AP Euro Unit 8 Test answer by Ucvy1ujY


									                                    AP European History - Unit 8 Test
Multiple Choice. Mark the one best answer for each of the following questions.

1. Which of the following resulted for the Russian Revolution of 1905?
  a.   Emancipation of the serfs
  b.   Legalization of the Bolshevik Party
  c.   Universal suffrage
  d.   A free press
  e.   The creation of the Duma

2. The "Bloody Sunday" demonstration of 1905, held in St. Petersburg, was
  a.    the incident that started the 1905 Russian Revolution
  b.    instigated by the Bolsheviks so as to put themselves at the head of the workers' movement.
  c.    aimed at overthrowing the Tsar
  d.    all of the above

3. The Tsar's government helped to quell the 1905 Revolution by issuing the October Manifesto, which
  a.    provided for sweeping labor reforms.
  b.    promised a constitution with civil liberties and a parliament.
  c.    pledged to punish only the most radical elements in the revolt.
  d.    promised an immediate end to the war with Japan.

4. The history of the four Russian Dumas, or parliaments, (1906-1916) indicated that
  a.    socialism and radicalism had little support in Russia.
  b.    the government could manipulate the electoral process to obtain the kind of Duma it wished.
  c.    the Cadets, or Liberals, enjoyed the support of most of the Russian people.
  d.    no party or group of parties could form a majority.

5. Stolypin's reform policy did all of the following EXCEPT
  a.    abolished what was left of the peasants' redemption payments
  b.    authorized the peasants to sell their share of rights in the commune or mir and to buy land freely
  c.    favored the rise of the class of "big farmers"
  d.    ended the problem of land shortage and land hunger

6. In the Russian revolutions of 1905 and 1917, what was a "soviet"?
  a.     a follower of Lenin and the Bolsheviks
  b.     the smallest organizational unit of the Bolshevik party
  c.     a council of workers and soldiers
  d.     a unit of the Red Army

7. Lenin's appeal to the people of Russia centered on
   a.    ending the war and giving land to the peasants and power to the soviets.
   b.    giving all power to the Duma.
   c.    victory over Germany through renewed war effort.
   d.    support of the Kornilov plot against Kerensky.

8. As a result of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, Russia
   a.    acquired considerable territory.
   b.    re-entered the war on the German side.
   c.    agreed to spread the revolution to western Europe.
   d.    lost one-third of its population.

9. Because backward Russia was largely unprepared for an advanced Marxist revolution, Lenin’s goals included
   a.   Nationalization of land and factories
   b.   The use of secret police to find counter-revolutionaries
   c.   The establishment of democratic decision making in the local soviets
   d.   A and b
10.      After the Bolshevik seized power in the fall of 1917 they
  a.     Welcomed the aid of other Russian socialist movements
  b.     Decided to make peace with the Germans
  c.     Offered all Russians a chance to buy their own land or business
  d.     Dissolved the local soviets as unnecessary not that the revolution had arrived
  e.     All of the above

11. Which of the following best describes Lenin’s New Economic Policy?
  a.    The first systematic application of Marxist principles top the economic life of a state
  b.    The First Five-Year Plan for Soviet economic development
  c.    A state plan for collectivization of agriculture
  d.    A compromise with capitalist economic principles
  e.    An important element of Lenin’s “April Theses”

12.      Lenin’s New Economic Policy did not include
  a.     A tax in kind on peasants
  b.     Disposal of agriculture surplus for profit on open markets
  c.     Small retail concerns allowed to run as private businesses
  d.     Denationalization of factories

13.      Despite the fact that Lenin favored Trotsky, Stalin became the next soviet leader because
  a.     He was a brilliant theoretician of Marxism
  b.     He was a successful military leader
  c.     He was a good organizer and had the loyality of party officials
  d.     Trotsky repudiated communism

