie a cup to the handleon        - Noncarbonatedsoft drinks
the pot's lid so that the cup will hangright-side-up  when
                                                                                              - White rice
the lid is upside-down(make surethe cup is not dangling
into the water) and boil the water for 20 minutes. The                                        - Bouillon products

water that drips from the lid into the cup is distilled.                                      - Dry pasta
                                                                                              - Powderedmilk
                                                                                                ( in nitrogen-packedcans)
                                        Supplies                                                       Learn More
                                                                                                       I f you are interested learning
                                                                                                                              in
  t's 2:00 a.m. and a flash flood forcesyou to evacuate  your home-fast. There's no
                                                                                                       I more abouthow to prepare    for
  time to gatherfood from the kitchen, fill bottles with water, grab a first-aid kit from              I emergencies,   contactyour local
  the closetand snatcha flashlightand a portableradio from the bedroom. You need                       or StateOffice of Emergency
to have theseitems packedand ready in one place before disasterstrikes.                                Management local American
                                                                                                                     or
                                                                                                       Red Crosschapter, write to
                                                                                                                           or
Pack at leasta three-daysupplyof food and water,and storeit in a handy place.                              FEMA
Choosefoods that are easyto carry,nutritiousand ready-to-eat.In addition.pack                              PO BOX 2012
                                                                                                           JESSUP   MD 20794-2012
theseemergency   items:
                                                                                                       and ask tbr any of the following
                                                                                                       publ i cati ons:
I Medical suppliesand first aid manual                            I Money and matches a \\'aterproof
                                                                                     in
I Hygiene supplies                                                  container                          Emergencl Preparedness
                                                                                                       Checklist
I Portableradio, flashlights and                                  I Fire extinguisher                  (L-154)Item #8-0872
  extra batteries                                                 I Blanketand extra clothing          ARC 4471

I Shoveland other useful tools                                    I Infantand smallchildren'sneeds     Your Family Disaster
                                                                    ( if appropriate)                  Supplies Kit
I Householdliquid bleach to purify                                                                     (L-189)Item #8-0941
  drinkins water.                                                 I Manualcan opener                   ARC 4463
                                                                                                       Your Family Disaster Plan
            lf the Electricity Goes Off . . ,                                                          (L-191) Item #8-0954
                                                                                                       ARC 4466
FIRST,                  food and foods from the refrigerator.
            useperishable
                                                                                                       Are You Ready? Your Guide to
THEN, usethe foods from the freezer. To minimize the numberof times )'ou open                          Disaster Preparedness
the freezerdoor, post a list of freezercontents it. In a well-filled. w ell-insulated
                                                on                                                     (H-34) Item #8-0908
freezer,foods will usually still have ice crystalsin their centers(meaningtoods are                    Emergency Preparedness
safeto eat) for at leastthree days.                                                                    Publications
                                                                                                       (L-164) ltem #8-O822
FINALIY,                               foods and staples.
              begin to usenon-perishable

  Your Local Contactis:


                                                                                                                                 ARC-505s
                                                                                                                                         o
                                                                                                                                 rEnaAo-Lzr
                                                                                                                                        1994
                                                                                                                                 November




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