MOVEMENT EDUCATION

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					 OPPORTUNITIES AND
   CHALLENGES IN
 PHYSICAL EDUCATION
AND EXERCISE SCIENCE
        PHYSICAL ACTIVITY
Plays a role in both primary and
 secondary prevention of
 cardiovascular disease
Helps reduce or eliminate some of
 these risk factors associated with
 high blood pressure
Reduces some of the risk factors
 associated with obesity
Reduces some of the risk factors
 associated with diabetes
Reduces the risk of colon cancer
         Lowers the risk for stroke
PHYSICAL
ACTIVITY Helps reduce or eliminate
          some of the risk factors
          associated with blood lipid
          abnormalities
         Reduces feelings of
          depression and anxiety
         Improves mood
         Promotes a sense of well-
          being
         Increase cardiovascular
          endurance
                       PHYSICAL
                       ACTIVITY

Builds muscular strength and endurance
Improves flexibility
Builds healthy bones, muscles, and joints
Increases the capacity for exercise
Contributes, with training, to
 improvement in the exercise performance
 of healthy people
   RECREATION AND LEISURE
         SERVICES
Programs must reflect
  Demographic changes
  Altered family and work patterns
    including latch-key kids
  Environmental concerns
  Economic factors
Programs should be available at no
 cost to all ages and all ability levels
       EXERCISE SCIENCE
Specializations in undergraduate
 programs in emerging fields
Program design and delivery in
  Corporate and commercial fitness
  Athletic training
  Cardiac rehabilitation
  Geriatric programs
  Health and fitness clubs
Physical activity for all-around
 wellness
GENERALISTS REPLACED BY
      SPECIALISTS
      Knowledge explosion in
       general and its availability
       via the Internet
      Increased specialization
       in disciplinary research
       and theory
      Seeking of advanced
       education (certifications
       and degrees) in order to
       qualify for and retain jobs
              PROLIFERATION OF
                 RESEARCH
Emphasis in universities on the
 discovery, integration, and application
 of new knowledge
Focus on assessment and
 accountability in pedagogy as well as
 translating theory into practice
Involvement of technology in most
 facets of exercise science research
Importance of lifelong learning since
 knowledge changes so rapidly
     ELEMENTARY
  SCHOOL PROGRAMS

Understanding the developmental
 readiness of children
Fundamental movement skills
 progressing from simple to complex,
 along with basic fitness concepts
Varied curricula including rhythmical
 activities, stunts, games, basic sports
 skills, relays, and lead-up games
  MOVEMENT EDUCATION
Begins where each child is
Proceeds from known activities into new
 movement patterns
Continues within the personal and unique
 limitations of each child
Develops confidence for each child since
 each learns at his or her own ability level
Confidence leads to freedom to explore
 more difficult, yet basic, movements
 CHARACTERISTICS OF
 MOVEMENT EDUCATION
The program
   Activity-centered
   Student-centered
   Intellectual awareness stressed (problem
    solving and guided discovery)
   Problems to solve have a variety of solutions
The teacher
   Imaginative
   Creative
   Guides, not dictates
The student
  Inner motivation
  Independent
  Thinks and reasons intelligently
  Progresses at own rate
  Self-evaluation—based on own goals
  Competes against self, not others
Class atmosphere
  Informal
  Varied formations
  Permissive behavior allowed
  Time allotment based on students' needs
A COMPARISON OF MOVEMENT EDUCATION AND
TRADITIONAL PHYSICAL EDUCATION PROGRAMS

               MOVEMENT                       TRADITIONAL
               EDUCATION                      PROGRAMS
PROGRAM:    . Activity-centered              . Verbal-centered
            . Student-centered               . Teacher-centered
            . Intellectual awareness of      . Skills emphasized
              body emphasized
            . Problem solving and guided     . Teacher models and
              discovery                        students imitate
            . Repetition of problems for a   . Repetition of drills
              variety of solutions
TEACHER'S   . Teacher educates               . Teacher trains
ROLE:       . Teacher is imaginative         . Traditional methods
              and creative in methods          used
            . Teacher guides                 . Teacher leads
 A COMPARISON OF MOVEMENT EDUCATION AND
 TRADITIONAL PHYSICAL EDUCATION PROGRAMS
                    MOVEMENT                 TRADITIONAL
                    EDUCATION                PROGRAMS