14.      Lenin did not believe that
  a.     The Bolsheviks were a disciplined elite leading the Revolution
  b.     Imperialism was a symptom of capitalist decay
  c.     World War I was a civil war among capitalists
  d.     The Revolution would have to be secured in Russia alone, since the other Eurpoean countries were unlikely to experience

15.      Lenin's New Economic Policy in the early 1920s
a. put Russia on the path of rapid industrialization at the expense of the peasantry.
b. was a modified form of the capitalist system and implicitly acknowledged the economic failures of
    early Russian Communism.
c. forced Communism to move forward as both industry and agriculture were nationalized.
d. failed to reverse the patterns of famine and industrial collapse that began in 1921.

ANS:     B                REF:    page(s) 758

16. The Russian Revolution of 1917 was similar to the French Revolution of 1789 in all of the following, EXCEPT that it
  a.     was a movement of liberation.
  b.     addressed its message to all the world.
  c.     showed a comparable pattern of revolutionary politics.
  d.     was begun by professional revolutionaries.

17. A minority of the Russian peasantry, which were more enterprising and wealthier, were called
  a.    kulaks.
  b.    zemstvos.
  c.    soviets.
  d.    Nepmen.

AP European History                                                                                                                2
Unit 8 Test
18. The greatest mistake of the Russian provisional government was
  a.     Continuing the war effort
  b.     Confiscating and redistributing noble lands
  c.     Instituting legal and political equality
  d.     Suppressing the Petrograd Soviet

19. Kerensky's Provisional Government was short-lived for all the following reasons, EXCEPT
  a.    it lacked popular support.
  b.    it was blamed for General Kornilov's attempt at counterrevolution.
  c.    it failed to solve the food problem.
  d.    it failed to continue the war effort.

20. The institution whose approval Lenin used to gain a modicum of legitimacy for his seizure of power in October 1917 was
  a.     the Constituent Assembly
  b.     the Congress of Soviets
  c.     the factory committees
  d.     the Provisional Government

21. The Red Terror
  a.     aimed at the physical extermination of all who opposed Lenin's regime.
  b.     exterminated thousands of revolutionaries.
  c.     continued long after the Revolution was secure.
  d.     all of the above.

22. During the Russian Civil War of 1918-22
    A. 45,000 Bulgarians inside Russia refused to disarm and join the anti-Bolshevik forces
    B. the Japanese occupied Vladivostok
    C. Poland captured Moscow
    D. France and Britain occupied Petrograd

23. Grigorii Rasputin was indicative of the
  a.     interests of the educated middle class.
  b.     growing power of the Bolshevik party.
  c.     role of the Petrograd Soviet.
  d.     decadence of the imperial government.

24. The Bolsheviks were able to seize power for all of the following reasons EXCEPT
  a.     anarchy in Russia.
  b.     the leadership of Lenin and Trotsky.
  c.     their appeal to soldiers and urban workers.
  d.     the threat of counterrevolution.

25. Civil war against the Bolshevik regime was fueled mostly by
  a.      Lenin's ratification of land confiscation by the peasants.
  b.      hatred of the peace treaty with Germany.
  c.      the disbanding of the Constituent Assembly by the Bolsheviks
  d.      the propaganda efforts and material support of the Allied Powers.

26. The February Revolution of 1917 began
  a.     when food riots broke out in Petrograd.
  b.     when the Bolsheviks, under Lenin's direction, seized the central telephone office in Petrograd.
  c.     with the assassination of Nicholas II.
  d.     with the assassination of Rasputin.

