Phonemic Awareness and Phonics

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					Phonemic Awareness and
Phonemic Awareness
 Iscrucial in the development of the
  ability to decode, to read for meaning
  and to spell ( Yopp,1992, Adams,1990).
 Phonemic awareness is central in
  learning to read and spell because
  English and other alphabetic languages
  map speech to print at the level of
Phonemic Awareness
 Research    shows that phonemic
  awareness is the most potent predictor
  of a child’s success in learning to read
  (Stanovich, 1994).
 The lack of phonemic awareness is the
  most powerful determinant of the
  likelihood of failure to learn to read
  (Adams, 1990).
Phonemic Awareness
 Phonemic    awareness is the awareness
  of phonemes in the speech stream.
 The ability to manipulate phonemes is
  also a part of phonemic awareness.
 Phonemic awareness requires a shift in
  attention from the content of speech to
  the form of speech.
Phonemic Awareness
 Thereare 41 different phonemes that
 are represented by 26 letters of the
 Auditory  discrimination: the ability to
  hear similarities and differences in
  phonemes and words. Example: “Say
  these sounds /r/,/s/. Are they the same
  or different?”
 Phoneme: the phoneme is the smallest
  part of spoken language that makes a
  difference in the meaning of words.
 Phonological  awareness: the broad
 term for sensitivity to any size unit of
 sound. Phonological awareness
 activities can involve work with
 syllables, rhymes, words, rimes and
 Grapheme:   the grapheme is the
 smallest part of written language that
 represents a phoneme in the spelling of
 a word. A grapheme may be one letter
 or several letters.
 Syllable: a syllable is a word part that
  contains a vowel or in spoken language,
  a vowel sound (e-vent: news-pa-per;
 Onsets and rimes: onsets and rimes are
  parts of spoken language that are
  smaller than syllables but larger than
 Onset   is the initial consonant(s) sound
  of a syllable (the onset of bag is /b/: of
 A rime is the part of a syllable that
  contains the vowel and all that follows it
  ( the rime of bag is /ag/; of swim ,/im/).
 Phoneme  manipulation: involves
 children working with phonemes in
 words. Phoneme manipulation includes
 blending phonemes to make words,
 segmentating words into phonemes,
 deleting phonemes from words, adding
 phonemes to words or substituting one
 phoneme for another to make a new
 Blending:involves combining individual
 phonemes to form words. Combining
 onsets and rimes to make syllables and
 combining syllables to make words is
 also apart of blending.
 Segmenting:   segmentation is a child’s
 ability to break a word into individual
 phonemes. Breaking words into
 syllables and syllables into onsets and
 rimes are also considered segmenting.
Phonemic Awareness
 Phoneme     isolation
Recognition of individual sounds in a
Example: What is the same sound in fix,
 fall, fun? /f/
Phonemic Awareness
 Phoneme  categorization
Recognition of a word in a set of three or
 four words that has the “odd” sound.
Which word does not belong big, bat,
Phonemic Awareness
 Phoneme     blending
After listening to a sequence of separately
  spoken sounds a child can combine the
  phonemes to form a word.
Example: What word is /d/ /o/ /g/
/a/ /t/
/ch/ /i/ /n/
Phonemic Awareness
 Phoneme     segmentation
After saying a word children can break it
  into individual sounds by saying them,
  tapping them or counting them.
Example: How many sounds in the word
  cat? 3 /c/ /a/ /t/
Phonemic Awareness
 Phoneme   deletion
Children are able to recognize the word
 that remains when a phoneme is
 removed from another word.
Example: What is chat without the c?
Phonemic Awareness
 Phoneme  addition
Children make a new word by adding a
 phoneme to an existing word.
Example: What word would you have if
 you add an /h/ to /at/ hat?
Phonemic Awareness
 Phoneme   substitution
Children substitute one phoneme for
 another to make a new word.
Example: Change the /g/ in bug to an /n/
 what is the new word?
