Anatomy & Physiology I

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					Anatomy & Physiology I

     Directional Terms
   Systems of the Body
  Dr. Michael P. Gillespie

 Anatomy – Deals with the structure of body
  parts – their forms and relationships.
 Physiology – Deals with the functions of
  body parts – what they do and how they do
 Dissection – The careful cutting apart of
  body parts to see their relationships.
     Levels of Body Organization

 Chemical level
 Cellular level
 Tissue level
 Organ level
 System level
 Organism
              Chemical Level

 Atoms – smallest units of matter that
  participate in chemical reactions.
 Molecules – two or more atoms joined
                Cellular Level

 Molecules combine to form cells.
 Cells are the basic structural and functional
  units of an organism.
 Cells are the smallest living units in the
  human body.
 Cells are made up of organelles.

 Tissues are groups of cells and the materials
  surrounding them that work together to
  perform a particular function.
 4 basic types of tissues in the human body:
     Epithelial tissue
     Connective tissue
     Muscle tissue
     Nervous tissue

 Composed of two or more tissues that work
  together to perform specific functions.
 Usually have recognizable shapes.
                System Level

 A system consists of related organs that have
  a common function.
 Sometimes an organ is part of more than one
 There are eleven systems in the human body.
                 Organ Systems

   Integumentary System      Cardiovascular System
   Muscular System           Respiratory System
   Skeletal System           Digestive System
   Nervous System            Urinary System
   Endocrine System          Reproductive Systems
   Lymphatic and
    Immune System
         Integumentary System

 Components – Skin, hair, nails, sweat glands,
  oil glands.
 Functions – Protects the body; helps regulate
  body temperature; eliminates wastes; makes
  vitamin D; detects sensations such as touch,
  pain, warmth, and cold.
            Muscular System

 Components – Muscles, tendons.
 Functions – Produces body movements, such
  as walking; stabilizes body position
  (posture); generates heat
              Skeletal System

 Components – Bones, joints, associated
 Functions – Supports and protects the body;
  aids body movements; houses cells that
  produce blood cells; stores minerals and
              Nervous System

 Components – Brain, spinal cord, nerves,
  special sense organs (I.e. eyes and ear).
 Functions – Generates action potentials
  (nerve impulses) to regulate body activities;
  detects changes in the body’s internal and
  external environments, interprets these
  changes, and responds causing muscular
  contractions or glandular secretions.
            Endocrine System

 Components – Hormone producing glands
  and hormone producing cells.
 Functions – Regulates body activities by
  releasing hormones (chemical messengers)
  transported in blood from an endocrine gland
  to a target organ.
   Lymphatic and Immune System

 Components – Lymphatic fluid and vessels;
  spleen, thymus, lymph nodes, tonsils.
 Functions – Returns proteins and fluids to
  blood; carries lipids from gastrointestinal
  tract to blood; includes structures that
  generate lymphocytes (protect against
  disease-causing organisms).
         Cardiovascular System

 Components – Blood, heart, and blood
 Functions – Heart pumps blood through
  vessels; blood carries oxygen and nutrients to
  cells and carbon dioxide and wastes away
  from cells; regulates acid-base balance,
  temperature, and water content of body
  fluids; components defend against disease.
           Respiratory System

 Components – Lungs, air passageways such
  as the pharynx (throat), larynx (voice box),
  trachea (windpipe), and bronchial tubes.
 Functions – Transfers oxygen from inhaled
  air to blood and carbon-dioxide from blood
  to exhaled air; regulates acid-base balance,
  air flowing out through vocal cords produces
             Digestive System

 Components – Mouth, esophagus, stomach,
  small and large intestines, and anus (organs
  of GI tract); salivary glands, liver,
  gallbladder, pancreas (accessory organs).
 Functions – Physical and chemical
  breakdown of food; absorbs nutrients,
  eliminates solid wastes.
              Urinary System

 Components – Kidneys, ureters, urinary
  bladder, urethra.
 Functions – Produces, stores, and eliminates
  urine; eliminates wastes; regulates volume
  and chemical composition of blood;
  maintains acid-base balance; maintains
  mineral balance; helps regulate production of
  red blood cells.
          Reproductive Systems

 Components – Gonads (testes in males,
  ovaries in females), associated organs
  (uterine tubes, uterus, and vagina in females
  and epididymis, ductus deferens, and penis in
 Functions – Gonads produce gametes (sperm
  or oocytes); gonads release hormones.
    Non-invasive techniques to assess
      body structure and function

 Palpation – the examiner feels the body with
  the surface of the hands.
 Auscultation – the examiner listens to the
  body sounds to evaluate functioning of
  certain organs.
 Percussion – the examiner taps on the body
  surface with fingertips and listens to the
  resulting echo.
          Basic Life Processes

 Metabolism
 Responsiveness
 Movement
 Growth
 Differentiation
 Reproduction

 The sum of all the chemical processes that
  occur in the body.
     Catabolism – The breaking down of complex
      chemical substances into simpler ones.
     Anabolism – The building up of complex
      chemical substances from simpler ones.