AP European History                                                                                                          3
Unit 8 Test
27. Bolshevik victory in the civil war can be attributed to all of the following factors except
  a.     Allied refusal to intervene
  b.     Trotsky’s creation of an effective army
  c.     Mobilization of the economy
  d.     The use of terror to crush opponents

28. Under the New Economic Policy adopted by Lenin in 1921
  a.    the peasants were allowed to sell their farm products at a profit
  b.    the state controlled the basic industries
  c.    middlemen were permitted to buy and sell products at market prices
  d.    all of the above

29. Stalin's theory of "socialism in one country"
  a.      was originally proposed by Leon Trotsky
  b.      argued that the Soviet Union could build socialism on its own
  c.      maintained that the success of socialism depended on world revolution
  d.      was rejected by the Communist Party

30. Stalin's First Five-Year Plan
  a.      liquidated the more prosperous farmers, or kulaks, as a class.
  b.      increased the amount of livestock in the Soviet Union.
  c.      increased agricultural output to pre-1913 levels.
  d.      doubled agricultural production.

31.      By 1939 Soviet Russia, owning to the accomplishments of the First, Second, and Third Five Year Plans, ranked third among
 the world’s industrial nationals behind
   a.    Great Britain and the Untied States
   b.    The United States and Japan
   c.    The United States and Germany
   d.    Great Britain and Germany
   e.    Great Britain and France

32.       Stalin’s transformation of the Soviet Union in the 1930’s did not include
  a.      Forbidding peasants to have individual plots or private tools
  b.      Reducing some of the freedoms of women, students, and intellectuals, that had characterized the 1920s
  c.      Purging the Communist party of reactionaries
  d.      Instituting some of the work [practices associate with capitalist businesses

33.        Joseph Stalin's emergence as leader of the Communist party was aided by
a.    Lenin's recommendation that he become sole leader.
b.    his alliance with Trotsky and the Right in the Politburo.
c.    his position as general secretary of the Bolshevik party.
d.    strong support of the left in the Politburo, which favored the spread of Communism abroad.

ANS:      C               REF:    page(s) 759

34. The Stalinist era in the 1930's witnessed
a. the decline of industrialization in favor of the collectivization of agriculture.
b. real wages and social conditions for the industrial labor force improve dramatically.
c. millions of ordinary citizens arrested and sent into force labor camps.
d. an abundance of permissive social legislation.

ANS:      C               REF:    page(s) 759

35. The collectivization of agriculture under Stalin was characterized by
a. widespread famine due to peasant hoarding and slaughter of livestock.
b. the cooperation of kulaks.
c. the destruction of the collective farms.
d. the immediate financial benefits for most of the peasants.

AP European History                                                                                                                 4
Unit 8 Test
ANS:     A                REF:    page(s) 759

36. The purges carried out in the Soviet Union during the 1930s resulted in
  a.     the protection of ideological diversity within the Communist Party
  b.     improvements in military preparedness.
  c.     a decrease in the size of bureaucracy.
  d.     elimination of the old Bolshevik elite.
  e.     An enhanced Soviet image abroad.

37. The first and second Five-Year Plans
  a.     resulted in the fastest industrial growth of any country in history.
  b.     brought a modernization of life to inner Asia.
  c.     revolutionized transportation in the Soviet Union.
  d.     all of the above.

38. The consequences of Stalin's Five-Year Plans included all of the following, except
  a.     capital wealth, paid for by collectivized agriculture, grew, while consumer goods production languished.
  b.     agricultural production doubled
  c.     the industrialization of Asiatic Russia occurred for the first time.
  d.     many millions of workers and peasants died.

39. With the formation of the USSR, the Soviet authorities
  a.     instituted a federal system of government in which each constituent republic was sovereign.
  b.     expanded the authority of the republics, short of granting sovereignty.
  c.     concentrated all political and economic authority in the central government.
  d.     none of the above.

40. In practice, the center of power in the Soviet Union resided in the
  a.      Supreme Soviet and its Presidium
  b.      general secretary of the Communist party and the Politburo
  c.      Soviet of Nationalities and the general secretary
  d.      Central committee of the Communist party and the premier

AP European History                                                                                                 5
Unit 8 Test
Essay. Please answer one of the following in a complete and factually detailed essay

AP European History                                                                    6
Unit 8 Test

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