STUDENT'S   . Self-motivation                . Teacher motivates
ROLE:       . Individual is most important   . Group is most
                                               important
            . Reasons logically and          . Takes orders and
              intelligently                    follows directions
            . Self-evaluation                . Teacher evaluates
            . Sets own rate of progress      . Class sets the rate
                                               of progress
            . Success based on each          . Success based on
              student's goal                   the teacher's goals
            . Competition against self       . Group competition
A COMPARISON OF MOVEMENT EDUCATION AND
TRADITIONAL PHYSICAL EDUCATION PROGRAMS
                 MOVEMENT                     TRADITIONAL
                 EDUCATION                     PROGRAMS

CLASS       . Informal                         . Formal
ATMOSPHERE: . Varied formations                . Set formations
            . Permissive behavior              . Strict behavior
            . Time allotments based on         . Teacher
               each student's needs               predetermines
                                                  the time
                                                  allotments
FACILITIES &   . Secondary to a resourceful    . Of prime
EQUIPMENT:        and creative teacher           importance
                . Equipment adjusted to the    . Child adjusted to
                  child                          the equipment
                .Varied and frequent use       . Limited in use
    MIDDLE SCHOOL PHYSICAL
          EDUCATION
Attention to the developmental
 needs of students during this
 transitional period
Developing responsible personal
 and social behaviors
Varied curricula that review
 fundamental and sport skills while
 incorporating these into games,
 dance forms, and outdoor
 adventure activities
SECONDARY SCHOOL
PHYSICAL EDUCATION
 Curricular focus on
  developing and maintaining a
  health-enhancing level of
  physical fitness
 Varied program that includes
  aerobic activities and lifetime
  sports and activities
 Helping students learn to
  commit to lifelong physical
  activity
            QUALITY PHYSICAL
           EDUCATION PROGRAM
Provides evidence of its effectiveness
 through the assessment of outcomes
 that have been achieved by students
Provides daily opportunities for the
 development of movement skills and
 physical fitness
Fosters an understanding of why,
 when, and how physical activity may
 be incorporated into a daily lifestyle
          QUALITY PHYSICAL
         EDUCATION PROGRAM

Focuses on the health-related
 benefits of physical activity and how
 these benefits can be acquired and
 maintained
Promotes the development of
 movement skills for participation
 beyond the K-12 grade levels
    QUALITY
   PHYSICAL
  EDUCATION
   PROGRAM
Accommodates the needs and
 developmental levels of all students,
 regardless of physical and mental
 ability level
Teaches students how to apply the
 concepts of proper exercise to their
 daily lives
             National Content Standards
 Demonstrates motor skills and movement patterns
  to perform a variety of physical activities
 Demonstrates understanding of movement
  concepts, principles, and tactics as they apply to
  the learning and performance of physical activities
 Participates regularly in physical activity
 Achieves and maintains a health enhancing level of
  physical fitness
 Exhibits responsible personal and social behavior
  in physical activity settings
 Chooses physical activity for health, enjoyment,
  challenge, self-expression and/or social interaction
       CERTIFICATION AND
        ACCREDITATION
Teacher licensure, such as through
 the Praxis Series
Certification of coaches and
 individuals working in the exercise
 sciences
Program accreditation based on
 achieving national standards and
 performance outcomes, such as
 through the National Council for
 Accreditation of Teacher Education
        ACCOUNTABILITY
The political right that demands
 that an individual or institution
 be held responsible to achieve a
 specified action
Standard—a uniform criterion or
 minimum essential element for
 the measurement of quality
Assessment—a measure of
 knowledge, skills, and abilities
 that leads to the assignment of a
 value or score
                  LEGAL LIABILITY


Tort—a private or civil wrong or injury,
 other than breach of contract, suffered
 due to another person's conduct
Civil trials—plaintiff must prove based
 on preponderance of evidence
 (criminal trials require proof beyond a
 reasonable doubt)
            NEGLIGENCE

