"CHAPTER 8 JEFFERSONIAN ASCENDANCY: THEORY AND PRACTICE OF GOVERNMENT"
Essential Question: How did Jefferson & his “agrarian republicanism” help forge a new national identity after the “Revolution of 1800”? America in 1800: Society & Economy North America in & Spain controlled the most new 1800 North In 1800, the USA was a territory in weak nation valuable cities like Mexico City, America withsharing North America New Orleans, St Louis, & Los Angeles with other European powers But, Spain’s hold on these territories was slipping British Canada was sparsely populated, but Russia dominated the its control over the fur trade & Great Lakes fur trade in Alaska gained Haiti & France ruledwestward-boundLouisiana from frustrated Americans Spain in 1801 during the Napoleonic Wars The United States in 1800 From migration to the Intense 1800 to 1810, the U.S. had major …and cities, like Cincinnati population growth; Grew by 2 million people trans-Appalachian West (after Fallen Timbers) which after 1790 led to new states used the Mississippi & Ohio Ohio Rivers for trade (1803) Kentucky (1792) Many western settlers were concerned that Tennessee (1796)Spain controlled New Orleans Cotton quickly became the 1800 in The U.S. Economy th dominant By Southern crop of the 19 century 1810, 84% of Americans were directly entrenched the Cotton production involvedSouth’s “need” for slaves & in agriculture expedited Northern industrialism The Southern economy was dominated by rice & tobacco cultivation Eli Whitney’s cotton gin in 1793 allowed for a cotton boom in the South The U.S. Economy more diverse The Northern economy was in 1800 By 1800, industrialization was just Americans were than the South, but most involved in America beginning in cultivating livestock & grains By 1810, 84% of Americans were directly involved in agriculture Boston, NY, Philadelphia relied on international trade, otherwise cities played a marginal role (only 5% of Samuel Slater designed cotton-spinning factories Americans lived in cities) in NE; but most textiles were homemade Jefferson as President Jefferson as President Jefferson entered office after the “revolution of 1800” with a clear political ideology & goals: To reduce size & cost of gov’t & promote However, Jefferson would have to republican agrarianism repeal key Federalist of his (Alien & To compromise many policies ideological principles to be Adams’ midnight Sedition Acts & John an effective president appointments of key Federalist judges) To maintain international peace Jeffersonian All federal revenue Reforms was generated exclusively was to reduce the Jefferson’s priority by shipping taxes role But…Jefferson approved key decisions of the national gov’t & return of the creation to the states of the Army Corps of Engineers & the U.S. Military Academy at to Jefferson worked with Congress West Point Repeal all excise taxes Reduced the army by 50% & retired most naval ships Eliminate all national debt Did not renew the charter of the BUS (The bank will die in 1811) Adams’ Midnight Appointments Before leaving office, John Adams signed the Judiciary Act of 1801 creating new Adams filled with the federal courts whichWho will become loyal Federalists greatest Supreme Court chief justice an These “midnight appointments” were ever! obvious attempt to fill the courts with partisan judges The most important Adams’ appointee was John Marshall as Chief Justice of Supreme Court Adams’ Midnight Appointments Federalists claim that Marbury’s denial of his appointment was a violation Constitution In 1802, Republicans repealed the Marbury should only be removed if he Judiciary Act of 1801 & abolished these committed a “high crime or misdemeanor” new federal courts William Marbury sued to the Supreme Court because he was denied his appointment In Marbury v. Madison (1803), Marshall & the court ruled against Marbury that Congress could deny this appointment Marshall & the Supreme Court established the precedent of Judicial Review: the Supreme Court has the authority to determine the constitutionality of Congressional actions The Louisiana Purchase In 1801, France gained Louisiana from Spain & seemed ready to create an empire in North America But, the Haitian revolution & cost of European wars led Napoleon to lose interest in America In 1803, Jefferson negotiated with France to buy New Orleans, but Napoleon offered to sell all of Louisiana for $15 million The Louisiana Purchase Jeffersonian contradictions: The Constitution was vague on which branch had the authority to purchase new lands Republicans feared giving