Anatomy & Physiology I
Systems of the Body
Dr. Michael P. Gillespie
Anatomy – Deals with the structure of body
parts – their forms and relationships.
Physiology – Deals with the functions of
body parts – what they do and how they do
Dissection – The careful cutting apart of
body parts to see their relationships.
Levels of Body Organization
Atoms – smallest units of matter that
participate in chemical reactions.
Molecules – two or more atoms joined
Molecules combine to form cells.
Cells are the basic structural and functional
units of an organism.
Cells are the smallest living units in the
Cells are made up of organelles.
Tissues are groups of cells and the materials
surrounding them that work together to
perform a particular function.
4 basic types of tissues in the human body:
Composed of two or more tissues that work
together to perform specific functions.
Usually have recognizable shapes.
A system consists of related organs that have
a common function.
Sometimes an organ is part of more than one
There are eleven systems in the human body.
Integumentary System Cardiovascular System
Muscular System Respiratory System
Skeletal System Digestive System
Nervous System Urinary System
Endocrine System Reproductive Systems
Components – Skin, hair, nails, sweat glands,
Functions – Protects the body; helps regulate
body temperature; eliminates wastes; makes
vitamin D; detects sensations such as touch,
pain, warmth, and cold.
Components – Muscles, tendons.
Functions – Produces body movements, such
as walking; stabilizes body position
(posture); generates heat
Components – Bones, joints, associated
Functions – Supports and protects the body;
aids body movements; houses cells that
produce blood cells; stores minerals and
Components – Brain, spinal cord, nerves,
special sense organs (I.e. eyes and ear).
Functions – Generates action potentials
(nerve impulses) to regulate body activities;
detects changes in the body’s internal and
external environments, interprets these
changes, and responds causing muscular
contractions or glandular secretions.
Components – Hormone producing glands
and hormone producing cells.
Functions – Regulates body activities by
releasing hormones (chemical messengers)
transported in blood from an endocrine gland
to a target organ.
Lymphatic and Immune System
Components – Lymphatic fluid and vessels;
spleen, thymus, lymph nodes, tonsils.
Functions – Returns proteins and fluids to
blood; carries lipids from gastrointestinal
tract to blood; includes structures that
generate lymphocytes (protect against
Components – Blood, heart, and blood
Functions – Heart pumps blood through
vessels; blood carries oxygen and nutrients to
cells and carbon dioxide and wastes away
from cells; regulates acid-base balance,
temperature, and water content of body
fluids; components defend against disease.
Components – Lungs, air passageways such
as the pharynx (throat), larynx (voice box),
trachea (windpipe), and bronchial tubes.
Functions – Transfers oxygen from inhaled
air to blood and carbon-dioxide from blood
to exhaled air; regulates acid-base balance,
air flowing out through vocal cords produces
Components – Mouth, esophagus, stomach,
small and large intestines, and anus (organs
of GI tract); salivary glands, liver,
gallbladder, pancreas (accessory organs).
Functions – Physical and chemical
breakdown of food; absorbs nutrients,
eliminates solid wastes.
Components – Kidneys, ureters, urinary
Functions – Produces, stores, and eliminates
urine; eliminates wastes; regulates volume
and chemical composition of blood;
maintains acid-base balance; maintains
mineral balance; helps regulate production of
red blood cells.
Components – Gonads (testes in males,
ovaries in females), associated organs
(uterine tubes, uterus, and vagina in females
and epididymis, ductus deferens, and penis in
Functions – Gonads produce gametes (sperm
or oocytes); gonads release hormones.
Non-invasive techniques to assess
body structure and function
Palpation – the examiner feels the body with
the surface of the hands.
Auscultation – the examiner listens to the
body sounds to evaluate functioning of
Percussion – the examiner taps on the body
surface with fingertips and listens to the
Basic Life Processes
The sum of all the chemical processes that
occur in the body.
Catabolism – The breaking down of complex
chemical substances into simpler ones.
Anabolism – The building up of complex
chemical substances from simpler ones.
The body’s ability to detect and respond to
changes in its internal and external
Motion of the whole body.
Motion of individual organs.
Motion of Single cells.
Motion of structures inside cells.
Growth is an increase in body size that
results from an increase in the size of
existing cells, the number of cells, or both.
A tissue can increase in size due to an
increase in the amount of material between
cells (I.e. bone tissue).
Differentiation is a process a cell undergoes
to develop from an unspecialized to a
Each type of cell has a specialized structure
Stem cells can divide and give rise to
progeny that undergo differentiation.
The formation of new cells for tissue growth,
repair or replacement.
The formation of new cells for the
production of a new individual organism
(through fertilization of an ovum by a sperm
Planes and Sections
The subject stands erect facing the observer, with
the head level and the eyes facing forward. The
feet are flat on the floor and directed forward,
and the arms are at the sides with the palms
Prone – body lying face down.
Supine – body lying face up.
Supine & Prone
Fowler’s & Trendelenberg
Abduction & Adduction
Flexion & Extension
Medial & Lateral Rotation
Supination & Pronation
Regions can be identified externally.
Superior (cephalic or cranial) and inferior (caudal).
Anterior (ventral) and posterior (dorsal).
Medial and lateral.
Ipsilateral and contralateral.
Proximal and distal.
Superficial and deep.
Planes and Sections
Sagittal Plane – vertical plane – divides body into
right and left.
Midsaggital or median plane – equal parts
Parasaggital plane – unequal parts
Frontal or coronal – divides body into anterior and
Transverse plane – divides body into superior and
Oblique plane – angle
Section – one flat surface of a 3-D structure
Spaces within the body that help protect,
separate, and support internal organs.
Two major cavities are the dorsal and ventral
Dorsal Body Cavity
Located near the dorsal (posterior) surface of
Vertebral (spinal) canal
Ventral Body Cavity
Located near the ventral (anterior) aspect of
Thoracic and Abdominal
Abdominopelvic Regions and
The nine-region designation is used for
anatomical studies, whereas the quadrant
designation is used to locate the site of pain,
tumor, or some other abnormality.
Right Hypochondriac Region
Left Hypochondriac Region
Right Lumbar Region
Left Lumbar Region
Right Inguinal (Iliac) Region
Hypogastric (Pubic Region)
Left Inguinal (Iliac) Region
Subcostal line, transtubercular line, midclavicular lines
Right Upper Quadrant (RUQ)
Left Upper Quadrant (LUQ)
Right Lower Quadrant (RLQ)
Left Lower Quadrant (LLQ)
Horizontal lines passes through umbilicus