Phonemic Awareness
 Inolder children phonemic awareness is
  helpful in spelling.
Phonemic Awareness
 Elkonin   Boxes help children slow down
  the sounds in a word.
 Elkonin Boxes help children recognize
  the number of letters in a word and
  letter placement within a word.
 A child’s hand can replace boxes.
Pictures, Pictures, Pictures
 Takeeach aspect of phonemic
 awareness and use the pictures to
 demonstrate each area of phonemic
 Read  poetry to children.
 Ask children to identify words that
 Look for alliteration.
 Have children create their own rhymes.
 Combine phonemic awareness to
  phonics by having children create their
  own poetry.
 Have   children echo or choral read
 Use poetry to identify and develop the
  critical steps in phonemic awareness.
     The Green Grass Grows All Around

In a park there is some ground,
The prettiest ground you ever did see
And the green grass grows all around, all
And the green grass grows all around.
The White Clouds Float All Around

Above my head there is some sky
The bluest sky that you ever did see
And the white clouds float in the sky,in the
And the white clouds float in the sky.
 Tongue    twisters
Five fine fellows find feathers
Four foolish friends flipping Fritos.
Six silly sisters sipping sodas .
 Rhyme    time- give students a group of
  pictures and have them sort according
  to words in the pictures that rhyme.
 Rhyme me- one student says a word
  another must make a rhyme.
 Rhyme circle- one student starts a
  rhyme and the others must continue
  until no more rhymes can be made.
Bridging Phonemic
Awareness and Phonics
 Phonograms    – after playing rhyme
  games have students work on
 In primary texts of the 286 phonograms
  that appear, 95% are pronounced the
  same way in every word in which they
  are found.
Bridging Phonemic
Awareness and Phonics
 500   words can be made from the
   following 37 rimes.
-ack -all -ain -ake -ale -ame –an-ank
-ap -ash -at -ate -aw -ay -eat -ell
-est -ist -ice -ick -ide -ight -ill -in
-ine -ing -ink -ip -ir -ock -oke -op
-ore -or -uck -ug -ump         -unk
Bridging Phonemic
Awareness and Phonics
 Place a letter on the board and have a
  student say it.
 Add a letter and make a new word.
 Add a letter and make a new word.
 Take away a letter and make a new
 Add two letters and make a new word.
Bridging Phonics and
Phonemic Awareness
   Word Surgery
a       talk
at      talking
hat     talks
hats    walk
that    chalk
Bridging Phonemic
Awareness and Phonics
 Make phonogram books.
 Make phonogram chains.
 Use color to highlight the phonogram.
Bridging Phonemic
Awareness and Phonics
 Word searches
 Scrambled words- scramble a word and have
  students make as many one letter, two letter,
  three letter, four letter words as possible.
 Use a Venn diagram to sort two words and
  make as many words from them as possible.
 Sort words into categories.
 Poetry exchange- turn a poem into a rap.
        My Friend
My friend is nice,
We like to play
We play together every day.
We laugh, we cry,
We scream,we shout,
We never call each other out
‘Cause that’s what friends are all about.
Bridging Phonemic
Awareness and Phonics
 Word walls
Use word walls to call attention to
 features of words or build words.
Example:Find a word that starts
 with…ends with… has 3 sounds, could
 be… if we took the … off, rhymes with…
     Phonics - Terminology
 Synthetic phonics
Children learn how to covert letters or
 letter combinations into sounds, and
 then how to blend the sounds together
 to form recognizable words.
Phonics- Terminology
 Analytic phonics
Learning to analyze letter-sound
  relationships in previously learned
  words. Sounds are not pronounced in
Phonics- Terminology
 Analogy-based     phonics
Children learn to use the parts of word
 families they know to identify words they
 don’t know that have similar parts. “ I
 know the word cat and this word looks
 like it except it starts with an /r/ so it
 must be rat.”
Phonics Terminology
 Phonics   through spelling
Learning to segment words into
  phonemes and to make words by
  writing letters for phonemes primarily to
  learn to spell words.