the mostly Jefferson abandoned “strict construction” to French & Spanish residents of New buy Louisiana Orleans authority in a territorial assembly Jefferson signed the Louisiana Gov’t Act which denied self-rule to Louisiana residents The Louisiana Purchase & Thereport from the Lewis & Clark expedition reaffirmed Expedition the Lewis & & William Clark were Meriwether LewisClark faith in the future commissioned to explore the Louisiana territory economic prosperity of the U.S. Left St. Louis in May 1804 & reached the Pacific in Nov 1805 Goal #1: Determine if the Goal #2: Missouri River flowed to Collect data on the Pacific Ocean flora & fauna Native American Resistance The Louisiana Purchase increased tensions with Indians: Americans rejected coexistence with Indians Tecumseh swayed the Shawnee & other tribes to stop selling land & to avoid contact with whites Jefferson hoped to “civilize” Indians into yeoman farmers & planned for a vast reservation west of the Mississippi River The Barbary dispatched the U.S. fleet In 1801, JeffersonWar (1801-1805) to “negotiate through…a cannon” The North African “Barbary states” demanded tribute from naval blockade led the A successful trade ships sailing into peace treaty Mediterranean Sea & gained America international respect Jefferson’s Second Term Jefferson’s Reelection Jefferson ended his 1st term as a very popular president: He maintained internat’l peace with England & France despite continued denial of neutrality Reduced taxes for Americans Doubled the size of the U.S. In 1804, Jefferson was re-elected as president & the Republicans took the majority in Congress Despite his electoral victory, serious divisions divided Jefferson’s second term as president Division in the Republican Party The Jeffersonian & Quid factions The decline of the Federalists suspended the became separate parties by 1824 two-party system: Jacksonians became National Republicans Led to Republican dominance in national politics from 1800-1820 the Democratic Party were absorbed into But…without a clear party to oppose, many the Whig Party Republicans began attacking Jefferson’s policies The Tertium Quids (“nothings”), criticized Jefferson’s betrayal of strict construction & sacrifice The “Virginia Dynasty” of virtue to get results as president Republicans (Jefferson, Madison, controlled both Monroe) dominated the houses of Congress executive branch The Yazoo Controversy Together with Marbury v Madison, the Supreme Court defined itself as a Jefferson endured heavy criticism due to legitimate 3rd branch of gov’t the Yazoo Land Fraud: The case established of Corrupt GA politicians sold 35 million acresan Again, it’s the land to insiders at ridiculously low prices important precedent: Marshall Court Jefferson for allowing Quids attackedSupreme Court can nullify any unconstitutional they defrauded individuals to keep landsstate laws bought In Fletcher v. Peck (1810), the Supreme Court allowed purchasers to keep these lands Lands Associated with the Yazoo Land Fraud The Slave Trade At the Philadelphia Convention, slavery was tabled until 1808 In Dec 1806, Jefferson urged Congress to prepare a slave law: Southerners furiously argued against any slavery legislation Congress passed a law that ended the slave trade in 1808, but smugglers were to be turned over to local authorities A war would be too expensive & destroy his Conflict Overseas Renewed plans for a small gov’t The embargo did not The embargo hurt & France resumed their In 1803, England hurt England or France the NE economy neutrality rights by war & violated U.S. Exports fell impressing American seizing ships &from $108 million in 1807 sailors: to just $22 million in 1808 Jefferson refused to declare war on either Required huge gov’t oversight & an England or France expensive army to suppress smuggling In 1807, Jefferson approved a very unpopular embargo that prohibited U.S. merchants from trading with England or France Conclusions During Jefferson’s two terms: The U.S. doubled in size, saw huge population growth, & experienced western expansion The role of government shrank The Jefferson presidency led to a divisive, politically partisan era The U.S. grew closer to internat’l war due to failed attempts at reconciliation with Europe Discussion Question Was Jefferson a hypocrite who compromised his political ideals OR a pragmatic leader who became more flexible as president? Examine each of Jefferson’s key decisions & determine which decisions were hypocritical & which were pragmatic How does Jefferson’s presidency compare with Washington’s?