An unintentional tort; is the failure to
 act (standard of care) as a reasonable,
 up-to-date, and prudent person would
 act in similar circumstances
   REQUIRED FOR NEGLIGENCE
A legal duty or standard of care (i.e.,
 to protect a student or client from
 foreseeable risk)
A breach of the legal duty of care
Proximate cause
Substantial nature of the injuries
NEGLIGENCE
 Negligent, when not
  directly involved
  Agency—when a
     teacher directs the
     acts of others
  Respondeat
     superior—
     employer is
     responsible for the
     negligence of
     employees
DEFENSES AGAINST NEGLIGENCE
Assumption of risk through voluntary
 participation—must know,
 understand, and appreciate the risks
Governmental or sovereign immunity
Contributory negligence—damages
 are all or none if the injured person
 was responsible for some of the
 negligence
Comparative negligence—
 apportionment of damages between
 the (negligent) plaintiff and defendant
           SUPERVISION
General supervision is always
 required when activity is occurring.
Specific supervision is required when
 a dangerous or high risk activity is
 occurring.
Actual notice refers to the
 responsibility to remove known
 hazards.
Constructive notice refers to those
 hazards that a responsible person
 should have noticed and removed.
WAIVERS (Exculpatory Contracts)
Are clearly written
Waives the right to sue for negligence
Are not an agreement to participate
Are executed by parties having
 equitable bargaining rights
A waiver must be signed by an adult
 for the adult’s right to sue (Minors
 can void contractual obligations at
 any time including after being
 injured.)
                INSTRUCTIONAL
                  GUIDELINES
Ensure that written daily plans include
 developmentally-appropriate content
 and progressions
Develop daily lesson plans that include
 adequate warm-up, proper instruction,
 and appropriate practice opportunities
Make sure that directions are clear and
 specify how activities are to be
 executed safely
Never coerce anyone to attempt to
 execute a skill beyond capabilities
         SAFETY PROBLEMS
       CREATED BY TEACHERS
Students are using equipment while
 too close together.
Activities that require students to
 move fast do not have enough room
 for them to slow down safely.
Activities that put students at risk
 (such as murder ball) are included in
 the curriculum.
Students are expected to and are
 attempting to perform skills they are
 not yet capable of doing.
 SAFETY PROBLEMS CREATED
       BY TEACHERS
Students have not been taught how
 to work with an awareness of
 others and the available space.
Students have not been taught to
 control their movements or the
 teacher has not put controls on
 students’ movements.
Equipment and apparatus are left
 unsecured thus creating “attractive
 nuisances.”
     SUPERVISION GUIDELINES
Follow the guidelines established in
 the school, district, and state for safe
 programs
Prepare a statement of physical
 education safety procedures and
 communicate these to students,
 parents, and the principal
Strictly and consistently enforce all
 school and physical education rules
 and procedures
    SUPERVISION GUIDELINES
Establish an operational system of
 emergency care in the event of a
 serious injury
Establish a system for identifying,
 treating, reporting, and recording all
 injuries
Make sure that all facilities are safe
 and free of hazards and maintain files
 of these inspections
Use equipment that has been
 inspected
      SUPERVISION GUIDELINES
Follow sound educational practice
 and school-approved curricula that
 specify appropriate skill progressions
 that are developmentally appropriate
Learn and teach the current and
 approved instructional techniques
 and teach only those skills clearly
 provided for in the curriculum
Provide active supervision of all
 activities and all instructional areas
Carry liability insurance with broad
 coverage
CAUSES OF CAREER BURNOUT
Excessive demands (overwork)
Constant tension or pressure
Lack of recognition and reward
Excessive repetitiveness in job
Lack of challenge or motivation
Lack of flexibility and freedom
No possibility for advancement
Role conflict (teacher-coach)
SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS OF
CAREER BURNOUT
Chronic stress    Overeating
Emotional          or under eating
 exhaustion        Excessive
Less enjoyment     drinking or
 of work and        abuse of drugs
 leisure time      Frustration with
Bodily changes,    job-related
 such as fatigue    factors
 or increased      Anxiety and
 heart rate         depression
    COPING MECHANISMS
Rewards, recognition, merit pay,
 and positive feedback
Job challenge
Variety in responsibilities
Opportunities for advancement
Reduction in pressure
Time for relaxation, exercise, and
 fun
Greater control over own destiny
 INSTRUCTIONAL CHALLENGES
Insufficient facilities and equipment
Apathetic students
Drug use and abuse
Lack of parental and family support
 for education
Heterogeneous students in large
 classes (along with inclusion)
Discipline and behavioral problems

				
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