Phonics- Terminology
 Embedded    phonics
Learning letter sound correspondences
  during the reading of connected text.
  Since children encounter different letter
  sound correspondences and different
  letter sound relationships as they read
  this approach is not systematic or
Phonics- Terminology
 Onset-rime   phonics
Children learn to identify the sound of the
 letter or letters before the first vowel
 (the onset) in a one syllable word and
 the sound of the remaining part of the
 word (the rime).
Phonics- Terminology
 Systematic-explicitphonics
Systematic and explicit phonics
 instruction provides practice with letter-
 sound relationships in a predetermined
 sequence. Children learn to use these
 relationships to decode words that
 contain the element being taught.
Systematic- Explicit Phonics
 Significantly  improves instruction in
  word recognition and spelling.
 Improves comprehension because
  children are reading text accurately.
 Is effective for children of various
  economic levels.
 Is not an entire reading program
Vowel Rules
 When   two vowels go walking, the first
 one does the talking.
Nail, bead, ceiling, pie, boat, suit
Exceptions- said, head, chief, build
Vowel Rules
 When  a word ends in a vowel plus a
 consonant plus e the e is usually silent
 and the other vowel is long.
Cake, late, ride, hide, chime, bone, June
Exceptions- have, give, come, bare, move
Vowel Rules
 When   a vowel is in the middle of a one
  syllable word, the vowel is short. (CVC)
Cat, mat,hat,rat, pat
 When a word has only one vowel letter,
  the vowel sound is likely to be short.
 The combination of ee is pronounced
  with a long e sound.
Vowel Rules
 When   y is the last letter in a word, it
  usually has a vowel sound.
 An r the preceding the vowel makes the
  vowel neither long nor short.
Car,bar, far,charm,certain,curtain
Explicit Phonics Lesson
 Display   a letter card and have children
  give the letter name.
 Explain that the letter stands for
 Write several words with the sound in
  initial position and/or show several
  words with the sound in initial position.
Explicit Phonics Lesson
 Have children practice the sound by naming a
  picture, finding pictures, or locating words
  with the sound.
 Have children make words with the sound.
 Web words that have the sound.
 Have children make their own words with the
  sound using a word builder.
 Introduce words with the sound in the final
Explicit Phonics Lesson
 Have children identify words that have the
  sound at the end of the word.
 Have children practice making words with the
  sound at the beginning or end using word
 Have children find words with the sound in a
 Have children compose sentences with the
Skill Mastery Model
 Present  skills in micro-steps.
 Have students repeat each step and
  “show,tell, and do” each step in skill
 Have students practice each skill in a
  variety of interactive ways ( not just
Skill Mastery Model
 Use  peer teaching and group work.
 Provide for closure- check to see if
  students understood concept through
 Review concepts on successive days.
 Spiral review of concepts.
Skill Mastery Model
 Create positive ready to learn reading
 Establish relevance of what is to be taught to
 Identify and communicate measurable,
  observable learner outcomes
 Model parts and whole of skills and
 Demonstrate skills and ask for student
Skill Mastery Model
 Give  specific, clear, short directions.
 Have children repeat and demonstrate
  understanding of directions.
 Praise effort as well as success.
 Allow for self-evaluation: “Were you
  right? How do you know? What could
  you do?”
Skill Mastery Model
 Does it look right?
 Does it sound right?
 Does it make sense?
 Does it look right, sound right, make
 Does it look right, sound right, make
  sense to you?
 Look through several lessons in your
  teacher’s manual.
 Find places you could use phonemic
  awareness and phonics.
 Create a “lesson” within the total
  reading lesson using phonemic
  awareness and phonics.
 List 5 joys of teaching.
 List 5 joys of children.
 List 5 reasons why you are proud to be
  a teacher.
Strive to thrive, not just
If you want to your students to
enjoy learning you must enjoy
Share some joy each day.

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