 The body’s ability to detect and respond to
  changes in its internal and external

 Motion of the whole body.
 Motion of individual organs.
 Motion of Single cells.
 Motion of structures inside cells.

 Growth is an increase in body size that
  results from an increase in the size of
  existing cells, the number of cells, or both.
 A tissue can increase in size due to an
  increase in the amount of material between
  cells (I.e. bone tissue).

 Differentiation is a process a cell undergoes
  to develop from an unspecialized to a
  specialized state.
 Each type of cell has a specialized structure
  and function.
 Stem cells can divide and give rise to
  progeny that undergo differentiation.

 The formation of new cells for tissue growth,
  repair or replacement.
 The formation of new cells for the
  production of a new individual organism
  (through fertilization of an ovum by a sperm
       Anatomical Terminology

 Body Positions
 Regional Names
 Directional Terms
 Planes and Sections
 Body Cavities
                  Body Positions

 Anatomical Position
     The subject stands erect facing the observer, with
      the head level and the eyes facing forward. The
      feet are flat on the floor and directed forward,
      and the arms are at the sides with the palms
      turned forward.
 Prone – body lying face down.
 Supine – body lying face up.
Supine & Prone
Lateral Recumbent
Fowler’s & Trendelenberg
Abduction & Adduction
Flexion & Extension
Medial & Lateral Rotation
Supination & Pronation
                Regional Names

 Regions can be identified externally.
 Principal regions:
     Head (cephalic)
     Neck (cervical)
     Trunk
     Upper limb
     Lower limb
                Directional Terms

   Superior (cephalic or cranial) and inferior (caudal).
   Anterior (ventral) and posterior (dorsal).
   Medial and lateral.
   Intermediate
   Ipsilateral and contralateral.
   Proximal and distal.
   Superficial and deep.
             Planes and Sections

 Sagittal Plane – vertical plane – divides body into
  right and left.
 Midsaggital or median plane – equal parts
 Parasaggital plane – unequal parts
 Frontal or coronal – divides body into anterior and
  posterior parts
 Transverse plane – divides body into superior and
  inferior parts
 Oblique plane – angle
 Section – one flat surface of a 3-D structure
               Body Cavities

 Spaces within the body that help protect,
  separate, and support internal organs.
 Two major cavities are the dorsal and ventral
  body cavities.
              Dorsal Body Cavity

 Located near the dorsal (posterior) surface of
  the body.
 Subdividions
     Cranial cavity
     Vertebral (spinal) canal
 Meninges
            Ventral Body Cavity

 Located near the ventral (anterior) aspect of
  the body.
 Subdivisions
     Thoracic cavity
     Abdominopelvic cavity
 Diaphragm
 Viscera
                 Thoracic Cavity

 Subdivisions
     Pericardial Cavity
     Pleural cavities
     mediastinum
          Abdominopelvic cavity

 Subdivisions
     Abdominal Cavity
     Pelvic Cavity
         Thoracic and Abdominal
           Cavity Membranes
 Serous membrane
     Pleura
     Pericardium
     Peritoneum
     Abdominopelvic Regions and
 The nine-region designation is used for
  anatomical studies, whereas the quadrant
  designation is used to locate the site of pain,
  tumor, or some other abnormality.
             Abdominopelvic Regions

   Right Hypochondriac Region
   Epigastric Region
   Left Hypochondriac Region
   Right Lumbar Region
   Umbilical Region
   Left Lumbar Region
   Right Inguinal (Iliac) Region
   Hypogastric (Pubic Region)
   Left Inguinal (Iliac) Region
   Subcostal line, transtubercular line, midclavicular lines
      Abdominopelvic Quadrants

 Right Upper Quadrant (RUQ)
 Left Upper Quadrant (LUQ)
 Right Lower Quadrant (RLQ)
 Left Lower Quadrant (LLQ)
 Horizontal lines passes through umbilicus

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