KINGDOM PLANTAE - PowerPoint by 3K50Av1m

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									       KINGDOM PLANTAE
           NON-VASCULAR PLANTS
               ‘no plumbing’

TERRESTRIAL                 AQUATIC
  Mosses                     Algae
The Bryophytes          Phylum Chlorophyta
                        Phylum Rhodophyta
                        Phylum Phaeophyta
                       PLANTS
 • Are the very foundation of life on earth:
 • Plants and algae convert light energy from the sun into the
 chemical energy stored in carbohydrates (sugars).




Plants also produce OXYGEN and use up CARBON DIOXIDE

            Interactions with other organisms:
               • Herbivores, Nitrogen-fixing bacteria, & mycorrhizae
               • Insects, birds, and mammals
ALGAE
PHOTO-AUTOTROPHIC (ability to synthesize
carbs)

EUKARYOTIC (except for blue-green algae)


CELLULOSE CELL WALLS

Most are MULTICELLULAR; also some unicellular,
filamentous, and colonial algae

ALTERNATION OF GENERATIONS (haploid
gametophyte to diploid sporophyte)

LACK MOBILITY
ALGAE ARE FOUND IN THREE DIFFERENT KINGDOMS!

                                             Kingdom Protista
Kingdom Monera
                                                 Eukaryotic algae
  Prokaryotic algae




                         Kingdom Plantae
                      Multicellular eukaryotic algae
What are the benefits of being Aquatic?
 Water satisfies most of the needs of a plant (ie):

      1 – Prevents drying out

      2 – Lends structural support


      3 – Provides nutrients without having to move
      around searching for them


       4 – Accommodates the dispersal of spores
       and the meeting of sex cells
PHYLUM PHAEOPHYTA
  (the brown algae)




  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Y9eyK6C9nDA
• 1500 species




                 Examples:
                 KELP
                 FUCUS
                 (rockweed)
• Brown colour is due to use of a
brown photopigment ~ fucoxanthin.

• Mostly marine, kelps are the
largest type of algae (70+ meters!).

• Many have “air bladders” to
suspend them in the water and
keep the fronds in sunlight.
       How Do We Use Brown Algae?
We harvest ~190,000 tonnes of the brown kelp each year

         WHY? So we can extract alginic acid.


What is that? Alginate is a colloidal product used for
thickening, suspending, stabilizing, emulsifying, gel-forming,
or film-forming, as required.
  • Dentists use alginates to make dental impressions
  of teeth.
             • It is also used to make
             toothpastes, soaps, rubber, ice
             cream, tinned meats, fabric printing,
             and fertilizer etc.
                     PHYLUM RHODOPHYTA
                         (the red algae)
http://www.youtube.com/watc
h?v=FYWD87C6rYU
• 6,000 species.



• Thered colour is due to use of a red
photopigment ~ phycobilins.




• Mostly marine. Often found in deeper water
(up to 260 m).
                      SYMBIOSIS
• Red algae is important in forming tropical reefs (coralline
algae)

• Zooxanthellae: algae that lives in the gastrodermis of reef-
building corals.


 Algae provides                                                    Corals
food to the coral                                                 provides
 (glucose from                                                   protection
photosynthesis)                                                      and
                                                                 access to
                                                                    light.


                    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=u4R0FqkywxE
         How Do We Use Red Algae?
• It contains Carrageenan, which is used for stabilizing
chocolate, milk, egg-nog, ice cream, sherbets, instant puddings,
frostings, creamed soups, etc.




           Carrageenan fights HPV
           http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vgphZdE5VeE

• It also contains Agar, which has the unique ability to form
thermally reversible gels at low temperatures. Very Useful!
             What Is Agar Used For ?
*As a laxative

*In drugs that need to be released slowly

*Used in the study of bacteria and fungi
*Used in cosmetics, ointments and lotions

         *Used in photographic film, shoe polish, dental
         impressions, shaving soaps, and in the tanning industry
*Used as a subsitute for gelatin, as an antidrying
agent in breads and pastry, and for gelling and
thickening certain foods.
          *Used to make cheese, mayonnaise, pudding, jellies,
          and frozen dairy products.
PHYLUM CHLOROPHYTA
   (the green algae)
•Been around for 2 billion years.

•There are more than 7,000 species.

• Widely distributed: found in fresh
and salt water, damp soil, in lichens,
and even in snow, ice, and rock.

They are the ancestor of land plants
   How Do We Use Green Algae?

                               Pest control (fleas)

  As
  Filters




            Sewage treatment to remove inorganic
            nutrients and toxins



Rubbing compounds (shoe polish)
• Organisms that drift on or near the
surface of the water.
• Important algal groups: diatoms, golden
algae, some green algae, & cyanobacteria

• One litre of lake water may contain
more than 500 million planktonic
organisms.
•67% of the global oxygen supply!!!

• Zooplankton eat phytoplankton = bottom
of food chain!! PRIMARY FOOD PRODUCERS
SEXUAL REPRODUCTION IN ALGAE
     Alternation of Generations
ASEXUAL REPRODUCTION IN ALGAE
FRAGMENTATION: thallus/cell body simply
breaks apart and the pieces grow into new
individuals

ASEXUAL SPORES: ZOOSPORES (motile
spres) or NON-MOTILE SPORES. The spores
form a large gametophyte individual (see ulva
life cycle p. 250)


MITOTIC DIVISION: occurs in
unicellular plants (ie: zygenema)
Algae will grow anywhere where there is moisture!
               Chlorophyta                 Phaeophyta               Rhodophyta
                  Chlorophyll a, b           Chlorophyll a, c          Chlorophyll a,d
 Pigments            Carotene                 Fucoxanthin                Carotenes,
                                                                        Phycobillins
                       Starch                Laminarin, oils               Starch
Food Storage
                     Cellulose                  Cellulose                 Cellulose
 Cell Wall
                 Mainly fresh water      Mainly colder seawater        Mainly warmer
  Habitat        Most soils, coastal                                     seawater
                   tropical seas                                      Some fresh water
                    Unicellular,              Multicellular             Multicellular
   Form             filamentous,
                    multicellular
               Sexual Ro: alternation    Sexual Ro: alteration of   Sexual Ro: alternation
Reproduction       of generations              generations              of generations
                    Asexual Ro:               AsexualRo:              Asexual Ro: some
               fragmentation or spores   Fragmentation or spores          vegetative
                 Chlamydomonas              Fucus (rockweed)           Porphyra (sushi)
 Examples        Ulva (sea lettuse)               Kelp                    Plumaria
                 Volvox, Spirogyra                                       Irish Moss

								
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